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【中考宝典】广东省2016中考英语 语法考点复习 介词课件


介 词
中考语法

介词概述 介词是一种虚词,用来表示它 后面的名词或代词同句中其它某个 成分之间的关系。介词在句中不能 单独使用,必须连用它的宾语即后 面的名词或代词构成介词词组后才 能作句子成分。
如:in, on, across from, ever since, because of 等。

考点分布
(1)介词的种类

(2) 介词短语

考点一 表示时间的介词
in 表示月、季节、年、 世纪或泛指上午、下 午、晚上(指在一段 时间内)

考点梳理 in May, in winter, in 2014,
in the twenty-first century, in the morning/afternoon/evening

表示时刻、时间的某 at 9:00, at noon, at night, at at that time, at last 一点 表示具体的某一天或 on Monday(morning), on a on cold rainy day 某一天的上下、午 during the summer holiday, during 在……期间 during the exam
for past

有……之久(表示经 for two days, for a long time 过了多长时间) ten (minutes) six, a quarter 过了……(时间) past eight

till/until by at the end of at the beginning of

直到……时

考点梳理

till/until 10:00, till/until midnight

不迟于……,在…… by the end of, by then 之前 在……末 在开头……(开始的 时候) at the end of this term, at the beginning of the meeting before class, before Christmas after school, after 6:30

before
after

在……以前
在……之后

since
about

自从……(表示从过 去某个时间到现在)
大约

since 2012, since then
about 9:00

1、介词in, on, at后接时间的用法详 考点梳理 见本书第一模块《中考常用词汇和短语 用法辨析》第10组。 2、时间名词前所用介词的速记歌 年月周前要用in, 日子前面却不行。 遇到几号要用on,上午下午又是in。 要说某日上下午, 用on换in才能行。 午夜黄昏用at, 黎明用它也不错。 at也在时分前,说“差”用to, 说“过” 要用past。

考点梳理 ( ) 1. Nanjing Lishui Strawberry Festival opened _______ March in Fujiabian Modern Agricultural Park this year. A. on B. at C. in D. to ( ) 2. I sometimes help my mom with her housework ________ Saturdays. A. at B. in C. on D. to ( ) 3. A ship from South Korea sank into the sea ________ April 16, 2014. A. in B. on C. at D. for ( ) 4. Some workers in that factory have to work _______ night. A. at B. for C. with D. among

【考点精练】

考点二 表场所、方向的介词
in at 在……里(地点范 In the United states, in Guangzhou 围较大)

考点梳理

在……处(较小的 At the station, at the school gate 范围)
在……上(有接触 On the blackboard, on the desk 面) 在靠近……的地 On the left, on the right 方 The plane flew above the clouds. There is a bridge over the river. The radio says the temperature will be below zero. There is a dog under the tree. 在……正上方

on

above 在……上; 高于 over

below 在……下方
under 在……正下方

across from after against

在……对面
在……后面

考点梳理

There is a bank across from our school. The dog is running after a cat. Look at the white piano against the wall. Many people are against building a zoo in town. He hurried into the classroom. The earth moves around the sun.

靠着; 倚着; 对抗, 反对

进入(有一定 的方向) around 在……周围 up 向上,向高处 into behind 在……后面 at the end of 在……末梢/尽 头

The monkey climbed up the tree. They planted some trees behind their school.
You’ll see the hospital at the end of the road.

in front of
in the middle of near

opposite
by/beside among between

past

There is a river in front of 在……前面 our school. Mr. Li likes to stand in the 在……的中间 middle of the classroom. Excuse me. Is there a post 在……近旁 office near here? The book store is opposite 在……对面 the cinema. 在……旁/附近 The boy is standing by/beside the window. (比near近) 在(三者以上) Among the mountains there is a beautiful village. 的之中 Lily is sitting between Lucy 在(两者)之间 and Jack. Remember to call me when 经过 you walk past my house.

考点梳理

along out of across through

沿着

在……之外(有 运动方向) 横过 贯穿;通过 前往……地方 (表目的)

Don’t look out of the 考点梳理 window in class. Go across the bridge.

Walk along the street.

Go straight through that door under the EXIT sign. They will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.

for
from to

从……起(表示 起点)
到达……地点或 方向

We usually do sports from 7:00 to 7:30 in the morning.
Call me as soon as you get to Beijing.

1. 介词among, between的用法区别详见本 书第一模块《中考常用词汇和短语用法 辨析》第5组。

2. in front of与in the front of的用法区别详见第42组。 3. on 在……的上面 (与物体表面接触) 考点梳理 over 在……的正上方;(不接触物体表面) above在……上方(不接触物体表面) below 在……下方, 是above的反义词 under 在……下面 (是on, over的反义词) 4. in, on, to还可以用来表示两地的位置关系 in表示在某地范围之内;to表示在某地范围之外。如: China lies in the east of Asia and to the north of Australia. 中国位于亚洲的东部,澳洲的北边。 而on表示与某地相邻、接壤。如:Mongolia is on the north of China.蒙古与中国北部接壤。 它们的用法区别详见本书第一模块《中考常用词汇 和短语用法辨析》第43组。 5. across与through的用法区别详见本书第一模块《中 考常用词汇和短语用法辨析》第22组。

考点梳理 ( ) 5. Cambridge is a small city _______ the east of England. A. between B. with C. in D. under ( ) 6. We’ll play basketball _______ Class 3 tomorrow. A. over B. against C. to D. for ( ) 7. —Did you go to Kenli during the Peach Blossom Festival(桃花节) ? —Yes. The flowers were beautiful. Bees were flying _________ them. A. in. B. among C. between D. through

【考点精练】

考点梳理 ( ) 8. The moonlight is coming _______ the window and the room looks more brighter. A. across B. into C. through D. over ( ) 9. Taiwan lies ________ the east of Fujian. A. on B. in C. to D. at ( ) 10.The old man is a good swimmer, and even now he often swims _______ Zhujiang River after supper. A. over B. through C. to D. across

【考点精练】

考点三 表方式的介词
as by in with like on over

考点梳理 作为,当作 Mo Yan is famous as a writer.
This novel was written by Lu 用;由;乘 Xun. 坐 Li Lei often goes to school by bus. 用(语言);用 Please say it in English./ Write in black in. 什么材料 用(工具) with a pen; with my eyes; with 或方法 the teacher’s help He looks like his mother. 与一样 骑(车); on a bike/car/bus; on foot 步行 She learns English over the radio. 通过(电波)
Man can’t live without water.

without 没有

by, with, in都可以表示“用”,但侧重 考点梳理 点有所不同。 in强调用材料、语言 with 表示用工具、某物 by用方式、方法、手段 如: The teacher is writing on the paper in red ink and the blackboard with a piece of chalk. My mother often go to work by bike. 它们的用法区别详见本书第一模块《中 考常用词汇和短语用法辨析》第19组;

( ) 11. You考点梳理 can improve your English ________ practicing more. A. by B. with C. of D. in ( ) 12. Please write it ________ your pen. A. by B. in C. at D. with ( ) 13. The letter was written _________ English. A.on B. by C. in D. with

【考点精练】

考点四 其它介词
about
except /but besides of 关于; 询问情 况

what/how about Everybody except/but Jack is 除了 here. (Jack不在) Besides English, we have eight 除了……还有 subjects.(共九科) ……的, 表示 a map of China, a glass of water 数量或种类

a speech about health; 考点梳理

except与 besides except除……之外(不包括),如: Everyone passed the exam except Tom. 除了汤姆,每个人都过了考试(汤姆一个 人没有过)

besides 除……之外(还包括),如: Besides Mr Li, five teachers went to the 考点梳理 meeting. 除了李老师,还有五个老师去开 会了。(一共六个老师) 它们的用法区别详见本书第一模块《中考 常用词汇和短语用法辨析》第27组。 【考点精练】
( ) 14. —What language do you also speak ________ English? —French. But just a little. A. besides B. except C. beside ( ) 15. —All the students in Class One went to the cinema ________ Li Ping. Why? —Because he had a stomachache. A. besides B. except C. without D. beside

考点梳理 1、表示“和,伴随“,如: come with me 跟我来 She will travel to Paris with his family this summer vacation. 2、表示“带着,随着”,如: with a smile on her face 她面带微笑 with best wishes 致以美好的祝愿 with some flowers in her hands 手捧鲜花 with pleasure 乐意地,愉快地 3、表示“被,用,以”,如: Cut it with a knife. 用刀把它切开。 The mountain is covered with snow all the year. 4、表示“有,带有” 如: some tea with milk 加奶的茶 a man with good manners 一个有礼貌的人

考点五 介词with的用法

【考点精练】
( ) 16. A conversation ________ a wise person is worth ten years’ study of books. A. for B. like C. with D. to ( ) 17. __________ all his pocket money, Dan bought a present for his mother on Mother’s Day. A. With B. For C. By D. In ( ) 18. —What can I do for you? —I hope I have a nice house ___________ a big garden. A. of B. with C. from D. about ( ) 19. —Who’s that man ____ sunglasses? —He’s Jack Ding. I’ve just got an autograph from him. A. on B. for C. of D. with ( ) 20. Ann often helps me ______ maths after school. A. for B. with C. on D. by

考点梳理

考点六 两组易混淆的介词短语 考点梳理 1. in the tree与 on the tree in the tree指外来的东西在树上 如: a kite in the tree; a bird in the tree on the tree指长在树上的东西 如:some apples on the tree, some flowers on the tree 2. in the wall与 on the wall in the wall 指镶嵌在墙体里的, 如: a window in the wall on the wall 指紧贴墙面的 如: some pictures on the wall; The blackboard in on the wall.

考点七 常见介词搭配
at the end of 在……尽头

考点梳理 by bike/bus 骑单
车;乘公汽 at the foot of 在……脚下

on the phocne 用电话

to one’s surprise使…惊 讶的是 at home 在 for example 例如 介 家 词 at breakfast 在 on foot 步行 + 吃早餐 名 立刻;in the end 最后; 词 at once 马上 终于 at last 最后; in/on time 及时, 终于 按时 on one’s way to without one’s help

in a hurry 匆 忙地
in front of 在……前面 in black 穿黑 色衣服 in this way 用 这种办法 in trouble 处 于困难中 with one’s

形 容 词 + 介 词

be angry with 生……气 be afraid of 害怕…… be covered with 被……覆盖 be ready for 为……做好准备 be strict with sb. 对某人要求严格 be strict in sth. 对某事要求严格 be worried about 担忧…… be glad to do sth. 高兴做……

考点梳理

be busy with 忙于…… be famous for 因……而出名 be famous as 作 为……而出名 be filled with 被……充满 be pleased with 对……感到高兴 be different from 与……不同 be good for 对……有好处

be bad for 对……有坏处 be good at 擅长…… be full of 被……充满 be late for 迟 到 be proud of 对……感到骄 傲/自豪 be interested in 对……感兴趣

arrive in/at 到达 regard…as 把……当作 agree with 同意

动 词 + 介 词

get to 到达 look at 看 think of 想起,认为 wait for 等待 hear from look after 收到……来信 照顾,照料 take care of worry about pay for 支付 照顾,照料 担心 come from来自于 laugh at 嘲笑 knock at 敲 talk about 谈论 turn up/down调高/低 ask for 请求 do/deal with leave…for listen to 听 处理,处置 离开……去 play with spend… on花费 think about 考虑 与……玩耍 get on/off prefer…to… look for 寻找 上/下车 宁可,更喜欢 turn on/off talk to/with knock into 打开/关上 与……交谈 撞倒

考点梳理

【备考策略】 考点梳理 中考中对介词的考查主要集中在对介 词的基本用法和固定搭配上,侧重考查在 具体语境中用介词有关的短语和句型的能 力,题型有单项、完形填空和短文填空等。 备考中要注意: 1. 注重平时的积累,多记介词用法、 介词短语、固定搭配和常用句型; 2. 注意意义相关或相近的介词辨析; 3. 结合具体的情景准确使用。


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