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海明威的英文介绍


英文介绍 Introduction Ernest Hemingway is a giant of modern literature. Among twent ieth-century American fiction writers, his work is most often compar ed to that of his contemporaries William Faulkner and F. Scott Fitz gerald. Combined with his outstanding short stories, Hemingway’s fo ur major novels — The Sun Also Rises (1926), A Farewell to Arms (1929), For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and The Old Man and the Sea (1952) — comprise a contribution to modern fiction that is far more substantial than Fitzgerald’s and that approximates Faulkner’s. Faulkner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature a few year s before Hemingway received this recognition, but their respective a pproaches to fiction are so dissimilar that this belated receipt says little or nothing about Hemingway’s stature relative to that of Faulk ner. When set alongside Faulkner’s Mississippi novels, Hemingway’s major works feature simpler structures and narrative voices/person ae. As or more important, Hemingway’s style, with its consistent us e of short, concrete, direct prose and of scenes consisting exclusiv ely of dialogue, gives his novels and short stories a distinctive acc essibility that is immediately identifiable with the author. Owing to t he direct character of both his style and his life-style, there is a te ndency to cast H emingway as a “representative” American writer w hose work reflects the bold, forthright and rugged individualism of t he American spirit in action. His own background as a wounded veteran of World War I, as an engaged combatant in the fight against Fascism/Nazism, and a s a “he -man” with a passion for outdoor adventures and other manl y pursuits reinforce this association. But this identification of Hemingway as a uniquely American ge nius is problematic. Although three of his major novels are told by and/or through American men, Hemingway’s protagonists are expatri ates, and his fictional settings are in France, Italy, Spain, and later Cuba, rather than America itself. While Hemingway’s early career benefited from his connections with Fitzgerald and (more so) with American novelist Sherwood An derson, his aesthetic is actually closer to that shared by the transpl

anted American poets that he met in Paris during the 1920s; T. S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and, most crucially, Gertrude Stein. In this cont ext, we must realize that Hemingway’s approach to the craft of ficti on is direct but never blunt or just plain simple. Hemingway’s text is the result of a painstaking selection proces s, each word performing an assigned function in the narrative. The se choices of language, in turn, occur through the mind and experi ence of his novels’ central characters whether they serve explicitly as narrators of their experience or as focal characters from whose perspectives the story unfolds. The main working corollary of Hemin gway’s “iceberg principle” is that the full meaning of the text is not limited to moving the plot forward: there is always a web of asso ciation and inference, a submerged reason behind the inclusion (or even the omission) of every detail. We note, too, that although Hemingway’s novels usually follow a straightforward chronological progression as in the three days of For Whom the Bell Tolls, Hemingway does make use of summary accounts of the past, of memories related externally as stories, and of flashbacks. These devices lend further depth to his characters and create narrative structures that are not completely straightforwa rd chronicles. Hemingway is direct. But he is also quite subtle, and subtlety i s not a trait that we ascribe to the American way. In the end, He mingway is an international artist, a man who never relinquished hi s American identity but who entered new territories too broad and t oo deep to fit within the domain of any national culture.


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