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Edgar Allan Poe - 副本


Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

The actual cause of death remains a mystery.
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Tuberculosis suicide heart disease drug meningeal inflammation Cholera rabies

II. Life

Poe’s Childhood 1

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His father, an actor His mother, Elizabeth Arnold, an actress Poe's parents were touring actors; A year after Edgar's birth (1809) and several months before the birth of his sister Rosalie, the father disappeared His mother died in December, 1811

Poe’s Childhood 2
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Poe was taken into the home of John Allan, a prosperous merchant in Richmond and baptized Edgar Allan Poe. His brother and sister were also adopted by the two well-to-do Richmond ladies who had befriended the mother

Poe’s Foster Family 1

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Never legally adopted by the Allan but brought up as their son and presumed heir. Sent to good schools, Poe showed aptitude for languages and began writing verse.

Poe’s Foster Family 2
Poe’s relation with the Allans was unhappy. 1826 John Allan was a well-to-do hardheaded Scots merchant who had great prospects of wealth from the estate of his uncle Edgar was entered in the University of Virginia Ran into debt and started borrowing money, gambling and getting deeper into debt

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Poe’s Foster Family 3
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Allan withdrew him from University Went to Boston, enlisted in the army, served for two years and went to West Point After one year he decided to leave West Point and to support himself by writing.

Poe’s Need for a Family
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He worked as editor and writer most of his life, but he was always poor. Poe married his 13-year-old cousin in 1835 when he was 26.

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Poe married his 13-year old cousin, Virginia Clemm. Her early death may have inspired some of his writing.

Poe’s last few years
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Virginia died in 1847, which left him inconsolable. Deep drinking problems He died, in mysterious circumstances, in 1849. He was only 40 then.

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Edgar Allan Poe is buried in Baltimore, Maryland. The circumstances and cause of his death remain uncertain.

Short Story
2. Features ? Gothic elements ? deep analysis of human psychology ? precursor of detective stories and science stories ? style: ordinary, traditional 3. Sample: The Fall of the House of Usher
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Characteristics of Poe’s detective stories
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Poe places veiled clues before the reader. The writer/narrator strives to appear objective.




Poe would have liked to solve everything by the mind. He was disturbed by what he could not solve by reason.

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The climax of the story is the narrator’s explanation of the crime.

Elements of Gothic in Poe’s Fiction
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Grim setting【阴郁的设置】





Landscapes are often reflections of character’s mind. Unusual buildings, extremes of nature, eccentric works of art Very few of his stories take place in America; most take place in Europe.

Themes
“Poe is not interested in anything alive. Everything in Poe’s writings is dead.” 1. death – predominant theme 2. horror 3.negative thoughts of science

Works
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Tales of the Grotesque and the Arabesque 《奇异怪诞故事集》 MS. Found in a Bottle 《瓶子里发现的手稿》 The Murders in the Rue Morgue 《莫格街杀人案》 The Fall of the House of Usher 《厄舍古屋的倒塌》 The Masque of the Red Death 《红色死亡的化妆舞会》 The Cask of Amontillado 《一桶酒的故事》 The Raven 《乌鸦》 Israfel 《伊斯拉菲尔》 Annabel Lee 《安娜贝尔?李》 To Helen 《致海伦》 The Poetic Principle 《诗歌原理》 The Philosophy of Composition 《创作哲学》

"To Helen"
The 15-line poem was written in honor of Jane Stanard, the mother of a childhood friend. "the first purely ideal love of my soul," according to the poet. ? Poe is celebrating the nurturing power of woman
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Analysis
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the use of English as a medium of pure musical and rhythmic beauty rhythm is not regular, which shows the poet was excited the poem is a haunting melody done with extreme artistry of alliteration as in "weary“ and "way-worn", and assonance for example, with "me“ rhythm with "sea",

Analysis
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in the poem words containing vowels【单元 音】 or diphthongs【双元音】 were used to bring about the slow rhythm which reveals the speaker's admiration and deep regret and suggest a theme that beauty is soothing yet inaccessible. general tone of the poem is passionate and regretful.

To Helen 2
Poe uses allusions to classical names and places, as well as certain kinds of images to create the impression of a far-off idealized, unreal woman, like a Greek statue. words that support the image of an ideal woman are "hyacinth“ and "classic“ "Naiad airs“ and "statue-like. Helen stands, not like a real woman, but like a saint in a "windows-niche. She becomes a symbol both of beauty and of frustration, a romantically idealized yet inaccessible image of the heart's desire.
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Helen, thy beauty is to me Like those Nicean barks of yore, That gently, o'er a perfumed sea, The weary, way worn wanderer bore To his own native shore. On desperate seas long wont to roam, Thy hyacinth hair, thy classic face, Thy Naiad airs have brought me home To the glory that was Greece And the grandeur that was Rome. Lo! in yon brilliant window-niche How statue-like I see thee stand, The agate lamp within thy hand! Ah, Psyche, from the regions which Are Holy Land!

海伦,你的美在我的眼里, 有如往日尼西亚的三桅船 船行在飘香的海上,悠悠地 把已倦于漂泊的困乏船员 送回他故乡的海岸。 早已习惯于在怒海上飘荡, 你典雅的脸庞,你的鬈发, 你水神般的风姿带我返航, 返回那往时的希腊和罗马, 返回那往时的壮丽和辉煌。 看哪!壁龛似的明亮窗户里, 我看见你站着,多像尊雕像, 一盏玛瑙的灯你拿在手上! 塞姬女神哪,神圣的土地 才是你家乡!

“The Fall of the House of Usher”
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Analysis “The Fall of the House of Usher” possesses the 【典型的】quintessential -features of the Gothic tale: a haunted house, dreary landscape, mysterious sickness, and doubled personality.

Introduction
a villain with no virtue an evil genius Emerson: "the jingle man”

Whitman: “its narrow range and unhealthy, lurid quality” (不丰富的选 材和不健康、可怕的质量)

He was understood by critics and other writers in America.

Introduction
Poe enjoyed respect and welcome in Europe His reputation was first Today, his works are made in France read with appreciation and Poe's influence was understanding. considerable in Spain, Italy, Germany and Russia.

Introduction
evaluation of Poe's achievement "the greatest journalistic critic of a critic, his time"

a poet,
a short story writer

his poetry is “exquisitely refined“(精致优雅) his tales are "complete works of art"

a great writer of fiction, a poet of the first rank, and a critic of insight【洞察力】

literary Position
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1. father of modern short story 2. father of detective story 3. father of psychoanalytic criticism【精神分 析批评】


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