语 法 基 础
I.词、短语和从句 （一）词性 1. 名词（n.） ：人事地物的名称。如：book，love。 2. 冠词（Article） ：表示特定或不特定的人事物，放在名词前。如：a，the。 3．代词（pron.）:代替名词的词。如：he，it，him，anyone。 4. 动词（V.）:人事物的动作、状态。如：run，love，be。 5. 形容词（adj.）
：表示性质、状态，修饰名词、代词。如：good，happy。 6. 副词（adv.）:表示时间、地点、程度，修饰动词。如：well，happily。 7. 介词（prep.）:放在名词前，形成短语。On the desk, at home。 8. 连词（conj.）:连接单词、短语和句子。 9. 数词。如：one。 10. 感叹词。如：Oh！ 英语中的不同词性在句子中充当不同的成分。 The coach shouted loudly,“Hey, run to the goal!”But the players couldn’t hear his voice. And they lost the final match. （二）短语 分为三类，副词短语，形容词短语，名词性短语 就是拉长的单词. 1. I ofen stop at a convenience store on my way home. 表达地点，做副词。 2. The book on the desk is mine. 3. I put my books on the desk. 4. I don’t know what to do. (三)从句 从句为句子的一部分，其中包含“主语+谓语” 分三类，名词从句，形容词从句，副词从句。 就是拉长的单词。 I know that you are doing your best. My idea is that we should plant more trees. What I said is true. Judy put her coat on the desk before she sat down. II. 句子成分( sentence elements )： 1. 主语 主语 ( subject ):名词或名词对等语。 A tree has fallen across the road. The ups and downs of life must be taken as they come. You’re not far wrong. Three is enough. Smoking is bad for you. To find your way can be a problem. Whenever you are ready will be fine.
2. 谓语：动词或动词短语。 动词按是否加宾语分为：及物动词和不及物动词 I love choclate. The car won’t start. The sky is blue. 3. 宾语( object ):名词或名词对等语。 She is expecting a baby in July. He’s digging a hole. She bowed her thanks. She swam the river. Chris will sing a song for us. She lived a happy life. Remember to buy some stamps. He stopped smoking last week. I wondered how old he was. 4. 表语: 名词、形容词、副词或对等语。放在系动词后，补充说明主语。 系动词的三大类( copula ) ： 1）.be 动词 2）. look, smell, taste, feel, sound 3）. seem, appear, become, get, grow, turn, remain, stay, keep, go It is a pity. He felt hungry. Are you busy? He seems ill. He got sick. 5. 宾语补足语：名词、形容词、副词或对等语。放在宾语后，补充说明该宾语。 I believe the girl very beautiful. I thought everything in good condition. He sent me an e-mail. 宾补？ Did you see the boy being punished by the teacher? She found something stolen. His parents made him write out the exercise again. He allowed his boy to go to the party. III．最基本的 5 种句型： 1. S+V 主语+谓语(不及物) e.g. 1. I came at 7:30 a.m. 2. He left early in the morning. 2. S+V+O 主语+谓语（及物）+宾语 e.g. 1. I am learning English now 2. Do you like reading? 3. He decided to go with us. 4. You said you were born in Shanghai. 3. S+V+O1+O2 主语+谓语+双宾语 e.g. 1. I’ll show you my new CD. 2. (you) Tell me the truth. 3. Mom bought me a bag. 4. Can you do me a favor? 4. S+V+C 主语+系动词+表语 e.g. 1 I am feeling terrible. 2 Are you a college boy? 3 It sounds interesting. 4 He was not at home yesterday. 5. S+V+O+C 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 e.g. 1. I saw him come in. 2.She asked me to come. 3. What brought you here ? 4. We call him Jim.
修饰语 定语 ( attributive )： 修饰名词、代词。 a baby girl an apple beautiful girl your family sleeping pills a faded flower something inttersting a basket full of apples books which I like He has a wish to travel round the world. 状语 ( adverbial ): 修饰动词、形容词、副词。 He usually jogs in the park for an hour before breakfast. Walk very quickly look out of the window See you next week. go out to buy food Think twice before you act. By the time Tome gets home, his aunt will have left London. I was late because I didn’t catch the bus. If it snows tomorrow, we’ll build a snowman. Although he is young, he knows more than others. 练习： 1. 句子改错。 （1） Everyone likes beautiful. （2） With the develop of science, we live better and better. （3） Don’t afraid. Your mom is here. （4） With time goes on, we have learned more and more. （5） There are seven hundreds student on the ground. （6） The girl often helps me, even she is busy. （7） Mr. Zhang very busy today. He not in the office. （8） Don’t plant a tree in such a bad weather. （9） When he came in, I seated in front of TV. （10） Class is begin. Why not stand up? （11） This pen is nice to write. （12） She looks very angrily today. （13） She looks angry at us all. （14） Tom has bought a pen, but he not bought books. 2. 指出划线单词的词性。 （1） Doctors must be patient with each patient. （2） He runs a big farm and often runs over there. （3） The children often study in this study. （4） The boy runs fast, and likes fast reading. （5） She asked me to wait a while, while I was in the office. （6） This isn’t my raincoat. Mine is in the mine. （7） They want to fire the firefighter because he refused to fight fire. （8） It’s wrong of you to desert the dog in the desert.
（9） He has a great deal of waste paper to deal with. （10） Keep our classroom clean so that we needn’t clean it every day. 3. 段落练笔。 (1)Learn English isn’t so difficulty as we expect. Anyone can learn English well if he put his heart into it. Practice English everyday is of great important. If we keep practice listen, speak, read and write, we’ll learn it well sooner or later. (2) With time goes on, more and more people communicate with the others by cell phones instead of use telephones. They think much more convenient to use cell phones. However, using cell phones in middle schools are forbidden, middle school students are not old enough to control them. (3) Computer is wide used in our every day life. Many people, especially young people have good knowledge of computer. Computer is more and more advance and nobody knows what computer will like in one hundred years. (4) All my family enjoy sports very much, include my father and I. I’ve been fond of play badminton since I was child. Before entered senior middle school, I had taken part in many badminton match. My father is a basketball fan. In his twenty, he was one of famous basketball plays in his university. (5) The meeting begins for over ten minutes, but Manager Ma didn’t come here yet. As you know, he never late for a meeting. May be he caught in a traffic jam. I did’t expect him to come to the meeting as soon as possible. (6) Most of Li Ming’s classmates become leaders or businessmen, but he is remained a dustman. He often said what he does also very important to others. He doesn’t discourage. On the contrary, he always in high spirits. We should learn him and try becoming useful builders for our society.