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PART I

LISTENING COMPREHENSION (35 MIN)

Section A Mini-lecture

In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture once onl y. While liste

ning, take notes on the important points. You notes will not be market, but you will need them to complete a gap-filling task for after the mi ni- lecture. When the lecture is over, you will be given two minutes to check your notes, and another ten minutes to complete the gap-filling task on Answe r sheet one. Use the blank sheet for note- tanking.

Section B interview In this section you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then a nswer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your colored answer sheet. Questions 1 to 5 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 10 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the following five questions. Now listen to the interview 1.According to Nigel, most problems of air travel are caused by A. Unfavorable weather conditions. B. Airports handling capacity. C. Inadequate ticketing service. D. Overbooking. 2. which of the following is not mentioned as compensation for volunteers for the next fight out?

A. Free ticket. B Free phone call C Cash reward D Seat reservation 3. Why does Niget suggest that business travelers avoid big airports? A Because all flights in and out of there are full. B. Because the volume of traffic is heavy. C. Because there are more popular flights. D. Because there are more delays and cancellations. 4. According to Nigel, inexperience travelers are likely to make the following mistakes except. A Booking on less popular flights. B. buying tickets at full price. C. carrying excessive luggage. D. planning long business trips. 5. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? A. The possibility of discounts depends on a travel agent’s volume of business. B. Longer flights to the same destination maybe cheaper. C. It is advisable to plan every detail of a trip in advance. D. Arranging for stopovers can avoid overnight travel.

SECTION C NEWS BROACAST

In this section you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then a nswer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on

your coloured answer sheet.

Question 6 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news. 6 what happened on Monday? A. A train crash occurred causing minor injuries. B. Investigator found out the cause of the accident. C Crews rescued more passengers from the site.

D A commuter train crashed into a building. Question 7 and 8 are based on the following news. At the end of the news it em, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions.

Which of the following was not on the agenda of the G20 meeting? A. Iraq debts B. WTO talks C. Financial disasters D. Possible sanctions 8. The G20 is a(n)________ organization. A. International B European C Regional D Asian

Question 9 and 10 are based on the following news. At the end of the news i tem, you will be given 20 seconds to answer the questions 9 The UN Charter went into effect after A It was signed by the 50 original member countries. B It was approved by the founders and other member countries. C It was approved by the founding members D It was signed by the founding members.

10. Which of the following best describe the role of the charter? A. The Charter only describes powers of the UN bodies. B The Charter mainly aims to promote world economy. C The charter is a treaty above all other treaties. D The charter authorizes reforms in UN bodies.

Part2 Reading Comprehension (30min)
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multi ple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your c oloured answer sheet.

Text A The Welsh language has always been the ultimate marker of Welsh identity, b ut a generation ago it looked as if Welsh would go the way of Manx. once w idely spoken on the isle of Man but now extinct. Government financing and c entral planning, however, have helped reverse the decline of Welsh. Road signs and official public documents are written in both Welsh and English, and sch

oolchildren are required to learn both languages. Welsh is now one of the mos t successful of Europe’s regional languages, spoken by more than a half-millio n of the country’s three million people. The revival of the language, particularly among young people, is part of a res urgence of national identity sweeping through this small, proud nation. Last mo nth Wales marked the second anniversary of the opening of the National Asse mbly, the first parliament to be convened here since 1404. The idea behind de volution was to restore the balance within the union of nations making up the United Kingdom. With most of the people and wealth, England has always h ad bragging rights. The partial transfer of legislative powers from Westminster, implemented by Tony Blair, was designed to give the other members of the club- Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales-a bigger say and to counter centrif ugal forces that seemed to threaten the very idea of the union. The Welsh showed little enthusiasm for devolution. Whereas the Scots voted o verwhelmingly for a parliament, the vote for a Welsh assembly scraped throug h by less than one percent on a turnout of less than 25 percent. Its powers w ere proportionately limited. The Assembly can decide how money from Westmi nster or the European Union is spent. It cannot, unlike its counterpart in Edinb urgh, enact laws. But now that it is here, the Welsh are growing to like their Assembly. Many people would like it to have more powers. Its importance as figurehead will grow with the opening in 2003, of a new debating chamber, o ne of many new buildings that are transforming Cardiff from a decaying seapo rt into a Baltimore-style waterfront city. Meanwhile a grant of nearly two milli on dollars from the European Union will tackle poverty. Wales is one of the

poorest regions in Western Europe- only Spain, Portugal, and Greece have a lo wer standard of living. Newspapers and magazines are filled with stories about great Welsh men and women, boosting self-esteem. To familiar faces such as Dylan Thomas and Ric hard Burton have been added new icons such as Catherine Zeta-Jones, the mo vie star, and Bryn Terfel, the opera singer. Indigenous foods like salt marsh la mb are in vogue. And Wales now boasts a national airline. Awyr Cymru. Cy mru, which means “land of compatriots,” is the Welsh name for Wales. The r ed dragon, the nation’s symbol since the time of King Arthur, is everywhereon T-shirts, rugby jerseys and even cell phone covers. “Until very recent times most Welsh people had this feeling of being second-cl ass citizens,” said Dyfan Jones, an 18-year-old student. It was a warm summer night, and I was sitting on the grass with a group of young people in Llanell i, an industrial town in the south, outside the rock music venue of the Nationa l Eisteddfod, Wales’s annual cultural festival. The disused factory in front of u s echoed to the sounds of new Welsh bands. “There was almost a genetic tendency for lack of confidence,” Dyfan continue d. Equally comfortable in his Welshness as in his membership in the English-s peaking, global youth culture and the new federal Europe, Dyfan, like the rest of his generation, is growing up with a sense of possibility unimaginable ten years ago. “We used to think. We can’t do anything, we’re only Welsh. Now I think that’s changing.”

11. According to the passage, devolution was mainly meant to A. maintain the present status among the nations.

B. reduce legislative powers of England. C. create a better state of equality among the nations. D. grant more say to all the nations in the union. 12. The word “centrifugal” in the second paragraph means A. separatist. B. conventional. C. feudal. D. political. 13. Wales is different from Scotland in all the following aspects EXCEPT A. people’s desire for devolution. B. locals’ turnout for the voting. C. powers of the legislative body. D. status of the national language. 14. Which of the following is NOT cited as an example of the resurgence of Welsh national identity? A. Welsh has witnessed a revival as a national language. B. Poverty-relief funds have come from the European Union. C. A Welsh national airline is currently in operation. D. The national symbol has become a familiar sight. 15. According to Dyfan Jones what has changed is A. people’s mentality. B. pop culture. C. town’s appearance. D. possibilities for the people.

Text B Getting to the heart of Kuwaiti democracy seems hilariously easy. Armed on ly with a dog-eared NEWSWEEK ID, I ambled through the gates of the Natio nal Assembly last week. Unscanned, unsearched, my satchel could easily have held the odd grenade or an anthrax-stuffed lunchbox. The only person who sto pped me was a guard who grinned and invited me to take a swig of orange j uice from his plastic bottle. Were I a Kuwaiti woman wielding a ballot, I would have been a clearer and more present danger. That very day Parliament blocked a bill giving women th e vote; 29 M.P.s voted in favour and 29 against, with two abstentions. Unable to decide whether the bill had passed or not, the government scheduled anoth er vote in two weeks- too late for women to register for June’s municipal elec tions. The next such elections aren’t until 2009. Inside the elegant, marbled Parliament itself, a sea of mustachioed men in whit e robes sat in green seats, debating furiously. The ruling emir has pushed for women’s political rights for years. Ironically, the democratically elected legislat ure has thwarted him. Traditionalists and tribal leaders are opposed. Liberals fr et, too, that Islamists will let their multiple wives vote, swelling conservative r anks. “When I came to Parliament today, people who voted yes didn’t even sh ake hands with me,” said one Shia clerc. “Why can’t we respect each other a nd work together?” Why not indeed? By Gulf standards, Kuwait is a democratic superstar. Its citiz ens enjoy free speech (as long as they don’t insult their emir, naturally) and b oast a Parliament that can actually pass laws. Unlike their Saudi sisters, Kuwai

ti women drive, work and travel freely. They run multibillion-dollar businesses and serve as ambassadors. Their academic success is such that colleges have actually lowered the grades required for make students to get into medical and engineering courses. Even then, 70 percent of university students are females. In Kuwait, the Western obsession with the higab finds its equivalent. At a fan cy party for NEWSWEEK’s Arabic edition, some Kuwaiti women wore them. Others opted for tight, spangled, sheer little numbers in peacock blue or parrot orange. For the party’s entertainment, Nancy Ajram, the Arab world’s answer to Britney Spears, sang passionate songs of love in a white mini-dress. She c ouldn’t dance for us, alas, since shaking one’s body onstage is illegal in Kuwa it. That didn’t stop whole tables of men from raising their camera-enabled mo bile phones and clicking her picture. You’d think not being able to vote or dance in public would anger Kuwait’s younger generation of women. To find out, I headed to the malls-Kuwait’s arc hipelago of civic freedom. Eager to duck Strict parents and the social taboos o f dating in public. young Kuwaitis have taken to cafes, beaming flirtatious infr ared e-mails to one another on their cell photos. At Starbucks in the glittering Al Sharq Mall, I found only tables of men, puffing cigarettes and grumbling about the service .At Pizza Hut, I thought I’d got an answer after encountering a young woman who looked every inch the modern suffragette—drainpipe jea ns, strappy sliver high-heeled sandals and a higab studded with purple rhinesto nes. But, no, Miriam Al-Enizi, 20,studying business administration at Kuwait U niversity, doesn’t think women need the vote.” Men are better at politics than women,” she explained, adding that women in Kuwait already have everything they need. Welcome to democracy, Kuwait style.

16. According to the passage, which of the following groups of people might be viewed as being dangerous by the guards? A. Foreign tourists. B. Women protestors. C. Foreign journalists. D. Members of the National Assembly. 17. The bill giving women the vote did not manage to pass because A.. Different interest groups held different concerns. B.. Liberals did not reach consensus among themselves. C. Parliament was controlled by traditionalists. D...Parliament members were all conservatives. 18. What is the role of the 4th and 5th paragraphs in the development of the topic? A. To show how Kuwaiti women enjoy themselves. B. To describe how women work and study in Kuwait. C. To provide a contrast to the preceding paragraphs. D. To provide a contrast to the preceding paragraphs. 19. Which of the following is NOT true about young Kuwaiti women? A. They seem to be quite contented. B. They go in for Western fashions. C. They desire more than modern necessities. D. They favour the use of hi-tech products. Text C Richard, King of England from 1189 to 1199, with all his characteristic virtues and faults cast in a heroic mould, is one of the most fascinating medieval fig

ures. He has been described as the creature and embodiment of the age of chi valry, In those days the lion was much admired in heraldry, and more than on e king sought to link himself with its repute. When Richard's contemporaries c alled him" Coeur de Lion"(The Lion heart), they paid a lasting compliment to the king of beasts. Little did the English people owe him for his services, and heavily did they pay for his adventures. He was in England only twice for a few short months in his ten years' reign; yet his memory has always English hearts, and seems to present throughout the centuries the pattern of the fighti ng man. In all deeds of prowess as well as in large schemes of war Richard shone. He was tall and delicately shaped strong in nerve and sinew, and most dexterous in arms. He reioiced in personal combat, and regarded his opponents without malice as necessary agents in his fame He loved war, not so much f or the sake of glory or political ends, but as other men love science or poetry, for the excitement of the struggle and the glow of victory. By this his whole temperament was toned; and united with the highest qualities of the military commander, love of war called forth all the powers of his mind and body. Although a man of blood and violence, Richard was too impetuous to be eithe r treacherous on habitually cruel. He was as ready to forgive as he was hasty to offend; he was open-handed and munificent to profusion; in war circumspect in design and skilful in execution; in political a child, lacking in subtlety and experience. His political alliances were formed upon his likes and dislikes; his political schemes had neither unity nor clearness of purpose. The advantages gained for him by military geoids were flung away through diplomatic ineptitu de. When, on the jou they to the East, Messina in Sicily was won by his arm s he was easily persuaded to share with his polished, faithless ally, Philip Aug

ustus, fruits of a victory which more wisely used might have foiled the French King's artful schemes. The rich and tenable acquisition of Cyprus was cast a way even more easily than it was won. His life was one magnificent parade, which, when ended, left only an empty plain. In 1199, when the difficulties of raising revenue for the endless war were at their height, good news was brou ght to King Richard. It was said there had been dug up near the castle of Ch aluz, on the lands of one of his French vassals, a treasure of wonderful qualit y; a group of golden images of an emperor, his wife, sons and daughters, seat ed round a table, also of gold, had been unearthed. The King claimed this trea sure as lord paramount. The lord of Chaluz resisted the demand, and the King laid siege to his small, weak castle. On the third day, as he rode daringly, n ear the wall. confident in his hard-tried luck, a bolt from a crossbow struck hi m in the left shoulder by the neck. The wound, already deep, was aggravated by the necessary cutting out of the arrow-head. Gangrene set in, and Coeur de Lion knew that he must pay a soldier’s debt. He prepared for death with fort itude and calm, and in accordance with the principles he had followed. He arr anged his affairs, he divided his personal belongings among his friends or beq ueathed them to charity. He declared John to be his heir, and made all present swear fealty to him. He ordered the archer who had shot the fatal bolt, and who was now a prisoner, to be brought before him. He pardoned him, and ma de him a gift of money. For seven years he had not confessed for fear of bei ng compelled to be reconiled to Philip, but now he received the offices of the Church with sincere and exemplary piety, and died in the forty-second year o f his age on April 6, 1199, worthy, by the consent of all men, to sit with Ki ng Arthur and Roland and other heroes of martial romance at some Eternal ro

und Table, which we trust the Creator of the Universe in His comprehension will not have forgotten to provide. The archer was flayed alive. 20 “ little did the English people own him for his service” (paragraph one) m eans that the English A. paid few taxes to him. B C gave him little respect. received little protection from him.

D had no real cause to feel grateful to him. 21. To say that his wife was a “ magnificent parade’( paragraph Two) implies that it was to some extent. A . spent chiefly at war. B impressive and admirable. C lived too pompously D. an empty show. 22. Richard’s behaviour as death approached showed.\ A. bravery and self-control. B. Wisdom and correctness C. Devotion and romance D. Chivalry and charity 23. The point of the last short paragraph is that Richard was A. cheated by his own successors B. determined to take revenge on his enemies. C. more generous to his enemies than his successors. D unable to influence the behavior of his successors.

24. Which of the following phrase best describes Richard as seen by the auth or? A. An aggressive king, too fond of war. B. A brave king with minor faults. C A competent but cunning soldier.

D A kind with great political skills. 25. The relationship between the first and second paragraphs is that A. each presents one side of the picture. B. the first generalizes the second gives examples. C. the second is the logical result of the first. D. both present Richard’s virtues and faults.

TEXT D The miserable fate of Enron’s employees will be a landmark in business histor y, one of those awful events that everyone agrees must never be allowed to h appen again. This urge is understandable and noble: thousands have lost virtual ly all their retirement savings with the demise of Enron stock. But making sur e it never happens again may not be possible, because the sudden impoverish ment of those Enron workers represents something even larger than it seems. I t’s the latest turn in the unwinding of one of the most audacious promise of t he 20th century. The promise was assured economic security-even comfort- for essentially ever yone in the developed world. With the explosion of wealth, that began in the 19th century it became possible to think about a possibility no one had dared to dream before. The fear at the center of daily living since caveman days- la

ck of food warmth, shelter- would at last lose its power to terrify. That remar kable promise became reality in many ways. Governments created welfare syste ms for anyone in need and separate programmers for the elderly (Social Securi ty in the U.S.). Labour unions promised not only better pay for workers but al so pensions for retirees. Giant corporations came into being and offered the po ssibility- in some cases the promise- of lifetime employment plus guaranteed p ensions. The cumulative effect was a fundamental change in how millions of p eople approached life itself, a reversal of attitude that most rank as one of the largest in human history. For millennia the average person’s stance toward pr oviding for himself had been. Ultimately I’m on my own. Now it became, Ult imately I’ll be taken care of. The early hints that this promise might be broken on a large scale came in th e 1980s. U.S. business had become uncompetitive globally and began restructur ing massively, with huge Layoffs. The trend accelerated in the 1990s as the ba stions of corporate welfare faced reality. IBM ended it’s no-layoff policy. AT& T fired thousands, many of whom found such a thing simply incomprehensible, and a few of whom killed themselves. The other supposed guarantors of our economic security were also in decline. Labour-union membership and power f ell to their lowest levels in decades. President Clinton signed a historic bill sc aling back welfare. Americans realized that Social Security won’t provide socia l security for any of us. A less visible but equally significant trend a affected pensions. To make costs easier to control, companies moved away from defined benefit pension plans, which obligate them to pay out specified amounts years in the future, to defin ed contribution plans, which specify only how much goes into the play today.

The most common type of defined-contribution plan is the 401(k). the significa nce of The 401(k) is that it puts most of the responsibility for a person’s eco nomic fate back on the employee. Within limits the employee must decide ho w much goes into the plan each year and how it gets invested- the two factor s that will determine how much it’s worth when the employee retires. Which brings us back to Enron? Those billions of dollars in vaporized retirem ent savings went in employees’ 401(k) accounts. That is, the employees chose how much money to put into those accounts and then chose how to invest it. Enron matched a certain proportion of each employee’s 401(k) contribution wit h company stock, so everyone was going to end up with some Enron in his o r her portfolio; but that could be regarded as a freebie, since nothing compels a company to match employee contributions at all. At least two special feature s complicate the Enron case. First, some shareholders charge top management with illegally covering up the company’s problems, prompting investors to han g on when they should have sold. Second, Enron’s 401(k) accounts were locke d while the company changed plan administrators in October, when the stock was falling, so employees could not have closed their accounts if they wanted to. But by far the largest cause of this human tragedy is that thousands of emplo yees were heavily overweighed in Enron stock. Many had placed 100% of thei r 401(k) assets in the stock rather than in the 18 other investment options they were offered. Of course that wasn’t prudent, but it’s what some of them did. The Enron employees’’ retirement disaster is part of the larger trend away fro m guaranteed economic security. That’s why preventing such a thing from ever happening again may be impossible. The huge attitudinal shift to I’ll-be-taken-

care-of took at least a generation. The shift back may take just as long. It wo n’t be complete until a new generation of employees see assured economic co mfort as a 20th- century quirk, and understand not just intellectually but in the ir bones that, like most people in most times and places, they’re on their own.

26. why does the author say at the beginning “The miserable fate of Enron’s employees will be a landmark in business history…”? A. Because the company has gone bankrupt. B. Because such events would never happen again. C. Because many Enron workers lost their retirement savings. D. Because it signifies a turning point in economic security. 27. According to the passage, the combined efforts by governments, layout uni ons and big corporations to guarantee economic comfort have led to a significa nt change in A. people’s outlook on life. B. people’s life styles. C. people’s living standard D. people’s social values. 28. Changes in pension schemes were also part of A. the corporate lay-offs. B. the government cuts in welfare spending. C. the economic restructuring. D. the warning power of labors unions. 29. Thousands of employees chose Enron as their sole investment option mainl y because

A. The 401(k) made them responsible for their own future. B. Enron offered to add company stock to their investment. C. their employers intended to cut back on pension spending. D. Enron’s offer was similar to a defined-benefit plan. 30. Which is NOT seen as a lesson drawn from the Enron disaster? A. 401(k) assets should be placed in more than one investment option. B. Employees have to take up responsibilities for themselves. C. Such events could happen again as it is not easy to change people’s mind. D. Economic security won’t be taken for granted by future young workers.

PART Ⅲ GENERAL KNOWLEDGE(10 MIN) 31. The majority of the current population in the UK are decedents of all the following tribes respectively EXCEPT A. the Anglos B. the Celts C. the Jutes √ D. the Saxons 32. The Head of State of Canada is represented by A. the Monarch B. the President C. the Prime Minister D. the Governor-general √ 33. The Declaration of Independence was written by A. Thomas Jefferson √

B. George Washington C. Alexander Hamilton D. James Madison 34. The original inhabitants of Australia were A. the Red Indians B. the Eskimos C. the Aborigines √ D. the Maoris 35. Which of the following novels was written by Emily Bronte? A. Oliver Twist B. Middlemarch C. Jane Eyre D. Wuthering Heights √ 36. William Butler Yeats was a(n) ______ poet and playwright. A. American B. Canadian C. Irish √ D. Australian 37. Death of a Salesman was written by A. Arthur Miller √ B. Ernest Hemingway C. Ralph Ellison D. James Baldwin 38. _______ refers to the study of the internal structure of words and the rule s of word formation.

A. Phonology B. Morphology √ C. Semantics D. Sociolinguistics 39. The distinctive features of a speech variety may be all the following EXC EPT A. lexical B. syntactic C. phonological D. psycholinguistic √ 40. The word tail once referred to “the tail of a horse”, but now it is used to mean “the tail of any animal.” This is an example of A. widening of meaning √ B. narrowing of meaning C. meaning shift D. loss of meaning

PART V TRANSLATION(60 MIN) SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your tra nslation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. 暮色中, 河湾里落满云霞, 与天际的颜色混合一起, 分不清哪是流云哪是水湾。 也就在这一幅绚烂的图画旁边,在河湾之畔,一群羊正在低头觅食。它们几乎 没有一个顾得上抬起头来,看一眼这美丽的黄昏。也许它们要抓紧时间,在即将

回家的最后一刻再次咀嚼。这是黄河滩上的一幕。牧羊人不见了,他不知在何处 歇息。只有这些美生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄昏。这儿水草肥美,让它们长得 肥滚滚的,像些胖娃娃。如果走近了,会发现它们那可爱的神情,洁白的牙齿, 那丰富而单纯的表情。 如果稍稍长久一点端详这张张面庞, 还会生出无限的怜悯。 参考译文: Beside this picture with profusions of colors, a group of sheep are l owing their heads, eating by the river bank. Hardly none of them would spare some time to raise their eyes to have a glance at the beautiful dusk. They ar e, perhaps, taking use of every minute to enjoy their last chew before being d riven home. This is a picture of the Yellow River bank, in which the shepher d disappears, and no one knows where he is resting himself. Only the sheep, however, as free creatures, are joyfully appreciating the dusk. The exuberant w ater plants have nutrited the sheep, making them grow as fat as balls. When a pproaching near, you would find their lily-white teeth and a variety of innocen t facial impressions.

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE. Scientific and technological advances are enabling us to comprehend the furthes t reaches of the cosmos, the most basic constituents of matter, and the miracle of life. 科技进步正在使我们能够探索宇宙的边陲、物质最基本的成分及生命的奇迹。

At the same time, today, the actions, and inaction, of human beings imperil no t only life on the planet, but the very life of the planet.?

与此同时, 今天, 人类所做的及没能做到的事情, 不仅危害到这个星球上的生命, 也危害到该星球的寿命。

Globalization is making the world smaller, faster and richer. Still, 9/11, avian f lu, and Iran remind us that a smaller, faster world is not necessarily a safer w orld. 全球化正在使地球变得愈来愈小、愈来愈快和愈来愈富有。尽管如此,9/11、禽 流感及伊朗提醒我们,更小更快的世界决不意味着其更安全。 Our world is bursting with knowledge - but desperately in need of wisdom. N ow, when sound bites are getting shorter, when instant messages crowd out ess ays, and when individual lives grow more crazy, college graduates capable of deep reflection are what our world needs. 我们正处于一个知识爆炸的世界之中,不过,迫切需要智慧。现在,在(新闻采 访的)原声摘要播出变得愈来愈短,即时信息淘汰了杂记文,个人生活变得如痴 如狂之际,这个世界还是需要能够深思的大学生。

For all these reasons I believed - and I believe even more strongly today - in the unique and irreplaceable mission of universities. 考虑到这些理由,我过去信仰,而今天甚至更加强烈地信仰大学独特的、无可取 代的使命。

PART VI 改错题:(含参考答案) From what has been said, it must be clear that no one can make every positiv

e statements about how language originated. There is no material in any langu age today and in the earliest (1)___and 改成 or ___records of ancient languages show us language in a new and (2)___shows 改成 showing ___emerging state. It is often said, of course, that the language (3)___去掉 the ___originated in cries of anger, fear, pain and pleasure, and the necessary evid ence is entirely lacking: there are no remote tribes, no ancient (4)___第 2 个 an d 改成 but ___records, providing evidence of a language with a large proportion of such c ries than we find in English. It is true that the absence (5)___large 改成 larger ___of such evidence does not disprove the theory, but in other grounds too th e theory is not very attractive. People of all races and languages (6)___disprov e 改成 prove ___make rather similar noises in return to pain or pleasure. The fact thatsuch noises are similar on the lips of Frenchmen and Malaysians (7)___return 改成 r esponse ___whose languages are utterly different, serves to emphasize on the fundament al difference between these noises and language proper. We may say that the cries of pain or chortles of amusement are (8)___去掉 on ___ largely reflex actions, instinctive to large extent, whereas language proper (9)___to 与 large 中间加个 a ___does not consist of signs but of these that have to be learnt and that are wholly conventional. (10)___these 改成 those___


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