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非谓语动词2


用不定式的适当形式填空: To complete 1. __________ the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. (complete) to be told 2.He hurried to the booking office only_______ that all the ticke

ts had been sold out. (tell) grow 3.They knew her well. They had seen her_____ up from the childhood. (grow) to be held 4.The meeting _________ tomorrow is important. (hold) to win 5. She was the first woman______ the gold medal in the Olympic Games. (win) 6. With two bad teeth ___________ , my father has to pull out to see the doctor tomorrow. ( pull out)

分词
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分词是“非谓语动词”的另一种形式,它 有两种形式:现在分词和过去分词。 分词既有动词的特征,由有形容词和副词 的特征。分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。 现在分词有一般式和完成式,过去分词没 有这种区别。及物动词的现在分词还有主 动形式和被动形式的区别。

Step two:分词的形式: 现在分词
主动形式
一般式 完成式

被动形式

doing

being done having been done

having done

**过去分词

done(唯一形式)

**分词的否定式是在其结构前加not

**现在分词各种形式所表示的含义
形式 与句子主语的逻辑 与句子谓动时间先后 关系

doing
having done being done

主谓关系(主动) 同时或基本同时发生
主谓关系(主动) 先于谓语动作的发生 动宾(被动)关系 同时或基本同时发生

having been done 动宾(被动)关系 先于谓语动作的发生 动宾(被动)关系 done

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1)一般式表示与主语动词同时发生。 Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. Arriving there, they found the boy dead. The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing

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2)完成时表示先于主语动词发生。 如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用 having done。 Having finished his homework, he went out. =As he had finished his homework, he went out. ___ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received 分词的否定式的构成为not +分词 该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

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3)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被 动 He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) He is the man stopped by the car. (= who was stopped by…) 4)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生 gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned等。 a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人 a much-traveled man 一个去过许多地方的人 a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴

现在分词的完成式
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现在分词完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动 词所表示的动作之前,常用作状语,表时间和原 因。注意现在分词的完成式不能充当定语。 Having noted down our names and addresses , the policeman dismissed us. 表时间 I was unable to accept your invitation, having promised to accompany my mother to the concert. 表原因

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Having suffered from heart trouble for many years, Mr. Li has to take medicine wherever he goes . 表原因,注意分词结构带有的时间状语 for many years, 时间状语提示分词该采用完成 式。

现在分词的的被动式
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现在分词的一般式和完成式都有被动形式。 The house being built is a big project. 现在分词一般式的被动式,用作定语,表 “正 在被…” Being surrounded , the enemy troops were forced to surrender. 现在分词一般式的被动式,表原因。 Having been told many times, he made the same mistake again and again. 现在分词完成式的被动,表示让步。

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一、分词做表语(具有形容词特征,没有 动作意义) 表示主语的状态 此时现在分词相当于一个形容词或者 已经转化成形容词. The football match is very exciting.
He is disappointed. / He is disappointing.

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Never touch an electric wire when it is broken. 过去分词除了跟在be动词之后也可以跟其 他的一些联系动词连用如get / feel/ seem 等联系动词. get paid / get hurt / seem tired / feel worried

二、分词作补语 ①主语+谓动+宾语+现在分词(与宾语是主动关系, 强调动作正在进行) ②主语+谓动+宾语+过去分词(与宾语是被动关系, 强调被动完成或完成) .

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a.表示感觉或心理状态的动词。如:see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, 等。 I saw the naughty boy hitting the dog. I felt the house shaking. b.表示“致使”意义的动词。如:have, make, get, keep, leave等。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting so long. Don’t have the machine running all the time. c. with … doing He lay on the bad with his eyes looking at the

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a.表示感觉或心理状态的动词。如:see, watch, observe, look at, hear, listen to, feel, notice, 等。 I heard the song sung in English. He found his hometown greatly changed. b.表示“致使”意义的动词。如:have, make, get, keep, leave等。 I’ll have my hair cut tomorrow. He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. c. with … done The murderer was brought in with his hands tied back

1.The next morning she found the man ____ in bed, dead.
A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying the man 对于动词 lie 来说应是主动关系, 而且, lie 这个动作与

谓语动词 found 同时进行。因此, 该题应选A。
2. -Good morning. Can I help you? -I’d like to have the package ____, madam. A. be weighed weighed the package 对于动词 weigh 来说, 只能是被动关系。因此, 该题应选D。 B. to be weighed C. to weigh D.

3. I can hardly imagine Peter ____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days.

A. sail

B. sailing

C. to sail

D. to have sailed B。测试动词 imagine 后要求跟动名词, Peter 是动名词的逻辑 主语。 4.If you wave your book in front of your face, you can feel the air ____ against your face. A. moved D. to move B. moving C. moves

B。测试使役动词后用现在分词作宾补表示宾语正发出的动作。

分词作定语
单个分词作定语,分词一般在名词、代词前 This is an interesting story. 这是一个有趣的 故事。 This is a used car. 这是一辆用过的车。 但是在修饰something,nothing,anything等 词时要置于它们的后面。 There is nothing interesting. 没有什么有趣的 事情。

分词短语作定语时,分词短语在被修饰词之 后。 The girl standing by her mother looked very timid. 现在分词当定语,主要说明“正在进行的动 作” 或是“一个在现在或过去某段时间内 经常化的动作”;(主动) Passengers wearing evening-dress made the short flight. 穿着晚礼服和舞会礼服的乘客 进行这种短途飞行。

过去分词作定语,主要说明“业已完成的 动作”或是“一个在以前某个未知时间 发生的动作”。 (被动) you can eat the meal cooked in the style of that day.

1. The restaurant_____ western food at the far end of served the street is now very popular.(serving) doing 被修饰名词与分词为主动关系 2. There were many people wait at the bus station. (waiting) ____ doing 被修饰名词与分词为主动关系且表正在进行 3. At present, there is a new bridge built in the south of the ____ city and the workers are working day and night. (being built) being done 被修饰名词与分词为被动关系且表正在进行 _______________ 4. The trees having been blown down in the storm have been moved off. (blown) done 被修饰名词与分词为被动关系且表完成

1.There was a terrible noise ____ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed B句子后半部分是一个作定语、修饰 noise 的分词短语;再根 据句意可知,巨响应是主动,紧接在闪电之后的。 2.The Olympic Games, ____ in 776 B. C., didn’t include women until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be playing C待选部分是一个作定语、修饰 The Olympic Games 的后 置分词短语;再根据 The Olympic Games 对于动词 play 来 说只能是被动承受,且已完成 (in 776 B. C.)。。

4.Most of the people ____ to the party were famous scientists. A. invited B. to invite C. being invited D. inviting A。过去分词作后置定语表达被动,等于定语从句 who were invited 5.The computer centre, ____ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened D。过去分词短语作定语放在所修饰的名词后,可以用非限制性 定语从句“which was opened last year”代替 6.The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written D。测试过去分词作后置定语表达被动,等于定语从句which were written

分词作状语
无论是现在分词还是过去分词,作状语时, 往往说明这样几种情况: 分词表示的动作总是句子主语发出的动作之 一也就是说句子的主语或是在逻辑上是分 词动作的执行者,这时,主语和分词动作 构成的是“主谓关系”,是“主动态”; 或是在形式上是分词动作的主语,在这种情 况下,主语和分词动作构成的是“动宾关 系”,是“被动态”。 总之,分词的主语必须与句子的主语一致, 或是同一个人或是同一件事。

分词做状语可以转换成其相对应的状语从句来表时间、条 件、原因

Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.
If the trees had been given more attention, the trees could…… Not knowing his telephone number, she had some difficulty getting in touch with Bill. As she didn’t know his telephone number, she had some ……

1.时间状语 (多置于句首,也可置句末)
Ing 形式做时间状语,其动作可能发生在 谓语动词的之前或之后,也可以表示 动作同时发生。 (动作发生在谓语动词之后)

She went out shutting the door behind her. Seeing the teacher entering the room, the students stood up. (同时发生) Hearing the news, they jumped with joy.
(动作发生在谓语动词之前)

在城里走时,城市的新容给我们留下深刻印象

When we walked around the city, we were deeply impressed by the city’s new look. Walking around the city, we were… 【注意】:分词短语的逻辑主语必须与句子 主语一致

【Tips】为强调与谓语动词的动作同时发
生,在-ing 形式短语前可用when或while

过马路时要小心。 Be careful when crossing the road. 和他谈话时,不用提及这件事。 Don’t mention this while talking to him.

2. 原因状语(多置于句首或句末,也可于句中) 由于有病,我回家了。 Because I was ill, I went home. Being ill, I went home. 他们把通知寄给我们,希望得到我们的支持。 They sent us the notice, hoping to get our support. Written in a hurry, this article was not so good!

3.表示条件(多置于句首) 如果你每天朗读课文,你就会发现英语很容 易学。 If you read the texts every day, you will find English easy to learn. Reading the texts every day, you will find …
Given another hour, I can also work out this problem.

4.表示让步(多置于句首) 他虽然穷,却很快乐。 Though he was poor, he was very happy. Being poor, he was happy. Though it is beautiful, it is harmful. Being beautiful, it is harmful.

Told many times , he made the same mistake again and again.

5.表示结果(多置于句末) 雨下了一个星期,造成这个地区洪灾。 The rain lasted a week, resulting in floods in this area. 【注意】为强调结果概念,-ing形式前可 加副词thus 他没听从老师的劝告,导致失败。 He paid no attention to the teacher’s advice, thus resulting in this failure.

6.表示伴随或方式(多置于句末,也可于句 首)-ing形式做方式状语或伴随情况,用来 对谓语 动词表示的动作或状态加以说明。一 般来说,两者所表示的动作同时发生。 她坐在教室看书。 She sits in the classroom reading. 她靠墙站着。 She stood leaning against the wall. He stood there silently, moved to tears.

B 1.__ no money, I could not buy the coat. A.Have had B. Having C. To have 2. __ many times, he still couldn’t understand it. A.B A. Having been told B. Though he had been told C. He had been told D. Having told

D 3. Walking down the street, ___. A.I saw unusual something happened B. a terrible accident happened C. something unusual was seen by me D. I saw a terrible accident 【注意】:分词短语的逻辑主语必须与 句子主语一致

D 4. ___from the hill, the village all looks beautiful. A.To see B. Being seen C. Seeing D. Seen

1.European football is played in 80 countries, ____ it the most popular sport in the world. A. making B. makes C. made D. to make A 待选部分在整个句中应作状语;再根据 European football 对于 make 来说应是主动关系。 2.____ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received C。 非谓语动词的否定式是在其前直接加 not 。 3.The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ____ that he had enjoyed his stay here. A. having added B. to add C. adding D. added 选C。现在分词可以作补充说明的状语。

4. “Can’t you read?” Mary said ____ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointing 选A。现在分词作伴随状语,通过副词 angrily 进行干扰。若B 答案为 and pointed angrily 时也对。 另外,分词作状语时,如果其逻辑主语与整个句子的主语不一致时,需要 独立主格结构或 with 复合结构来替代。(此时,也可把该分词看成介词的宾语 补足语。) 例: The murderer was brought in, with his hands ____ behind his back. A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied D。待选部分的逻辑主语是 his hands,而不是句子的主语 The murderer , 而 his hands 对于动词 tie 来说,只能是被动承受。

分词作插入语
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分词作插入语的结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是 句子的主语。例如: Generally speaking, women live longer than men. 一般说来,女人比男人活得长。 Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed. 从你的话看,他应当能成功。 Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly. 考虑路程,他到达得很快。 Taking everything into consideration, you should leave. 考虑到各种因素,你最好离开。

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区别
现在分词可用于: ①构成进行时。e.g. We are studying English. ②当副词作状语。e.g. The children came, singing and dancing. ③当形容词作定语、宾补和表语。 e.g. Falling leaves danced in the air. I saw many birds flying along the river. The story is very moving.

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过去分词可用于: ①构成完成时。 e.g. The play had begun when we arrived there. ②构成被动语态。e.g. English is widely spoken in the world. ③当副词作状语。e.g. Seen here, the city looks more beautiful. ④当形容词作定语、宾补和表语。 · a boy named Tom e.g. · the girl killed with my own eyes. I saw ·I’m interested in English.

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(二)现在分词与过去分词的两大差别 1. 现在分词与过去分词的最大差别在语态上: 现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动。 2. 现在分词与过去分词的第二大差别在时态上: 现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成。 3. 把握主、被动关系的两个前提 1)弄清动词的确切含义。 Wrong: Girls frighten snakes. Right: Girls fear snakes./ Snakes frighten girls. 牢记: tire, disappoint, satisfy, terrify, interest, frighten, worry, excite, surprise, please, seat, puzzle, ect. 只能作及物动词,都有“使动”的 特点,都含“使……”之义。

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2)能熟练判断分词的逻辑主语。即明白与 哪个词去构成主、被动关系。 逻辑主语就是与分词具有主、被动关系 的名词或代词。它既可能是句子主语,又 可能是句中宾语,或者是句中其它成分; 它既可能是动作行为的发出者,也有可能 是动作行为的承受者。那种认为逻辑主语 就是动作行为的发出者的理解是片面的。

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(1)作状语时 Seeing the teacher come in, all the students stood up. the students是seeing的逻辑主语 Heated, the metal expands. the metal是 heated的逻辑主语 结论:分词作状语,其逻辑主语是句子主语。 2)作宾补时 I saw him reading last night. him 是reading的 逻辑主语 His wife found his hair dyed black. hair是 dyed的逻辑主语

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3)作定语时 This is an interesting book. book是 interesting的逻辑主语 The moved children looked serious. children是 moved的逻辑主语 结论:分词作定语,其逻辑主语是被修饰 词(即中心词)。

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(4)用于复合结构中时(即在独立主格中 与with复合结构中) With the task completed, we went out to take some fresh air. the task是 completed的逻辑主语 It being Sunday, they had no classes. it 是 being的逻辑主语 结论:分词用于复合结构,逻辑主语是复 合结构中的逻辑主语

1. Faced with a bill for $10, 000,_____. A. John has taken an extra job B. the boss has given John an extra job C. an extra job has been taken D. an extra job has been given to John 2. He is a student at Oxford University, ______for a degree in computer science. A. studied B. studying C. to have studied D. to be studying
3. ____to reach them on the phone,we sent an email, instead A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 4. ____around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show

5.___in a white uniform, he looks more like a cook than a doctor. A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed 6.______from media reports, the result has been unclear. A. To judge B. Having judged C. Judging D. Judged

7.____out of the office building, suddenly a car stopped in front of me. A. To come B. Having come C. Coming D. The moment I came
8.My cousin came to see me from the country, _____ me a full basket of fresh fruits. A. brought B. bringing C. to bring D. had brought

coming Our English teacher,Miss Wang is friendly with us, ______ interested _from Hunan province.We are __________ (interest) in her class, interesting because her class is lively and ____________.(interest) Like many other teachers,she devotes herself to working staying ________(work) and spends most of the time ________(stay) with students. Considering ________ _(consider) our poor English,she comes to watching our classroom almost every morning, __________ (watch) over reading the students _________ (read) English. She has a special way to sleeping deal with the students _________ (sleep) in class. She will ask to answer given these students _____________ (answer) the questions_____ (give) by herself. She is busy with her job all the Having finished day.________________(finish) all the work, she goes home to have a rest. But it is very late in the day. Miss Wang is such a responsible teacher that all of us like her very much.

Fill the passage with proper form

分词的独立主格
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独立主格结构,又叫独立结构(absolute construction)。它在句法上游离于句子主 体之外,跟主句没有任何句法联系;但在 意义上却与主句紧密联系在一起,共同构 成一个完整的语义环境。独立主格结构没 有主语和谓语,只有逻辑上的主语,因此, 它在句法上不是句子,而是一个独立于句 子成分之外的独特结构形式。独立主格结 构可置于句首、句尾,常用逗号与主句隔 开。

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独立主格结构可分为两部分,一部分是名 词或代词(主格),起着逻辑主语的作用; 另一部分由形容词、副词、名词、分词、 不定式、介词短语等构成,表示前面名词 或代词的状态、状况或动作。 在句中作状 语 要注意它不是句子。

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1. Having finished the work, he went out. 2. Hearing the news, he became very angry. 3. Given more time, we could do it better. 在前两个句子中,主语he和动词完成finish,听 到Hear是主动的关系,是主语发出了这两 个动作,所以用现在分词短语做状语.在第三 个例句中,主语we和动词给予Give是被动关 系,主语是这个动作的承受者,既做这个动词 的宾语,所以要用过去分词做状语.但他们的 共同点是句子的主语与做状语的分词结构 中的动词存在主动或者被动的关系.

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4. Tom hearing the news, his face turned white. 在这个句子中,主语是his face,它和状语中的动 词hear有关系吗?没有任何关系,在这种情况下, 就要在分词结构前面加上分词结构中动词的逻 辑主语,就构成了分词独立主格结构。 Time permitting, we'll go camping tomorrow. There being no rain, all the crops are dying. The problem settled, she felt very happy. 体会一下以上句子中的主语与分词结构中的动 词有关系吗?分词结构中的动词的逻辑主语是 什么?

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名词普通格或代词主格 + 现在分词/过去分词/不定 式/名词/形容词/副词/介词短语等。 使用独立主格结构是因为出现了与句子主语不一致 的情况。 1.名词(或代词) + 现在分词 现在分词表示前面的名词或代词主动进行的动作或 状态。如: The man lay there, his hands trembling. 有时,现在分词being或having been在独立主格结构 中可以省略。如: The weather(being)fine, we decided to go on an outing.

独立主格结构的构成

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2.名词(或代词) + 过去分词 过去分词表示前面的名词或代词被动完成 的动作。如: The girls lay on her back, her hands crossed under her head. 3.名词(或代词) + 形容词(短语) 形容词(短语)在独立主格结构中说明前 面名词或代词的性质、状态等。如: The floor wet, we had to stay outside for a while.

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4.名词(或代词) + 副词 副词在独立主格结构中也多是说明名词或 代词的状态。如: The meeting over, we all went home. 5.名词(或代词) + 介词短语 The teacher came in, a book in his hand.

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6.名词(或代词) + 不定式(短语) 不定式表示将来的动作。如: He suggested going for a picnic, Mary to provide the food. 有时独立主格结构中名词前的定语可以省 略。如: The boy sat quietly in the office, (his) eyes closed/(a) book in (his) hand.

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7. There being+主语。例如: There being no danger, the police went back to their police office. 既然没有危险,警察们又回到警局。 There having been no rain, the crops were dying. 没有下雨,庄稼就要旱死了。

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8. with+名词词组+分词。例如: With the problem settled, they were happy and relaxed. 问题解决了,他们又高兴又轻松。 With the price of gold going up, our economy would be improved. 随着黄金价格的上涨,我们的经济形式 会有所好转。

独立主格结构的作用
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1.作状语 1)表示时间 His homework done(=After his homework was done),Mary decided to go shopping. 2)表示原因 There being no buses(=Because there were no buses),we had to walk home.

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3)表示条件 Weather permitting(=If weather permits) ,we’ll go to play basketball. 4)表示方式或伴随 He sat at the table, head down. 2.作同位语 Many people joined in the work, some of them women and children.

1. 现在分词还是过去分词?
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1). 在独立主格结构中,主格词与分词形成逻 辑主谓关系时,用现在分词。如: Winter coming, it gets colder and colder. 冬天 来了,天气越来越冷了。 (句中“冬天”和“到来”是逻辑主谓关系,故用 现在分词) It is so wet there that the trees are extremely tall, some measuring over 90 metres. 那儿的湿度很大,所以树都长得特别高,一 些高达90多米。 (句中some与measure为逻辑上主谓关系, 应用现在分词)

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2). 主格词与分词形成逻辑动宾关系时,用过 去分词。如: More money given, we should have sent more employees to the mother company to get trained. (句中“money”和“give”是动宾关系,因此用 过去分词) 3). 在独立主格结构中,如果强调分词的时间 发生在主句动词时间之前,常用现在分词完成 时态表示。如: The snow having stopped, she went out to sweep the snow in the yard.

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4). 现在分词与过去分词的性质完全不同,但在 独立结构中,有时却有共同之处:现在分词的被 动式有时可以简化为过去分词 ①As her skirt was caught on a nail, she could not move. →Her skirt being caught on a nail, she could not move. →Her skirt caught on a nail, she could not move. ②After his work had been finished, he went home. →His work having been finished, he went home. →His work finished, he went home.

2. 分词结构还是独立结构?
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上面的例子告诉我们,独立结构常常可以看作 是由主从复合句中的从句变来的。但是,如果从 句和主句的主语相同,则不可改为独立结构。例 如: Since he was very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 不可改为独立结构: He being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles. 但可改为分词结构: Being very tired with his walk, he soon fell asleep and forgot his troubles.


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