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模块五第三单元grammar


M5u3 Grammar and usage Verb-ed form

Verb-ed phrases Verb-ing and verb-ed used as adjectives

Liu Xiang is a player ______(love) loved by many thousands of fans. Unluckil

y ,he got injured ______(injure) in the game,in2012 London Olympics. surprising (surprise) news The __________ got across to the world and his disappointed fans were ____________ (disappoint) to see it,but they still wished him a happy life.

注意过去分词做定语的位置

a polluted river ? a broken window

一支点燃的蜡烛

a lighted candle
一个醉鬼

a drunken/ drunk man

一、 过去分词作定语 1.前置定语 归纳1: 单个的过去分词作定语 时,通常放在被修饰的 之前 。 名词_______

1.【2012湖南】 23. Time, ______ correctly, is money in the bank. A. to use B. used C. using D. use

2. ( 2011 福 建 卷 ) Tsinghua University, ____ in 1911,is home to a great number of outstanding figures. A.found B. founding C. founded D. to be founded

dressed in white a woman_________________

(穿着白色衣服的)

by Qi Baishi a picturepainted ______________

(齐白石画的)

一、 过去分词作定语 2.后置定语 归纳2:

过去分词短语作定 语,通常放在被修 之后 饰的名词_____。

The functions of verb-ed form

1. attribute(定语)

当V- ed 在句中放在 名词前或名词后修饰名 词,功能上相当于adj, 其作用相当于定语从 句.

We should drink boiled water. We should drink water which has been boiled.

They took the injured woman to the nearby hospital at once.

They took the woman who was injured to the nearby hospital at once.

The name mentioned in the letter was unknown to me. The name which was mentioned in the letter was unknown to me.

The firemen were trying to rescue the people trapped in the fire. The firemen were trying to rescue the people who were trapped in the fire.

2) v-ed短语放在名词 之后,功能上相当于 adj,可用逗号隔开, 其作用相当于非限定 性定语从句。

The books, written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people.
The books, which were written by Lu Xun, are popular with many Chinese people.

The meeting, attended by one thousand students, was a success. The meeting, which was attended by one thousand students, was a success.

3) 一般来说,及物动词形 成的过去分词是表被动意 义(passive meanings ), 而不及物动词的过去分词 是表主动意义但动作已经 完成(active and past meanings) 。

the escaped criminal past
the developed countries past

a widely used language passive

the retired scientist

past

4)

Adv./ n. 可放在过 去分词前,构成复合 词.

a so-called professor
一个所谓的教授

a highly-respected professor
极受尊重的教授

a well-paid job 报酬颇丰的工作 handmade furniture 手工制作的家具 a newly-married couple
一对新婚夫妇

思考:不定式,现在分词,过去分词都可以 做定语,那什么区别吗?
that/which is being built The main road______________________will be completed next year

being built will be completed The main road ___________ next year.
to be built The main road ________________(build) next week is benefical to our life.

built c The main road ________________(build) last c i benefical to our life. year is

held _______ yesterday

The meeting being ___________ now held
to be held tomorrow __________ is of great importance. (hold) 分析: 不定式作定语表示动作将要去做; 现在分词作定语表动作正在进行,且分词和 主语呈主动关系; 而过去分词做定语表示动作已完成, 且和主语之间是被动关系。

2. v-ed用在系动词 (link-verbs)之后, 作表语(predicative)

系动词的分类: 基本形式: be( am, is, are) seem, appear, look “似乎类”: feel, sound, smell, taste “感觉类”: “变成类”: become, go, get, grow, fall, turn remain, stay, keep “仍然类”:

1.My grandfather was delighted to hear I passed my exams. 2. Edison became interested in science when he was very young.

3. The little boy looked very excited when he heard that he could go to the party.

V-ing 与V-ed 作表语的区别 delighted to 1.They were ________ hear thedelighting _______ news. (delight) 2. The teacher announced exciting news with an the _______ excited _______voice. (excite)

3.There was a _________ surprised (surprise) look on his face.

4. When he looked at the confusing _________ problem, he had a confused ________(confuse) expression on his face.

短语积累

? be dressed in ? be interested in ? be worried about ? be absorbed in

3.区别: “ 系动词+过去分词”是系表结 构还是被动语态? A. The library is closed.

(系表结构)
B. The library is closed at six. C. The library is closed by the teacher. (被动语态)

(被动语态)

归纳:

1.系表结构表示主语 的特点或所处的状态, 强调主谓关系,此时 相当于一个形容词。

归纳:

2.被动语态表示主语 为动作的承受者,强 调动宾关系。后面常 跟by短语来表示;有 具体的时间,表示当 时的动作。

3. Past participles used as the Object Complement (宾语补足语)

1.在使役动词后面make, get, have… +宾+宾补(ved)
1) I had my hair cut yesterday.

2) The teacher spoke slowly and clearly to make himself understood.

2.在感观动词后面做 宾补 see, hear, feel, watch, notice ,find… + 宾+宾补(v-ed)

1) 她发现门锁上了。

She found the door locked.

2) We saw the thief caught by the police . 我们看见小偷被警察抓住 了。

I saw her coming into the classroom.(正进入教室come) I saw her come into the classroom.(进了教室come) I saw her taken out of the classroom.(被带出教室take
out of)

过去分词, 不定式, 现在分词作宾 补的区别:

过去分词强调与宾语之 间的 被动 关系,不带to 的不定式强调动作发生 的 全过程 ,现在分词强调 与宾语之间的 主动 关 系,正在进行。

1.【2012四川】 12. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car ____. A. washed B. wash C. washing D. to wash

2.(2011浙江卷)14. Even the best writers sometimes find themselves ______ for words. A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost

3.【2012浙江】11. “It’s such a nice place,” Mother said as she sat at the table _____ for customers. A.to be reserved B. having reserved C. reserving D. reserved

[高考真题] So far nobody has claimed the money in the library. (2010湖南) A. discovered B. to be discovered C. discovering D. having discovered 答案:A 解析:该空在句中作后置定语修饰the money,根据the money与discover的被动关 系,排除C、D两项。B项表示的是“将要 被发现”的意思,根据句意可判断选A项。

[高考真题] Mrs. White showed her students some old maps _____ from the library. (2010全国 Ⅰ) A. to borrow B. to be borrowed C. borrowed D. borrowing 答案:C 解答:过去分词短语做定语。

[高考真题]
The players ____ from the whole country are expected to bring us honor in this summer game. (2011湖南) A. selecting B. to select C. selected D. having selected 解析:分析句子结构可知,“____ from the whole country”是分词短语作后置定 语修饰the players,再结合语境可知此处 表示“被挑选出来的”,故用过去分词 短语作后置定语,故答案为C。

[典型例题] 1. The pilot asked all the passengers on board to remain _____ C as the plane was making a landing. A. seat B. seating C. seated D. to be seating 2. --- I'm very ____ with my own cooking. It looks nice and smells delicious. --- Mm. It does have a ____ smell. D A. pleasant; pleased B. pleased; pleased C. pleasant; pleasant D. pleased; pleasant

[高考真题] Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues ____ with her stories. (2010上海) A. amused B. amusing C. to amuse D. to be amused 答案:A 解析:keep+sb. /sth. +done, 根据句意, sb.与它后面的动词成被动关系,故选A。

[高考真题] Alexander tried to get his work _____ in the medical circles. (2010辽宁) A. to recognize B. recognizing C. recognize D. recognized 答案:D 解析:宾语work和recognize之间存在被 动关系,所以用过去分词作宾语补足语。

Practice
1. It shames me to say it, but I told a lie C at the meeting by my boss. when _____ A. questioning B. have questioned C. questioned D. to be questioned 2. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You've had it ______D often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained

3. _____ B in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing 4. ______ A in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed

5. _____ D time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given 6. A man is being questioned in relation to the _____ C murder last night. A. advised B. attended C. attempted D. admitted

7. _____ B by the beauty of nature, the girl from London decided to spend another two days on the farm. A. Attracting B. Attracted C. To be attracted D. Having attracted 8. ____ B and happy, Tony stood up and accepted the prize. A. Surprising B. Surprised C. Being surprised D. To be surprising

9. _____ C to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed

Translate these sentences into English.
1. 这扇朝南的窗户是破的。 2. 我们的班主任是一位受所有人爱戴的 女性。 3. 我今天收到的那封信是我哥哥寄来的。 4. 输掉那场比赛后,她看上去很失望。

5. 从山顶看这座城市时,它看起来很壮丽。
6. 那位教授在学生们的簇拥下,兴高 采烈地坐在那儿。

The window facing the south is broken. Our head teacher is a woman loved by all. The letter that reached me today is from my brother. She looked disappointed after she lost the game. Seen from the top of the hill, the city looks significant. Surrounded by his students, the professor sat there cheerfully.

4.若v-ed放在stand, sit , lie 等词后,则表示这两个 动作是同时进行。 The girl lay in bed lost in thought. The girl lay in bed and was lost in thought.

The boy sat at the table buried in his homework. The boy sat at the table and was buried in his homework.


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