Unit1 School life
定语从句（1） 一、基本概念 （一） 定语从句 在复合句中作定语，修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 （二） 先行词 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。一般情况下，定语从句紧跟先行词。但也有因各种原因定 语从句与先行词被分割的现象。 （三）关系代词和关系副词 定语从句的引导词。与先行词关系密切，因此紧跟先行词，并在定语从句中充当一个成分。
关系代词有：who, whom, which, that 和 whose, 另外，as 也可充当关系代词。关系代词 在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、表语和定语。关系副词有：when, where 和 why。在定语从 句中充当状语。 二、关系代词的用法 （一）基本用法 根据先行词的不同，和在从句中所充当的成分不同，选用不同的关系代词。 如下表： 关系词 who 关 系 代 whom 词 人 宾语 The boy (whom) she loved died in the war. 略， 但介词提 前时后面关 先行词 人 语 with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I am working 和 that 在从 句中做宾语 时， 常可以省 从句成分 主语，宾 例句 Do you know the man who is talking 备注 whom, which
I like those books whose topics are about history. whose 人，物 定语 The boy whose father works abroad is my classmate. A plane is a machine that can fly. 主语，宾 that 人，物 语 to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was 主语，宾 which 物 语 The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected 主语，宾 as 人，物 语 This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. by all of us. worth $10. She is the pop star (that) I want
系代词不能 省略， 也不可 以用 that
as 做宾语一 般不省略
例如： （注意关系代词在定语从句中所充当的成分） ① Do you know the professor who/that will give us a speech next week? （作主语） ② I read a report about his new novel that/ which will soon be published. （作 主语） ③ The plan that/which they argued about was settled at last. （作宾语） （作
④ This is the new secretary (who/whom/that) I would like to introduce to you. 宾语） ⑤ The soldier whose legs were badly wounded was operated on without delay. 定语）
（二）关系代词 that 代替 which 的一些情况 which, that 在代替物时，一般可以通用。
但在有些情况下，只用 that。 ⑴ 先行词是最高级形容词或它的前面有最高级形容词修饰时。 例如： ① This is the best that has been used against pollution. ② English is the most difficult subject that you will learn during these years. ⑵ 先行词是序数词，或它前面有一个序数词时。 例如： ① This is the last place (that) I want to visit. ② It is the first American movie of this kind that I’ve ever seen. ⑶ 先行词是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none 等 代词时。 例如： ① You should hand in all that you have. ② We haven’t got much that we can offer you. ⑷ 先行词前面有 the only, the very, any, few, little, no, all, much, every 等修饰 时。 例如： ① The only thing that we can do is to give you some money. ② The little money (that) he had was stolen.
（三）宜用 who, 而不用 that 的一些情况 ⑴ 先行词是 one, ones, anyone 时。 例如： ① One who has nothing to fear for oneself dares to tell the truth. ② Don’t tell anyone about the news who oughtn’t to know it. ⑵先行词是 those 时。 例如： ① Those who were not fit for their work could not see the beautiful clothes made of the magic cloth.
（四）其它情况 ⑴ 先行词既有人又有物时。 例如： ① Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ② The bike and its rider that had run over an old man were taken to the police station. ⑵ 主句已有疑问词 who 或 which 时。 例如： ① Which is the bike that you lost? ② Who is the woman that was praised at the meeting?
（五）与 whose 有关的问题 ⑴ whose 是代词的所有格，它既可以代人也可以代物。 例如： ① I saw a woman whose bag was stolen. ② Please show me the book whose cover is red. ⑵ 当 whose 表示物与物的所有格关系时，亦可用 of which 的形式。 例如： ① The building whose roof you can see from here is a new restaurant. → The building, the roof of which you can see from here, is a new restaurant. 或 → The building, of which the roof you can see from here is a new restaurant.
三、介词前提的问题 关系代词在定语从句中充当介词宾语时，介词可以前提至关系代词前。 例如： Have you seen the pen (which) I wrote the note with just now? 的宾语） →Have you seen the pen with which I wrote the note just now? 但是，要注意的是： ⑴ 介词前提后，先行词是人或物，关系代词分别只能用 whom 和 which，而不再用 that 或 （which 作介词 with
who。 ⑵ 介词前提后，关系代词不再能省略。 ⑶ 有些含有介词的短语动词中的介词不能前提，如：look for, look after, take care of 等。 例如： ① 错误：Who is the old man to that you were talking to? 正确：Who is the old man to whom you were talking ? 或 Who is the old man (that/
whom) you were talking to?
② 错误：These are the sheep of which the boy took care. 正确：These are the sheep (which/that) the boy took care of.
四、关系代词在从句中作主语时，从句中的主谓一致 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时，从句的谓语动词在人称和数上应与先行词一致。 例如： ① Who is the guy that is reading over there? ② The number of people that are going to the exhibition is expected to be over 25,000. ③ All that needs to be done has been done. ④ He is one of the students who use computer a lot for study. ⑤ Timmy is the only one of the pupils that has failed the exam. 例③中的 all 意为“一切”，作单数。例⑤中没通过考试的学生事实上只有一人，因此谓语 动词也用单数。
that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别： 情况 只用 that 的 情况 用法说明 1． 先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, 例句 1. He told me everything that he knows.
等不定代词时。 2． 先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰 时 3． 先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰 时 4． 先行词既指人又指物时 5． 先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6． 句中已经有 who 或 which 时，为了避 免重复时
2. All the books that you offered have been given out. 3. This is the best film that I have ever read. 4. We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5. He is the only man that I want to see. 6. Who is the man that is making a speech?
1． 在非限制性定语从句中， 只能用 which 指代物，用 who/whom 指人 2． 在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语 只用 which, 从句中，只能用 which 指物，whom 指 who, whom 的 人。 情况 3． 先行词本身是 that 时，关系词用 which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时 多用 who。
1. He has a son, who has gone abroad for further study. 2. I like the person to whom the teacher is talking. 3. Those who respect others are usually respected by others.
二、语法知识拓展 （一）选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose，把下列句子补充完整。 1. Rice is a plant ________ is grown in the south. 2. Those ________ want to go please sign their names here. 3. All ________ glitters is not gold.
4. This is the only way 5. Both the girl and her dog car.
leads to your success. were crossing the street were hit by a coming
6. This is the biggest building ________we have ever built in our school. 7. This is the second school ________ I used to work at, and many students there still have contact with me. 8. There is a mountain ________ top is always covered with snow. 9. You can take any seat ________ is free. 10. Could you tell me from _________ you borrowed this book?
（二）用定语从句合并下列句子 1. The lady is a film star. You took a photo of the lady yesterday. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What’s the address of the factory? We noticed the advertisement of the factory the other day. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. This is the stadium He often goes to the stadium on Sundays. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. A professor is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. He has been working on environmental protection. _____________________________________________________________________
5. He hasn’t got enough money. He can buy a laptop with the money. _____________________________________________________________________
1. Who is the woman A. who 2. The doctor B. /
is sweeping the floor over there? C. that D. when
is leaving for Africa next month. B. whom the nurse is talking D. who the nurse is talking no one had ever heard. C. about that I lent to you? C. when D. whose D. who
A. the nurse is talking to him C. the nurse is talking to 3. He talked about a hero A. of whom B. from whom
4. Have you read the book A. that B. whom
5. American women usually identify their best friend as someone ______ they can talk frequently. A. who B. as C. about which was very low. C. its price D. whose D. with whom
6. Recently I bought a second-hand car A. which price B. the price of whose price
7. Lily, is Helen ______ you want to introduce me to? A. that B. who C. whom D. the girl
8. The professors talked with us about the beautiful schools and the experienced teachers ______ they had seen. A. that B. who C. which D. what
9. This is the only bus ______ goes to the village school. A. / B. that C. where D. it
10. Is there a shop around _______sells China Daily? A. who B. where C. in which D. which
11. She was the only one of the girls in our class _______ accepted as candidate for the president of our Students’ Union. A. who was C. who has been B. who were D. who have been
12. She is no longer the sweet little girl ______ she used to be. A. what B. who C. when D. that
13. Is this singer ______ songs you like best? A. who’s B. whose C. which D the one whose
14. He got angry with _____ was against his opinion. A. who B. whomever C. whoever D. no matter who
15. Anyone _____with what I said may raise your hand. A. which agrees B. who agree 16. That’s the dog ______. A. we’ve been looking after C. what we’ve been looking after B. after which we’ve been looking D. we’ve been taking care for C. who agrees D. which agree
17. This is the last time ______ I’ll give you a lesson. A. when B. that C. what D. as
18. The family _____ I stayed with in Paris are coming to London. A. whose B. which C. what D. whom
19. This is the very knife ______ I used to cut apples yesterday. A. that which 20. China has many rivers, _____ the Yangtze River is the longest.. A. which B. in which C. among which D. one of which B. by which C. which D. with
21. The use they are ______ the waste helps to save a lot of money. A. made of B. made from C. making up of D. making of
22. That tree, the branches ______ are almost bare, is a very old one. A. whose B. in which C. of which D. of it
23. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ______ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom
24. What is the way Smith thought of ______ enough money to buy the new house? A. getting B. having got C. being got D. to get
25. Jack spent as much time as he could ______ over his lessons. A. going B. went C. go D. to go
26. The freezing point is the temperature ______ water changes into ice. A. at which B. on that C. when D. of which
27. I am impressed by the fact that he makes good use of every minute _____ he can spare. A. that B. in which C. in that D. when
28. This is the last time ______ I will write to you. A. when B. that C. what D. as
29. I don’t like the way ______ he spoke to me. A. what B. by which C. by that D. /
30. The train ______ he was traveling was delayed for more than an hour. A. by which B. on which C. for which D. on that
（四）改错 1. Is this museum you visited a few days ago? ___________________________________________________________________ 2. The girl which is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. He rushed to help the man his car was trapped in the mud. ___________________________________________________________________ 4. All which is need is supply of oil. ___________________________________________________________________ 5. This is the best film which I have seen this year. ___________________________________________________________________ 6. The cake you made it yesterday was very delicious. ___________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you know the man wrote the letter? _____________________________________________________________________ 8. Who is the great man who saved my boy? _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Here are the patients after whom you will look. _____________________________________________________________________ 10. This is all the money with that he can buy a Christmas present for his mother.
参考答案 （一）选择适当的关系代词 that, which, who, whom 或 whose，把下列句子补充完整。 1. that/which 6. (that) 2. who 3. that 8. whose 4. that 9. that 5. that 10. whom
（二）用定语从句合并下列句子 1. The lady (that/who/whom) you took a photo of yesterday is a film star. 2. What’s the address of the factory whose advertisement we noticed the other day? 3. This is the stadium he often goes to on Sundays. 4. A professor who/that has been working on environmental protection is going to give us a speech this Friday afternoon. 5. He hasn’t got enough money with which he can buy a laptop.
（三）单项填空 1-5 CCAAD 6-10 DDABD 26-30 AABDB 11-15 AD DCC 16-20 ABDAC 21-25 DCDDA
（四）改错 1. Is this the museum you visited a few days ago? 或者 Is this museum the one you visited a few days ago? 2. The girl who/that is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. 3. He rushed to help the man whose car was trapped in the mud. 4. All that is need is supply of oil. 5. This is the best film (that) I have seen this year. 6. The cake you made yesterday was very delicious.
7. Do you know the man who/that wrote the letter? 8. Who is the great man that saved my boy? 9. Here are the patients whom you will look after. 10. This is all the money with which he can buy a Christmas present for his mother.