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【走向高考·2015】高考一轮总复习(外研版 天津·山东):写作进行时8


写作进行时(八)

开放式作文

传统的书面表达,是一种控制性写作,即通过要点提示、表格、 图画等限定内容、人称、时态、字数、文体等。 自由发挥的空间不 大,在一定程度上局限了学生思维、想象等能力发挥的空间。开放式 作文则不同,它往往给学生一定的素材或主题,让学生在此基础上自 由发挥,自由创作,不受“文体形式,内容要点”的限制,甚至不受 短

文词数的限定。这种“开放作文”难度更大,要求也更高。因为它 只给出文章的主题(topic),具体内容完全由学生来发挥。它不但考查 学生的英语语言运用能力,同时也考查学生的认识水平、思想方法等 综合素质,而且对学生的想象能力、发散思维能力、归纳判断能力和 思辨能力提出了更高的要求。 开放式作文常考文体有两种,一为记叙文,一为论说文。记 叙文常给出学生一段材料,然后要求学生充分发挥想象,拓展原材料 内容,运用逻辑推理的方法,沿着材料的纵横方向延伸,给故事添加 开头、结尾及中间过程。论说文要求学生根据所提供的材料,谈谈自 己的观点和看法。考生要灵活处理所给材料,做到综合分析,辩证思 考,归纳要点,提炼观点,力求论点合理,论据充分,论证周密。 开放式作文的写作要注意以下几个问题: 1.立意选材 传统的“书面表达”题,要求书写的内容都由试题所决定,无需 考生自己编拟。而“开放作文”需考生根据试题所提示的要求立意, 确定文章的中心思想。立意与选材是互为联系的两方面。立意决定选 材, 选材服从立意。 作为习作或是考试, 立意首先决定于试题的要求。 立意的基础是审题,要认真读题,确实掌握命题要求。所以这类作文 既有开放性,又有所限制。
[来源:学&科 &网]

2.谋篇布局 确定了文章的主题思想,选定相应的材料之后,就应考虑如何安 排这些材料,要做到脉络清楚,有条不紊。最好拟个提纲,明确前后 主次,切忌心中无数,边想边写,以至颠三倒四,杂乱无章。 3.遣词造句
[来源:学科网]

在遣词造句上,切忌一面用汉语思考,一面“翻译”为英语。这 样,很容易写成“中国式英语”。应该尽可能运用自己熟悉的单词、 短语和句型、句式来表达思想。不要使用自己不熟悉、没有把握的词 语和语法现象,但也不能“因噎废食”,过分小心,为了保险不敢充 分发挥自己的所长。 [典题示例] 某校英文报开辟了一个专栏:Experience。本期话题是如何解决 学习中遇到的困难。 请你以“My Approach to Difficulties in Learning” 为题,用英语写一篇短文,谈谈自己的一些做法。 注意: 1.词数 100 左右; 2.短文中不能出现本人相 关信息。 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ___________ ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _________________________________________ ______________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 参考范文: My Approach to Difficulties in Learning As high school students, we run into one difficulty after another in the process of learning.Everyone has their own way to deal with them.Here I would like to share mine. When I am faced with a difficulty, I usually choose to refer to relevant learning materials on Web pages.In this way, I can not only work it out but also improve my ability to overcome problems all by myself. However, when it is something beyond my competence, I turn to my classmates or teachers for help.Sometimes I also ask my parents for advice.As a result, I have made steady progress in my studies. 露一小手 Ⅰ(2013· 北京) 请根据下面的提示, 写一篇短文。 词数不少于 50。

You are discussing the following picture with your English friend Jim. Now you are telling him how you understand the picture and what makes you think so. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 参考译文: I think the picture is telling us that there is usually a difference between one's dream and reality.People need to learn to face it.Everyone has his dream.However, it is not so easy for people to realize their dream every time.Just like the man in the picture, instead of the big fish he wishes for,he actually catches a small one.In my opinion,people should learn to accept the reality and keep on trying. With another try, they may gain what they dream of. Ⅱ(2013· 湖南) 请以下列词语为关键词写一篇英语短文。 match 内容: 1.自己或他人的一次经历; 2.你的感受。 注意:
[来源:学科网] [来源:学科网 ZXXK]

winner

loser

result

1.必须使用所给 4 个关键词; 2.词数不少于 120; 3.不能使用真实姓名和学校名称。 _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ ____________________________ ___________________________ 参考译文: Our class had a tennis match with Class 2 last week. When it was my turn to perform, I was so nervous at first that I lost the match in the first two rounds. During the break my teacher helped me and I tried to calm down. Soon I was OK. And I won the rest rounds, as a result, I was the winner at last. What an unforgettable experience for me! I've learned from the experience that there are no winners or losers in our life. Although we lose at a time, it doesn't mean we are a loser. As is known to all, failure is the mother of success. If we can cheer up and work harder, the winner of the next year will be us, we can win the final game in our life, and the final winner is the real winner. Ⅲ(2013· 湖北) 请根据以下提示,并结合事例,用英语写一篇短文。 We all know that “sticks and stones may break our bones”, but we should also be aware that words can hurt people, too. 注意:①无须写标题,不得照抄英语提示语; ②除诗歌外,文体不限; ③文中不得透露个人姓名和学校名称; ④词数为 120 左右。 ______ _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ __________ _____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 参考译文: My deskmate admires my fluent English very much and I usually feel encouraged by his compliments.
[来源:Zxxk.Com]

One day, when we learned the new word “eccentric” in class, we were asked to make a sentence with it. I volunteered to d o it by saying “My deskmate is an eccentric boy whose clothes never fit him.” Hearing this, the whole class burst into laughter and my deskmate's face turned red. After class, I learned from the teacher that my deskmate would have dropped out of school if he hadn't been helped by others. My mindless words must have hurt him deeply. Not until then did I realize words could be powerful in both positive and negative ways. We should avoid hurting others if we can't always be encouraging when we speak. Ⅳ(2013· 浙江) 请以“One Thing I'm Proud of” 为题,用英语写一篇 100120 个 词的短文,记述一件你自己认为得意的事情。要求如下: 1.记述事情经过; 2.简要说明你感到得意的原因或从中得到的启示。 注意:文章的标题已给出(不计词数)。 One Thing I'm Proud of _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 参考译文: I can remember how I become a good table tennis player. The first day I went to high school, I saw some of my classmates playing table tennis, Amazed at how skillful they were, I was determined to be as good. Later on, I often watched them carefully to learn their techniques. Then I kept practicing until I became confident enough to challenge the good pla yers. At the end of the term, I became one of the best players in my class. I am really proud of this experience, because it helps me realise that we all can fulfill our potential and achieve our goals through hard work. It also helps me better understand the proverb“Practice makes perfect”.


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