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英语 必修一 unit1


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高一 必修 1
Unit 1

Direct speech & indirect speech
直接引语和间接引语

Michael Phelps

“I have a long body and long arms, a gift and love f

or swimming.”
Phelps said he had a long body and long arms, and a gift and love for swimming.

“I started swimming at an young age in order to treat my ADHD disease.”

Phelps said he had started swimming at an young age in order to treat his ADHD disease.

“I receive a 5-hour training every day.”
Phelps said he received a 5-hour training every day.

“I always desire to be the winner, to win gold medals and to break world records.” Phelps said he always desired to be the winner, to win gold medals and to break world records.

“One of my favorite things is to compete with the best swimmers in the world.”

Phelps said one of his favorite things was to compete with the best swimmers in the world.

“I have many goals, and all of them are high.”
Phelps said he had many goals, and all of them were high.

“I will always try my best to be Phelps No.1.”

Phelps said he would always try his best to be Phelps No.1.

Secrets of Phelps’ success?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? gift interest determination courage hard work ambition ……

引述别人的话语一般采用两种方式: 一是原封不动地引用原话, 把它放在括 号内, 这叫直接引语(Direct speech); 一 是用自己的话加以转述, 这叫间接引语

(Indirect speech).

直接引语 (变化前) 陈述句 Jane said, “I’m

间接引语(变化后) that引导的宾语从句 Jane said that she was very fond of traveling.

very fond of
traveling.”

直接引语 (变化前) 一般疑问句

间接引语(变化后) whether/if 引导的宾

“Is this your asked John.

语从句 that was her
umbrella.

umbrella, Mary?” John asked Mary if

直接引语 (变化前) 特殊疑问句 you return me the

间接引语(变化后) wh-词引导的宾语从句 when she would

“Mary, when will John asked Mary book?” asked John. return him the book.

由直接引语转变为间接引语,有时会引时 态的变化, 注意以下几个方面:
直接引语(变化前)
主句动词为一般现在 时或现在完成时 She often says, “All men and women are equal under the law.”

间接引语(变化后)
从句动词时态不变 She often says that all men and women are equal under the law.

直接引语(变化前) 动词

间接引语(变化后) 动词

主句 引导动词为: 从句 从句动词变为: 为一
般过 一般现在时 “I know it,” he said.

时态
相应

一般过去时 He said that

去时

变化

he knew it.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后) 从句动词变为:

主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

引导动词为:

从句 现在进行时 动词 “I’m 时态 making 相应 coffee for 变化 you all,” she said.

过去进行时 She said she was making coffee for us all.

直接引语(变化前)

间接引语(变化后)

主句 引导动词为: 从句 从句动词变为: 动词 现在完成时 动词 过去完成时 为一 “I have 时态 He said he had 般过 seen her 相应 seen her

去时 before,” said 变化 before. he.

直接引语(变化前)
引导动词为:

间接引语(变化后)
从句动词变为:

主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

现在完成进 行时 He said, “I have been doing it for hours.”

从句 动词 时态 相应 变化

过去完成进行时 He said he had been doing it for hours.

直接引语(变化前)
主句

间接引语(变化后)
从句

引导动词为:
一般过去时

从句动词变为:
过去完成时

动词
为一

动词
时态

“I saw her
last

He said he had
seen her the

般过
去时

Monday,”
he said.

相应
变化

previous
Monday.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 引导动词为:

间接引语(变化后) 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 从句动词变为:

过去进行时 “I was waiting for Jim,” she said.

过去完成进行 时 She said she had been waiting for Jim.

直接引语(变化前)
引导动词为: 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时 过去完成时 “ Do you know Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died?” Jack asked.

间接引语(变化后)
从句动词变为: 从句 动词 时态 相应 变化 过去完成时 Jack asked if I knew Rick had been ill in bed for many days till he died.

直接引语(变化前) 主句 动词 为一 般过 去时

间接引语(变化后)

从句 一般将来时 动词 He said: 时态 “We shall 相应 start 变化 tomorrow.”

引导动词为:

从句动词变为:
过去将来时 He said they would start the next day.

直接引语变见解引语时, 时态要发生变化:

一般现在时 现在完成时 现在进行时 一般将来时 一般过去时

一般过去时 过去完成时 过去进行时 过去将来时 过去完成时

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列情况 时态不变: 1. 不变的真理 The teacher said to the students, “Water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.” → The teacher told the students that water freezes when the temperature falls below 0℃.

2. 经常的习惯: He said to the doctor, “I smoke two packs every day.” → He told the doctor that he smokes

two packs every day.

3. 历史事件:
The teacher said, “World War Ⅱ

ended in 1945.”
→ The teacher said that World War Ⅱ ended in 1945.

4. 部分情态动词,如must, ought to, used to, had better等: She said to me: “You must hurry up.” → She said that I must hurry up.

由直接引语转变为间接引语,下列代词、 形容词、副词、动词等可能要变化。

直接引语
this these now ago today tomorrow

间接引语 that/this those/these then before that day/today/yesterday (the) next day

直接引语 the day after tomorrow yesterday last night the day before yesterday go bring here

间接引语

in two days’ time the day before the night before two days before come/go bring/take there/here

Exercise I
1. “I like reading adventure stories,” said John. John said that he liked reading adventure stories. 2. “I don’t like computers,” Sarah said to her friend. Sarah told her friends that she didn’t like computers.

3. “Ann, have you seen my blue notebook?” Peter asked. Peter asked Ann if she had seen his blue notebook. 4. “How can you do that?” Mary said to Ann. Mary asked Ann how she could do that. 5. “What difference does it make?” Peter asked Jim. Peter asked Jim what difference it made.

Exercise II
1. Jack said to me, “You look worried today.” Jack told me that ___ worried ___. A. he looks…today B. you look…today C. we looked…that day D. I looked…that day

2. We said to her, “They’re walking through the street now.” We told her that ___ through the street ___. A. we were walking…then B. you are walking…now C .they were walking…then D. they walking…now

3. Mr Black said, “I have walked a long way this week.” Mr Black said that __ a long way __. A. I had walked…last week B. he had walked…that week C. I walked…last week

D. he has walked…this week

4. The man thought, “I shall take it back tomorrow.” The man thought that __ take it back ____. A. I shall…tomorrow B. I shall…the next day C. he should…tomorrow D. he would …the next day

5. They said to us, “Are you afraid to leave this house ?” They asked us ____ afraid to leave _____ house. A. that were we…this B. that we were…that C. if were we …this D. if we were…that

6. Jane said, “What did he hear about a
week ago?”

Jane asked ____ about _____.
A. that he heard…a week ago B. what he had heard…the week before C. what he had herd… a week ago D. if he heard…the week ago

7. She asked, “Whose house will he break into next time ?” She asked whose house ____ break into _____. A. will he…next time B. would he…the next time C. he would…the next time D. he will…next time

8. Jack said to her, “Where do you spend your holidays?” Jack asked her where ____ holidays. A. she spent her C. she spend her B. you spend your D. you spent your

9. Black asked me, “ Why haven’t you
left here yet?”

Black asked me why ____ yet.
A. I hadn’t left there B. I haven’t left here C. hadn’t I left there D. haven’t I left here

10. The teacher asked her, “Does the sun rise in the east ?” The teacher asked her ___ the sun ___ in the east. A. if…rise B. if…rises C. whether…rose D. whether did …rise

把下列句子变为直接引语或间接引语。 1.“I don’t want to go there with Alice,” said Tom.
Tom said that he didn’t want to go there with Alice. 2. “Is your father kind to you?” she often asks me. She often asks me whether / if my father is kind to me.

3. Mother asked me what I was going to be

when I grew up. “What are you going to be when you
grow up?” Mother asked me. 4. “I have to study hard to make progress,”

the girl said to her friend.
The girl told her friend that she had to study hard to make progress.

5. “When will you go back to work?” Mr. Smith asked. Mr. Smith asked me when I would go back to work.

完成下列句子,将直接引语转
换为间接引语(每空一词)。 1.“It is really cold, but it is so nice to be out on the lake,” she said to me. She ____ ___ told me that it was really cold, but it was ___ so nice

to be out on the lake.

2. “Did you ask your boss for a pay
increase?” she asked the man.

She asked the man __ had _____ asked if he ____
___ his boss for a pay increase.

3. The teacher asked the girl, “Why are
you crying here?” why ___ she The teacher asked the girl ____ was crying there ____ ____. 4. “When will the plane take off?” I wondered. I wondered _____ _____ would _____ take ____ when ___ the plane

off ___.

5. “Have you seen our plane yourself?”

he asked the boy.
He asked the boywhether ______ __ he ____ had seen their plane himself ____ ____ ______.


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