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必修 5

Unit1 Great scientists

Part 1. Warming up 1. explain 及物动词(vt.) 解释;说明;阐明[(+to)][+wh-][+(that)] He explained that he had been cheated. 他解释说他是上当受骗了。 Can you explain ho

w the machine operates?你能解释一下这机器是如何运转的吗? Please explain this rule to me.请给我讲解一下这条规则。 不及物动词(vi.)解释;说明;辩解 I've got to explain about it. 我得解释一下此事。 2. characteristic n. 特征;特性 Kindness is one of his characteristics. adj. 独特的 I heard my friend’s characteristic laugh. be characteristic of sb./sth. 是.....的特性 Such bluntness is characteristic of hin. 如此迟钝是他的特性。 3. Who put forward a theory about black holes? put forward 提出(建议等) ;提名;提前,把时钟往前拨 He put forward a new plan. 他提出一个新计划。 May I put your name forward as a possible chairman of the committee?我能否提名你当委员 会主席? [归纳拓展] put down 记下;镇压 put out 关掉;熄灭 put aside 放在一边;储存;保留 put off 推迟;延期 put up 建造;举起;张贴 put on 穿上 put away 收好 Part 2. Pre-reading, reading and comprehending 1. Do you know how to prove a new idea in scientific research how to prove a new idea 为“疑问词+不定式”结构,该结构可在句中作主语、宾语、表语 等。 2.draw a conclusion 得出结论 1)conclusion 作名词,意为―结束,结论‖ come to/reach/arrive at a conclusion 得出结论 in conclusion 最后 I will in conclusion say a few words about my visit to Tokyo.最后, 我对我的东京之行说几句。 2)conclude 作动词,―结束;断定;决定‖。 to conclude(作插入语)最后,作为总结(= to sum up) 3.John Snow was a famous doctor in London — so expert, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. 约翰· 斯诺是伦敦一位著名的医生——他的确医术精湛,以至于成 了照料维多利亚女王的私人医生。 expert ① n. 专家,能手 an expert in psychology(心理学) an agricultural expert ② adj. 熟练的,有专门技术的 an expert job 需专门知识的工作 He is expert in / at cooking.

attend vt. &vi 参加,注意,照料 ① be present at 参加 attend a ceremony / lecture / a meeting ② attend to (on): to look after, care for, serve 伺候, 照顾,看护 The queen had a good doctor attending (on )her. Dr Smith attended her in hospital. Mother had to attend to her sick son. ③ attend to 处理,注意倾听 Can you attend to the matter immediately? I may be late – I have got one or two things to attend to. 4. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 但 当他一想到要帮助那些得了霍乱的普通人时,他就感到很振奋。 (1) exposed to cholera 在句中是过去分词作后置定语,表示被动。意为―患霍乱的‖。如: (2) expose ①暴露 expose sb/sth to sth ②揭露 exposed adj. 暴露的,暴露于风雨中的,无掩蔽的 exposedness n. 暴露,显露 expose sth. to the light of day 把某事暴露于光天化日之下 expose a fraud 揭穿骗局 5.Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. 对于它的起因和治疗方法人们都不清楚。 neither...nor...既不……也不,连接句中两个相同成分。 ③Neither Jim nor his parents have seen the film. =Neither his parents nor Jim has seen the film.吉姆和她的父母都没有看过这部电影。 cure vt. 治疗,治愈,改正 n. 治疗,治愈,治疗法 ①cure sb(of sth)治好了某人(的...,...) ②a cure for sth.治疗…的方法;解决问题,改善困境 6.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.人们既不知道它 的病因,也不懂如何治疗。每次爆发霍乱时就有成千上万惊恐的人病死。 (1)本句为复合句, ―So many thousands of terrified people died‖ 为主句, every time 引导时 间状语从句,意思是―每当……‖。 (2)有些名词短语或副词可以起连词的作用,引导时间状语从句。例如:every time,each time,the last time,next time,the moment,the minute,immediately,instantly 等。 ①Every time/Each time I express an opinion,she argues back.每当我发表意见时,她总是 反驳。 ②I found myself in an entirely new world the moment/the minute/immediately I arrived here. 我一到这里就感到耳目一新。 [拓展延伸] (1)for the first time 是介词短语,常用作时间状语,而 the first time 是连词,引导时间状 语从句。 (2)It is the first time that...如果前面用 is,从句动词用现在完成时;如果前面用 was,则从 句动词用过去完成时. (3)It’s (high) time that...从句动词用过去时或 should+动词原形。 It’ s high time we took immediate action to prevent pollution.该到我们立即采取措施阻止污 染的时候了。 7.The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air, a cloud of dangerous gas floated around

until it found its victims.第一种看法是霍乱病毒在空气中繁殖, 像一股危险气体在空中到处漂 浮,直到找到病毒的受害人。 suggest v. 建议;暗示;表明 suggest+doing / sth. / that sb. (should) do sth. *suggest (暗示,表明)+从句不用虚拟语气。 8..The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals.第二 种看法是人们是在吃饭时把这种病毒引入体内的。 absorb vt.(1)专注,聚精会神 be absorbed in=put one’s heart into 集中精力做某事 (2)吸收,把……吸收入(absorb...into...) suspect vt. 认为,怀疑 常用短语:suspect sth to be; suspect sb of doing sth. They suspect him to be the murderer.(他们怀疑他是凶手) n. 嫌疑犯;可疑分子[C] 10 .....,the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. severe adj. 严厉地;苛刻的;严格的 be severe with/on 对....严格/严厉 You are too severe on the boy. 剧痛的;剧烈的;严重的 a severe attack of toothache 牙痛的剧烈发作 adv. severely 11.Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets. 接下来,约翰· 斯诺 调查了这两条街上的水源。 look into 调查,了解,研究;朝??里面看? 与 one’s face/eyes 等连用,表示“注视” He looks into her face with great interest.?他饶有兴趣地注视着她的脸。? 和 look 组成的其他短语? look around/about 环顾四周 look after 照顾;照料? look back 回头看 look back on 回顾;回想? look down upon 轻视,瞧不起 look for 寻求;寻找? look forward to (doing) 盼望 look on 旁观? look on/upon...as 把??看作 look out 往外看;注意;当心? look through 浏览 look up 抬头看;查看 look up to sb. 尊敬/仰慕某人 12. It seemed that the water was to blame.看来要归罪于饮用水了。 blame v. 责备;谴责;把……归咎于 n. 过失;责备;(过失、过错等)责任 ①blame sb. for sth. / doing sth.为某事责备某人 / 责备某人做了某事 They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan. ② blame sth. on sb. / sth. 把某事归咎于某人;因某事而指责某人 The police blamed the traffic accident on jack’s careless driving. ③ be to blame for(doing)sth. 因(做)某事某人应该受到谴责;注意:be to blame 应受责备 (主动表被动) ;应负责任 The driver was not to blame for the traffic accident. ④ accept / bear / take the blame for sth. 对某事负责任 He is ready to take the blame for what had happened. ⑤ put / lay the blame for sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 13.In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were

linked to the Broad Street outbreak.在伦敦的另一地区,他从另外两例与布洛德街疾病爆发有 关的死亡病例中得到了有力的证据。 link vt. 连接;联系 n. 环;连接;联系;纽带 14.A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day.一个妇女,从布洛德街搬走了,但她非常喜欢 水泵的水,她让人每天从水泵给她家送水。 15. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.利用这个额外证据,约翰· 斯诺就可以很有把握地宣布污染水携带病菌。 announce vt. (1)宣布,宣告(决定、计划等) announce sth.(to sb.)(向某人)宣布、通告某事 announce that...宣布……;通知…… It is announced that...据宣布… Please announce to your class that there will be no school tomorrow.请通知你们班明天不上 学。 It has been officially announced that he will pay a second visit to China soon.据官方消息称, 他不久将再次来中国访问。 (2)(事情)显示……;预告 The bright flowers announced that spring was here.鲜艳的花朵显示春天已经来到。 [拓展延伸] announcement n.宣布;口头通知 announcer n.播音员 make an announcement 下通知 16.To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. 为防止这种情况再度发生,约翰· 斯诺建议,所有水源都要经过检测。 prevent/stop...(from) doing sth. 或 keep...from doing sth.意为―阻止……做某事‖ ①What can we do to prevent the disease spreading.我们能做什么来防止这种疾病蔓延呢? ②We should take measures to prevent the river from being polluted further.我们应该采取措 施阻止这条河受到进一步的污染。 examine v. 检查;细查;诊察; 审问;盘问 The doctor examined the boy and found there was nothing the matter with him. The lawyer examined the witness. examination n. 考试; 检查;细查 take an examination 参加考试 medical examination 体检 under examination 在检查中;在审查中 17. Finally “King Cholera” was defeated.―霍乱王‖终于被击败了。 [辨析]win, beat 与 defeat win ―赢得‖赛事、战事、某物;beat ―战胜‖―击败‖比赛中的对手,可与 defeat 互换 We beat / defeated their team by 10 scores. They won the battle but lost many men. The local ball team won the state championship by beating / defeating all the other teams.

Part 3. Learning about Language 1. take in 收留;包括 take 相关短语: take after 相似

take apart 把(小型机器、钟表等)拆开;拆散 take away 拿走 take back 承认说错了(话),收回(诺言,话语);使回忆起;送回,还回去;退(货) take off 脱下,脱去(尤指衣服); 解(拿)掉 --put on (反义词);(飞机等)升空,起飞 take on 雇用;开始具有/ 呈现(某种品质、面貌等); 露出;接受(工作等);承担(责任等) take out 带(某人)去(某处参加社交活动等);正式取得,领得,获得;洗去(污迹),使褪色 take over 接手,接任;接管 take up 开始花时间从事(某项活动);对??产生兴趣; 开始学习(某课程),选修;(事物或 事件)占用了(时间或空间);接受??的建议;继续 take …for granted 想当然认为(会是某种情况),认为……是理所当然的;认为没有问题 take …for instance / example 以……为例 take …into account / consideration 考虑到,把……考虑进去 take pride in / be proud of 为……感到自豪/ 骄傲 take revenge on 向….报复 take one's place 代替某人 take the opportunity 利用这个机会 take turns 轮流(做某事) 2. construction n.建设;建筑业;建造 He works in construction industry. 他在建筑行业工作。 There are two new hotels under construction. 有两家新饭店正在兴建。 词组扩展:construction workers 建筑工人 under construction 正在建设中 3.apart from 有两种含义: 1)相当于 besides.意为“除??以外(还包括) ” Apart from my mother tongue, I speak several foreign languages as well. 除了母语外,我还会讲好几种外语。 2)相当于 except.意为“除??以外(不包括) ” I like all the subjects apart from English.除了英语外,我喜欢所有学科。

1)语法功能 过去分词或过去分词短语作定语时, 其功能相当于一个定语从句。 被修饰的词是分词所表示 的行为的承受者;在逻辑上,它们是动宾关系。 The stolen bike belongs to Jack. The bike which was stolen belongs to Jack. The lecture given by Professor Zhang is about environment protection. The lecture which was given by Professor Zhang is about the environment protection. a.单个的过去分词作定语时,位于它所修饰的名词或代词前面 the affected people 受感染的人 a broken heart 一颗破碎的心 a lost dog 丧家之犬 a broken glass 被打破的玻璃杯 Attention: 过去分词修饰 something, everything, anything, nothing, somebody, nobody, those 等 不定代词时,要放在这些词后面。 Is there anything unsolved? There is noting changed here since I left this town. b. 过去分词短语作定语:通常后置,其作用相当于定语从句。

people exposed to cholera= people who was exposed to cholera the book recommended by Jack= the book which was recommended by Jack the machines produced last year= the machines which were produced last year c. 不及物动词的过去分词作定语时不表被动,只表完成。 a risen sun 已升起的太阳 the gone days 逝去的时光 fallen leaves 落叶 2)现在分词与过去分词作定语的区别: 现在分词作定语,表示正在进行的动作;过去分词作定语,所表示的动作在谓语所表示 的动作之前发生,(或者没有一定的时间性)。 The letter posted yesterday will soon reach him. Have you read the book recommended by your teacher?这是你老师推荐的书吗? 对比: the changing world(正在变化的)the changed world(变化了的) boiling water(正在沸腾的)boiled water(已经沸腾过的) fading flowers(正在凋谢的) faded flowers(已经凋谢的) a developing country(发展中的) a developed country(发达的) a drowning man 快要淹死的人 a drowned man 已经淹死的人 falling leaves 正在飘落的树叶 fallen leaves 落叶 a retired worker 退休工人 an escaped prisoner 逃犯 3)及物动词的过去分词(done)与现在分词的被动式 (being done)都可以表示―被动‖,但前者多表示一个完成了的动作,而后者则表示一个正 在进行的动作. the problem discussed yesterday the problem being discussed

1 过去分词(短语)作表语时,其作用相当于 adj.,说明的是主语的状态 All the windows are broken. All hope is gone. He looked worried after reading the letter. 常见作表语的过去分词有: disappointed, drunk, amused, frightened, married, excited, experienced, interested, confused, pleased, puzzled, satisfied, tired, worried,gone, dressed, lost 等。 注意 过去分词作表语时和动词的被动语态结构相似,但两者表达的意思明显不同,前者 说明主语的特点及所处的状态,而后者强调被动的动作。 My glasses are broken.我的眼镜碎了。(状态) My glasses were broken by my son.我的眼镜被我儿子摔碎了。 (动作) Part 4. Using Language 1.Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion.....虽然他曾经试着不去理睬那些数据,然而他所有的数字计算都得出了一个相同 的结论 lead to 导致,通向 该短语中 to 为介词。类似的短语还有:

be used to stick to look forward to devote onesele to pay attentio to 2.Only if you put the sun there did the movementof the other plants in the sky make sense..只有当 你把太阳放在中心位置上,天空中其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。 1)句中 only 修饰 if 引导的状语从句,放在句首时,后面的主句要用倒装。only 位于句首, 其后接副词或介词短语时,句子的主谓也要部分倒装。 2)make sense 讲得通;有道理;有意义 3.Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. 然而他的这个理论不能告诉任何人, 因为即使 他只暗示有这种想法,他都会受到强大的基督教会势力的惩罚。 would have done 表示与过去事实相反的假设 If I had seen the advertisement, I would have applied for the job.我要是看见那个广告, 我就申 请那份工作了。 虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法: if 条件句的谓语形式 与现在事实相反 与过去事实相反 与将来事实相反 动词过去式/were had+过去分词 动 词 过 去 式 或 should+动词原形 were to+动词原形 主句的谓语形式 would/should/could/m ight+动词原形 would/should/could/m ight+had+过去分词 would/should/could/m ight+动词原形

4.His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish the ideas, but Copernicus was cautious.他的朋友都热情地鼓励他把他的想法公之于众,而他却小心谨慎。 1) enthusiastic 热心的,满腔热情地 v. enthuse 热心 n. enthusiasm 狂热,热心,积极性 enthusiast 热心者,热情的人 adv. enthusiastically 热心地,狂热地 2) be enthusiastic about/over...对。 。 。热情 She’s very enthusiastic about singing. 她对唱歌很有热情。 be cautious about/of sb.(sth.)对。 。 。小心谨慎 5. complete adj.结束的;完成的;完整的 v.使完美;使完整;完成 I need one moer stamp to complete my collection.我所收集的邮票还差一张才成整套。 When will work be completed on the new road?新道路的工程何时完成? 6. reject v.拒绝;不接受;丢弃 He rejected their invitation point-blank.他直截了当地拒绝了他们的邀请。 7. base sth. on 把...基于 8. basis. 基础;基本 basically adv.基本上 basic adj. 基本的

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