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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
1. Company Description
●Ace Corporation This is Ace Corporation. It was established in 1920, more than 75 years ago.

Sherry Lv

Ace manufactures sporting equipment such as tennis rackets, tennis balls and fishing rods. (Ace is a sporting goods manufacturer.) It’s a well-managed company, and its products are well made. Its head office is in New York. It also has an office in Los Angeles. (Its main office is in New York, and there is another office in L.A..) Ace has two factories. Its main factory is in Chicago. The other factory is in Miami. Its head office has 300 employees. The L.A. office employs around 50. (Its head office in New York employs 300 workers, and the L.A. office has a staff of around 50 employees.) 5,000 people are employed in the Chicago factory, and another 1,150 work in the Miami factory. (5,000 people work in the Chicago factory.) Ace’s main customers are general consumers. Its products are also sold to schools and other organizations. In recent years the company has done well. Sales and profits have both increased. Its main competitors are foreign companies from Europe and Asia. Because of its high quality products however, Ace has been successful.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
●United Industries This is United Industries, an American company. (United Industries is an American company.) Its main products are rocket engines, satellites and aircraft parts.

Sherry Lv

(It manufactures advanced products such as rocket engines, satellites and aircraft parts.) United was established in 1960 by a small group of engineers. (A small group of engineers started the company in 1960.) At that time it made rocket engines for other companies. In 1965 it started to make aircraft parts, including small jet engines. Since then it has opened up new factories and offices in Europe and Asia. United’s head office and main factory is in Seattle where it employs more than 15,000 workers. (United is based in Seattle, Washington, where its main factory is located.) It also has offices in Europe, Asia and other locations around the world. There are three factories. The main one is in Seattle, another is in Montreal, and the third is in London. United employs between 20~25,000 people. (United is a large company, employing almost 25,000 people.) 2,000 employees work in the London factory. In Montreal, the company has 5,000 employees, including part-time workers. The two factories outside the US employ a total of around 7,000 workers.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
In recent years the company has done well. Sales and profits have both increased. United sells its products to many different countries.

Sherry Lv

Some people don’t like United because some of its products are used for military purposes. Unfortunately, these kings of products are used too often.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
2. Work Experience
●Jean Nielsen This is Jean Nielsen.

Sherry Lv

Jean graduated from Columbia University in 1981. She majored in economics. In 1983 she got a job with Federal Motors. (Two years later, in 1983, Jean was hired by Federal Motors.) Jean worked in Personnel at Federal Motors for 7 years, until 1990. She left Federal Motors in 1990 and got a job with IBX. (In 1990 she quit her job at Federal Motors and joined IBX.) Jean quit her job at Federal Motors because she wanted a more interesting job. She was also offered a higher salary. At IBX she was hired as a Personnel Manager in one of their factories. As Personnel Manager she has many responsibilities. Jean is in charge of interviewing and hiring new employees. She also manages the company’s employee training programs. In her job, she also needs good communication skills. Jean has excellent communication skills, so she has done very well at IBX. Jean has worked/been at IBX since 1990. Jean likes her job and is planning to stay at IBX for a long time. At beginning of 1990, Jean Nielsen was an assistant manager. When Jean left the company at the end of 1990, she was replaced by Steve Gomez.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
Steve’s old position was filled by Bill Lee. Bill Lee transferred into Personnel from Sales.

Sherry Lv

●Tom Jones This is Tom Jones. Tom is a graduate of Stanford University. He graduated in 1988 with a degree in mathematics. Tom got a job with Federal Motors right after graduation. (Tom was hired by Federal Motors right after graduating from Stanford.) Tom has worked in the R&D Department since he joined the company in 1988. (Since he joined company in 1988, Tom has worked in Research and Development.) Tom is responsible for designing new automobile components. (For the past few years, Tom has been designing auto components.) Tom enjoys his work and often works late at the office. He is hoping to be promoted in the next year or two. Tom has been with Federal Motors for more than 10 years. He has worked very hard, and he has an excellent work record. Tom is responsible to his boss, Jim Nielsen. Jim Nielsen has been Tom’s boss since 1990. Jim started working at Federal Motors 3 years before Tom joined the company.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
In the future, Tom Jones will probably be promoted.

Sherry Lv

●Federal Motors There were many important changes at Federal Motors in 1990. In Personnel, Jean Nielsen was an assistant manager at the beginning of the year. At the end of the year, Jean left Federal Motors and joined IBX. Jean’s position was filled by Steve Gomez, who joined the company in 1987. In the Production Division, 1990 was not a good year. In the factory, the work force was cut by more than 10%. At the beginning of the year, there were 2,000 workers in the factory. At the end of the year, there were 1,750 workers in the factory. There were also some important changes in the Sales Department. Dave Jackson, the Sales Manager, was fired because of a drinking problem. He missed meetings and often came to work late. He was replaced by Sonia Scott, who joined the company from outside. Ed Smith was transferred to Sales from Engineering to assist Ms. Scott. There were also changes in the R&D department. Jim Nielsen was promoted to General Manager.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
3. Manufacturing and Trade
●YR1 Robot This is the YR1. The YR1 is an industrial robot. (This is the YR1, an industrial robot.) Industrial robots have many uses.

Sherry Lv

This kind of robot is usually used for high precision assembly or metal work. The YR1 is made by a Japanese company, Yamashita Ltd. Yamashita is located in Tokyo, Japan. (The first YR1 was made in Japan in 1997. The YR1 was developed by Yamashita Ltd, a Japanese company.) YR1 is used on assembly lines, such as this one at Federal Motors. Federal Motors makes cars. (Federal Motors manufactures cars.) The YR1 is used for welding cars on the assembly line. (At Federal Motors, the YR1 robot is used for welding cars.) Many YR1 robots have been sold to the automobile industry. (Federal Motors is an automobile company. it makes many kinds of motor vehicles, such as cars, trucks and vans. This is one of the assembly lines at Federal Motors, an automobile company located in the United States.) In 1997, 15 units were bought by Federal Motors. Those units are now being used to do the work that 60 workers used to do. The robots work faster than human workers and they make fewer mistakes. The automobile industry has bought many industrial robots, such as the YR1.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
In 1997, 5,000 YR1 were made by Yamashita. Of those 5,000 robots, 50% were sold in Japan. 25% were sold in the US. 10% were sold in Europe.

Sherry Lv

(50% of the 5,000 robots that were made in 1997 were sold in Japan. 25% were exported to the US. 10% were sold in Europe. The rest were exported to other markets around the world.) In 1997, 50% of the YR1s manufactured by Yamashita were exported to other countries. The rest were sold in the highly competitive domestic market. In the past few years, worldwide sales of the YR1 and other robots have rapidly increased. If free trade continues, Yamashita’s future looks good.

●OA-X Computer This is the OA-X. The OA-X is a computer. (This is the OA-X, it is a computer designed to increase efficiency.) It comes with lots of useful software. It has many uses. (It is easy to use and it has a variety of uses.) Some of its uses include word processing, communications and spreadsheets. This is Ace Ltd, a sporting goods company, located in the USA. Ace is one of the companies which bought OA-X computers in 1998.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)

Sherry Lv

At Ace, the OA-X is used for word processing, communications and spreadsheets. Ace is using the OA-X to cut costs and improve office efficiency. Advanced Technologies is the maker of the OA-X computer. (The OA-X is manufactured and sold by Advanced Technologies Incorporated.) (The OA-X is made by Advanced Technologies.) The OA-X computer is an American product. (The OA-X computer is an American product, though many of its component parts are imported.) Advanced Technologies is located in California, near San Francisco. (Advanced Technologies is based in California, just south of San Francisco.) The company has an excellent reputation. (The company has an outstanding reputation for quality.) In recent years however, its sales have suffered because of strong competition from Japan. It has excellent products and competitive prices. (It has a highly trained work force and it uses the latest technology in the manufacturing process.) It also provides outstanding customer support. As a result, its products are highly rated. In 1998, Advanced Technologies sold 10,000 units. (Worldwide sales of the OA-X totaled 10,000 units in 1998.)

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
The selling price for each unit was about 2,000 dollars.

Sherry Lv

Sales were good in the major international markets, however in Japan, sales were poor. 75% of the units made in 1998 were sold in the United States. 10% were sold in Canada and another 10% were sold in Europe. Only 2% of them were sold in Japan. The Americans complained, they said it was unfair. (The American said that this was because the Japanese markets were closed.) The Japanese said it was the American’s fault. (The Japanese said that the OA-X was poorly designed for the Japanese user. They said their market was open.) Without more facts, it is difficult to decide the real reason. Trade friction is a difficult issue for every one involved.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
4. Product Comparisons
●The Epic This is the Epic. (The Epic is an American car.) It’s built by Federal Motors, an American company.

Sherry Lv

Federal Motors introduced this model 5 years ago and designed especially for commuters. Recently it has become very popular. Compared to last year, its sales are up by more than 20%. Its sporty design and excellent fuel efficiency have contributed to its success. Customer satisfaction ratings have put it on the top 10 for the past few years. Its advanced design and light weight are a product of the world’s most advanced engine technology. It’s the most fuel efficient car of any American made car. The Epic gets 44 miles per gallon on the highway and 32 miles per gallon in city traffic. It costs around $18,000. At $18,000, it is a good buy. It is well engineered, and is reported to be the most trouble free of any American made car. (In terms of quality and dependability, the Epic is considered to be the best made American car in its price range.) The Epic generally goes about 80,000 miles before it needs major repairs.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)

Sherry Lv

(The Epic is built to last around 80,000 miles before problems begin to appear.) According to a recent study, fewer Epic owners had problems in the first six months of ownership than owners of any other car. It is also backed by an excellent warranty program. Its warranty covers all parts and labor for five years or 50,000 miles. As a result, it has proven to be a good choice for people who spend lots of time commuting to work each day. Five years ago, Federal Motors was losing a lot of money, and its market share was falling rapidly. Many of its cars had to be recalled for safety problems, and three were many customer complaints about quality. When the Epic was introduced, sales were slow at first because the public had lost confidence in Federal Motors. Gradually however, the car began to earn a good reputation, and sales improved. As a result, Federal Motors has been able to compete more successfully with foreign competitors. Their main challenge now is to improve their dealer network. Their sales people are often criticized for poor sales practices.

●The SX This is the Yamada SX. 50% of the Yamada sold in the US are imported from Japan, the other half are

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
made in the US. The base price of the SX is around $14,000. It comes with a 36 month or 36,000 mile warranty.

Sherry Lv

The SX is one of the biggest Japanese cars in its class. It has room for 5 big adults. In terms of fuel economy, the SX gets about 38 miles per gallon on the highway, which is better than average for its class. Auto industry studies indicate that the SX is trouble free for around 60,000 miles. An important sales point is that its maintenance and service costs are generally lower than the industry average. This is because Yamada has established a dealer network that provides the best service support in the industry. According to several surveys, the SX has been number one in customer satisfaction for 3 years. (For 3 years, it is one the top customer satisfaction rating in several surveys.) As a result, the SX is now the best selling car in the US.

●The Aria This is the Union Aria. It was first introduced into the US in the late 1980s by Union Motors, a European company. It’s a well built car, and it has a good reputation.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)

Sherry Lv

(It’s a solid, well made car with a good reputation for passenger comfort and safety.) The Aria is paid about $28,000. It comes equipped with lots of standard features, such as AM/FM radio and air conditioning. The Aria has more passenger room than any other car in its class. It has plenty of room for a growing family. It gets 34 miles per gallon on the highway and 22 miles per gallon in the city. It comes with a powerful engine that can pull a boat or a trailer with ease. It’s rated high in terms of dependability. In generally goes about 60,000 miles before it needs any major repairs. Unfortunately, the cost of parts and services are higher than average. In terms of safety, the Aria has the best record of any car. In crash tests, the Aria has consistently outperformed all other cars. In general, its size, power, and excellent safety record make it a good family car. Though it’s an excellent family car, its sales have remained flat for the past few years. Some people say it’s too expensive, others say that its design is uninteresting. If sales don’t improve, major changes will have to be made.

●A Comparison

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
Let’s compare these three automobiles. First, the Federal Epic is the most fuel efficient.

Sherry Lv

(In terms of fuel economy, the Epic gets better mileage than either the Union Aria or the Yamada SX.) The Aria doesn’t get as many miles per gallon as the other two cars, but it’s bigger and its engine is more powerful. As you can see in this comparison, the Aria is the most expensive. (As for price, the Aria costs more than the other two.) It costs twice as much as the SX. The least expensive of these three cars is the SX. (Priced at $14,000, the SX is the least expensive of these three models.) It's about half the price of the Aria and nearly 25% less than the Epic. The Epic costs $4,000 more than the SX. As for size, the Aria is the biggest of the three. (In terms of size, the Aria is bigger than the other two.) The Epic, which seats 4 adults, is the smallest. The SX is larger than the Epic, but it has slightly less passenger room than the Aria. (The SX is bigger than the Epic, but it isn’t quite as big or powerful as the Aria.) In terms of low cost maintenance and durability, the Epic has the best record. It is very economical.

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Dynamic Business English (1- 4)
It has a better performance record than either the Aria or the SX.

Sherry Lv

Compared to both the other cars, it goes 20,000 more miles before it needs repairs. To summarize, each car has its advantages. The Aria may be the best buy for a growing family, though it's a bit expensive. For the commuter, the Epic is probably the best choice. Its fuel economy and excellent dependability give it the advantage. For buyers who like a low purchase price and who want a slightly bigger car, the SX is probably the best value. It isn’t as small as the Epic and it costs less

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