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unit two communication problem


Unit two communication problem

? We all communicate with others all the time in our homes, in our classes, in the groups we belong to, and in the community. No matter how well we

think we understand each other, communication is hard. Just think, for example, how often we hear things like, "He doesn't get it," or "She didn't really hear what I meant to say."
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? "Culture" is often at the root of communication challenges. culture is central to what we see, how we make sense of what we see, and how we express ourselves. ? Culture is a complex concept, with many different definitions. But, simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world. It includes groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, or national origin. It also includes groups we join or become part of.
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? As people from different cultural groups communicate, cultural values sometimes conflict. We can misunderstand each other, and react in ways that can hinder what are otherwise promising partnerships. Oftentimes, we aren't aware that culture is acting upon us. Sometimes, we are not even aware that we have cultural values or assumptions that are different from others! Therefore, it is important to keep an open mind about such differences so we can reduce the probability for communication breakdown
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? The importance of language to intercultural communication is most obvious when cultures speak different languages. Yet, differences in meaning across culture can be just as significant when each culture uses the same language.

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? All of us have different styles of communicating with other people. Our style depends on a lot of things: where we're from, how and where we were brought up, our educational background, our age, and it also can depend on our gender. ? Generally speaking, men and women talk differently. Communication between men and women can be like cross cultural communication.

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? Gender exerts a powerful influence on all facets of human communication and raises many profound social issues. How does our gender affect us in everyday interactions? ? Do you ever have the feeling that the other gender is speaking a foreign language
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? During the 1990s there has been a fashion for popular psychology books about gender, language and communication. Bestsellers in this field include John Gray's Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus. ? What these books argue, is that women and men have communicational styles so divergent as to make misunderstanding between the sexes a routine cause of conflict and unhappiness. ? The assertion that men and women communicate in different ways, about different things, and for different reasons seems to go un-argued and is accepted as true by a vast majority of Americans.
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? One of the most traditional hypothesis essentially points to differences in brain structure, hormones, and socialization as the cause of such an enormous gender gap in communication. ? Now, scientists throughout the world are working to learn more about gender differences in communication, and much has been discovered since the days of Mars & Venus.

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? The styles that men and women use to communicate have been described as "debate vs. relate", "report vs. rapport, or "competitive vs. cooperative". ? The basic uses of conversation by women are to establish and support intimacy; while for men it is to acquire status. These styles and motives for communicating represent different cultural upbringings, and one is not necessarily better than the other.
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? As we have seen, traditionally women's conversation is less formal, less argumentative, and more concerned with feelings than men's conversation. Intuitive conclusions are therefore more acceptable in an all-female group. ? Men, on the other hand, are expected to argue more, and to argue more logically, presenting evidence in a systematic way to back up their conclusions. It is less socially acceptable in an all-male conversation (or a conversation where the men are doing most of the talking) to say "Well guys, I don't know why, but I just get this kind of feeling that e=mc2."
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? Women see talk as the essence of a relationship while men use talk to exert control, preserve independence, and enhance status. ? Men tend to use “report talk” to convey information and self-importance, while women tend to use “rapport talk” to establish intimacy and connection. ? Men often seek straightforward solutions to problems and useful advice whereas women tend to try and establish intimacy by discussing problems and showing concern and empathy in order to reinforce relationships.
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? Women will then see men as self-centered and domineering, while men will then see women as illogical and insecure. ? Men will accuse women of asking for advice and then not taking it, of rambling on about nothing, and of being unable to make decisions. Women will accuse men of not listening, invalidating their feelings, and always stepping in to solve problems with a lot of "you shoulds."
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? men are often accused of being too "cold" and "logical", not because there is anything wrong with their ideas, but because they do not understand the unspoken rules of female conversation, in the same way that women are often accused of being "illogical" or "emotional" because they do not argue using the same language as men.
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? Men and women are, of course, biologically different. There are even significant differences in male and female brains. ? The researcher's analyses of their findings concluded that the effects found were due mostly to society and culture.

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? women and men speak differently in face-toface conversation because human children are socially molded and trained to speak separate languages, based on their sex. ? From a very early age, males and females are taught different linguistic practices. For example, communicative behaviors that are considered acceptable for boys may be considered completely inappropriate for girls. Whereas a boy might be permitted to use rough language, a girl in the same situation might be reminded to use her manners and be lady-like

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a casual conversation
? She: How do you feel? He: I’m ok. She: No, how do you feel really? He: I don’t know how I feel. You always ask the same question and get the same answer. She: But why you don’t know? You should know how you feel. He: I don’t think so much about feelings. She: But I want to know what you feel about us and all other things. He: I am fine, really. She; It can’t be called like fine. He: Listen here, don’t tell me what I feel and what I should feel. She begins to cry.
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? So what has really happened? Men differ from women. They can hardly speak about their emotions. That is why when we begin to contact with them, it is so hard to understand some of their steps and reactions. ? Actually a woman wanted to help the man, to make him feel comfortable, and in reality she made him think about what he got used to hide his feelings, that’s why he behaved in a hostile way. Eventually all men will consider the behavior of the man in this situation quite normal and reasonable. ? It is much easier for men to talk when they see the clear aim of conversation. A woman is likely to start conversation with one of the following phrases: Let’s talk or Dear, I think we have to discuss our relationships. These expressions are too vague, as they don’t give any direction of conversation. This is how you give birth to men’s fear and uncertainty. He will start to argue with you, trying to postpone conversation, or to show absolute absence of interest.
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In many cases,women don’t really mean what they say literally: ?Yes=No ?No=Yes ?Maybe=No ?Nothing=everything ?I’m sorry.=You’ll be sorry. ?We need=I want ?We need to talk.=I want to complain. ?You’re so manly.=You need a shave and you sweat a lot. ?This kitchen is so inconvenient.=I want a new house. ?I want new cuntains,=and carpeting,and furniture,and wallpaper. ?Do you love me?=I’m going to ask for something expensive. ?How much do you love me?=I did something you’re really don’t like. ?Am I fat?=tell me I’m beautiful.

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Compared to women,men is much more straightforward ?I’m hungry=I’m hungry ?I’m sleepy=I’m sleepy ?I’m tired=I’m tired ?But they may also speak in a way women always speak when: ?Yes,I like the way you cut your hair=$50 dosen’t make you look that much different ?(while shopping)I like that one better=pick any dress nearby and go home now!!!

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Formal English is always easy to understand,so let’s come to see and learn some informal expressions,which is also called “slang”.Let’s guess the meaning of the slangs.
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1.Don’t spill the beans,it’s supposed to be a secret.
(let out the secrets泄露秘密)

2.Cathy is such a stick in the mud.she never wants to try anything new.
(conservatism保守派)

3.Don’t have a cow.I’ll pay for the damages.
(fussing大惊小怪)

4.Peter’s vacation plans went up in smoke when a crisis arose in the office.
(fail to do泡汤)

5.My grandmother has green thumbs,because her garden is always beautiful.
(good gardener)

6.He is all thumbs----he always make silly mistakes in doing simple things!
(clumsy笨拙的)

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That’s an important reason why people speak differently.An expression considered rather proper and polite may not be accepted by who have different cultural background. The people in different cultural background always perform differently.also,especially as a foreigner,taking word literally can lead to misunderstandings. Let’s have a small quiz.
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?Busyboy ?Dead president ?Sweet water ?American beauty ?An apple of love ?You don’t say!

爱管闲事的人(不是“大忙人”)
美钞(不是“死了的总统”) 淡水(不是“糖水”) 红蔷薇(不是“美国的美女”……) 西红柿(不是“爱情之果”……) 是吗(不是“你别说话”)

?You can say thatUnit Two Communication Problem again! 2013-8-12

说得好(不是“你可以再说一遍”)

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Video Clip

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?Click to stop and click again to continue

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Work in groups to answer the following questions. According to the article, what helped to solve the problems with relationships between Martians and Venusians?

Both Martians and Venusians were able to solve such relationship-linked problems because they could recognize that they were different. One of the secrets of their success was good communication. According to the article, they could communicate well because, interestingly, they spoke different languages.

Do you agree that men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words? Are there any examples in the article that may support your point of view?

Yes, I agree. Male speakers are more direct, and female speakers are more indirect or tactful. For instance, when a woman says, “I feel like you never listen.” she does not expect the word “never” to be taken literally. Using the word “never” is just a way of expressing the frustration she is feeling at the moment. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information.

The author here skillfully applies analogue (类比) into the communication problem between men and women.

Communication Between Martians and Venusians (Para. 1—3) 1) When they had problems, they would just go to a translator 1. One ofassistance. of success in dealing with relationship is for the secrets the good communication between Martians and Venusians. 2) When there was a conflict they didn’t start judging or (Para. 1) but instead pulled out their phrase dictionaries to fighting

2. How did they each other more fully. understand communicate well though they spoke different languages? (Para. 2)
3. People from Mars and people from Venus experienced a trust and acceptance that we rarely experience today. (Para.3) Communication Between Men and Women (Para.never listen”, For example, if a woman says, “I feel like you 4—9) “never” is just a way of expressing the frustration she is 1. Men and women seldom mean the same things even when feeling at the moment. they use the same words. ( Para. 4) 2. Ten common complaints that are easily misinterpreted. (Para. 5—9)

1. So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. (Line 14)

此句中,assume 后跟了两个宾语从句,一句为 值得注意的是当两个从句并列时,后一个 it was just one of those expected misunderstandings, 从句的引导词往往不可省略,以显示句子 另一句为 that with a little assistance they would 间的关系。此句中的that 就是这一用法。 surely understand each other。

1. So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. (Line 14)

因此,当交流出现问题的时候,他们认为误解 是必然的,这只是众多误解中的一个。同时, 在些许帮助下,他们必定能够彼此理解。

2. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information. (Line 22)

as if 所引导的从句的谓语动词多用虚拟 语气,表示所叙述的情况与事实相反。

具体用法如下: ? 谈论现在情形,动词用过去时。 a) Why is she looking at me as if she knew me?

她为什么那样看我?像是认识我似的。
b) He behaves as if he owned the house. 他表现出来的样子好像这个房子是属于他的。

? 谈论过去情形的动词形式有以下几种: 1) 过去时,表示过去的状态,如:
a) He stood there looking at me and laughing, as if to fool me was the best joke in the world. 他站在那里,望着我哈哈大笑,好像 愚弄我是天底下最开心的事儿似的。 b) Mr. Coleman always talked as if he knew everything. 科尔曼先生说话时总是一副无所不知的样子。

? 但是,如果状态动词带有持续时间状语, 则用过去完成时: They talked as if they had been friends for years. 他们说话的样子仿佛是多年的朋友。

2) 过去完成时,表示过去的动作先于主句动词而发 生或完成,如:
a) It was as if he had lost his last friend.
他好像再没有朋友了。 b) “I remember,” she tells her children now, “how wild her white hair looked—as if it had been electrified.” 她现在给她的孩子们说:“我还记得她那白色的头 发有多么凌乱——好像过了电似的。”

? 必须注意的是,在指过去的动作时,即使主句是 现在时,as if 从句中的动词也要用过去完成时。
a) She looks as if she had seen a ghost. 她好像是见了鬼似的。 b) He talks about Rome as if he had been there himself. 他讲起罗马的情况来就好像他去过那里似的。

? 如果as if 后面的从句所表示的情况是真实的或很 可能是真实的,则动词可以用陈述语气,在 feel, look, seem, smell, sound, taste 之后尤其如此。
He walks as if he is drunk. He walks as if he were drunk. 第一句表示“他已经醉了”,第二句则 表示“他没有醉”。

2. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information. (Line 22)

不要把它当作真实的意思来理解。

3. A man’s literal translation of “I don’t feel heard” leads him to take the woman’s complaint lightly. (Line 47)

take sth. lightly/seriously 把··不当回事/认真对待·· ·· ·· ·· ··

联合国敦促各金融机构更加认真对待水资源短缺 问题。
UN urges financial institutions to take water scarcity more seriously.

当今时代,世界上还有一半人口遭受着饥荒, 健康 状况不良以及生活质量低下,我们决不能再轻视人 口问题。
At a time when half of the world is suffering from starvation, poor health and a low standard of living, we simply cannot take lightly the population problem.

3. A man’s literal translation of “I don’t feel heard” leads him to take the woman’s complaint lightly. (Line 47)

男人从字面上去理解“没人听我讲话”, 这使他对女人的抱怨不当回事。

1. encounter ( Line 1, Para. 1)
vt. find oneself faced by (danger, difficulties, etc.), meet (an enemy or enemies); meet unexpectedly (a friend, etc.) 遭遇(危险,困难);遭逢(敌人);邂逅(友人)

情景造句:Describe your process of pursuing success. Encountering difficulties in the process of pursuing success is quite normal. 在追求成功的过程中遇到困难是很正常的事情。 That Muslim ______________________________________ was encountered with an old friend from China on his way to Mecca to make a pilgrimage. 在前往麦加朝圣的路上,那位穆斯林意外地遇到了一位 来自中国的老友。

n. sudden or unexpected (esp. hostile) meeting (with) 遭遇(尤指与敌人,与介词with连用)

An encounter with a branch of Al-Qaeda ___________________________________ resulted in a serious injury in the American soldier’s left arm. 与基地组织一分支遭遇致使那位美军士兵左臂受重伤。

2. assistance (Line 6, Para. 2) n. help; aid 帮助;援助

我可以帮你什么忙吗? Can I be of any assistance to you? Chinese government is prepared to give financial assistance ___________________ to that quake-stricken African country. (提供经济援助)

is of great assistance for The identity of world champion _____________________ Liu Guoliang to become one of the youngest head coaches of Chinese national table tennis team. (有着很大的帮助)

动词形式:assist = help (正式用语)帮助;援助

他乐意帮助那些单亲家庭的孩子重返校园。 He is willing to assist those children from the singleparent families to go back to school.

aid, assistance与help ? aid 多指因处于困境或危难之时需要别人的帮助或援救。
e.g. 他愿意去帮助那些不幸的人。 He is willing to go to the aid of those ill-fated people.

? assistance主要指在共同工作中对所属的部分工作做出 贡献。assistance 不一定都是在紧迫的情况下提供帮助。 ? help 的用法最为普遍,assistance 最为正式,aid 次之。 help 往往是出于同情而提供帮助。 e.g. 他已经给了我们很多的帮助。 He has already given us a lot of help.

3. conflict (Line 8, Para. 2) n. 1) fight; struggle; quarrel 战争;斗争;争执 This is a serious dispute, and could lead to armed conflict. 这是一场严重的争执,有可能导致武装冲突。 There is a growing conflict of interest between her position as a politician and her business activities.

她从政者的身份和她的商务活动之间的利益冲 突日益严重。

2) (of opinion, desires, etc.) opposition; difference (指意见,欲望等)相左;冲突;抵触 他的陈述明显与其他证据相抵触。 His statement was apparently in conflict with other evidence. vi. be in opposition or disagreement 相反,抵触,冲突 他们对于那起车祸原因的报告与我们的报告出入很大。 Their account of the road accident conflicts with ours.

4. pull out (Line 8, Para.2)
1) take something out of a bag, pocket, or cupboard 拿出

pulled out all That disarming young man ______________
his money from his bag ____________________ to show to the two strangers in the same carriage. (Adapted from

Feng Xiaogang’s 2005 new year movie A
World Without Thieves) 那个毫无戒心的年轻人从包里拿出自己所有的钱给同车厢的两 个陌生人看。(编自冯小刚2005年贺岁片《天下无贼》)

2) use force to take something from where it is fixed or held 拔出,拉出

情景造句:拔牙

You’d better have that bad tooth pulled out tomorrow.
情景造句:拔掉瓶子的盖子 Pulling out the lid of that bottle needs great strength.

5. emerge (Line 14, Para. 3)
vi. 1) come into view; appear 出现;现出(与from连用)

太阳从云后出现。 The sun emerged from behind the clouds.
2) (of facts, ideas) appear; become known
(指事实,意见)暴露;显出;出现

他才是杀人凶手的事实在审问(interrogation)中被暴露出来。 That fact that he was just the murderer emerged from the interrogation. 讨论中没有出现新的想法。 No new ideas emerged during the discussion.

appear与emerge ? 这两个词都是不及物动词。均可指人或事物的出 现或显露,也可以指抽象概念,如思想观念的暴 露,事实或问题的揭露等等。 ? emerge 后常接介词from。有时表示经过调查、询 问之后才使事实、思想或问题暴露出来; appear 在作系动词时,与seem用法相似,表示“看 起来”、“显得”等意思,其后可接不定式、形容 词 或介词短语。

请选择 appear 或 emerge 的适当形式填空。

appears ? That man _______ to be your partner but I’m investigating if he really is.
? Eventually the truth of the matter ________. emerged appeared ? A smile ________ on his face. emerged ? Quite a few successful businessmen _________ from poor families.

6. assume (Line 14, Para. 3)
vt. 1) believe something is true without definite proof 假定, 假设, 臆想

American national basketball team is not as unconquerable as you assumed it to be. 美国国家篮球队并不像你想象的那样不可战胜。 我们先假定他的说法是可信的。 Let us first assume his statement to be believable.

2) take up; undertake 担任;承担

Her father assumes a leading position in that state______________________ owned enterprise. (担任领导职务) You should assume all the responsibilities of what you ________________________ have done. (承担所有的责任) 名词形式:assumption

assume, guess, imagine与suppose
? 这几个词都表示对客观情况在未证实以前就做出主观的推 断或提出自己的看法与设想。 ? suppose (vt.) 表示“想”、“认为”时,可以接从句或者复 合宾 语(补足语多为 to be, 其他情况多用不定式的完成时或进 行时)。 1) I suppose (that) we’ll meet him at that hotel. 我想我们将在那家酒店见他。 2) Few people supposed that young man (to be) innocent. 没多少人认为那个年轻人是清白的。 3) His brother was supposed to have already left for England. 大家以为他的弟弟已经动身去了英格兰。

? suppose 的设想还有某些根据,而 guess (vt./vi.)则有随意 性,只是随便的猜测,其后也可接从句。如果guess后接 answer, riddle, thought等词,可作“猜着了”理解。 1) Can you guess my age? 你能猜出我的年龄吗?

2) Guess what I am doing. 猜猜我在做什么。 3) The little girl guessed the right answer immediately. 那个小女孩儿立刻猜着了正确答案。 ? imagine (vt.) 是指思想中形成的图景,想象或猜想某事物 可能发生或存在,往往没有什么根据和把握。其后的宾语 除名词和代词外,还可接动名词、复合宾语和从句。

1) Can you imagine her becoming a famous hostess of CCTV? 你能想象她成了中央电视台的著名主持人吗?

2) You cannot imagine how happy I was to know that my daughter was still alive. 你无法想象当我得知女儿还活 着的时候有多么高兴。 ? assume (vt.) 的“假设”往往强调以某种设想或条件(并 未 证明)作根据进行推论,用法较正式。其后可接复合宾 语和that从句。
e.g. She assumes that you always get up at the same time. 她想你总是在同一个时间起床。

请选择 assume, guess, imagine 或 suppose 的适当形 式填空。

? I failed to ________ her thought. guess ? They are _________ to arrive on the six o’clock supposed passenger train from London. ? He said he could _________ the scene clearly in his mind. imagine
? That young man _________ the girl to be a warmsupposed hearted traveler, but she was in fact a thief. ? It might be safely _________ that there are no assumed creatures on the moon.

7. exaggerate (Line 23, Para. 5) v. say something is better, worse or more important than it really is 夸大,夸张
The significance of that commercial performance ___________________________. has been obviously exaggerated 那场商业演出的意义被明显夸大了。 The deadly earthquake and tsunami breaking out in Southeast Asia in December 2004 was so serious that the sounded a bit exaggerating final death toll _______________________ at first. 2004年12月发生在东南亚地区的地震和海啸非常严重, 以致于死难者总人数乍听起来都略显夸张。

8. ignore (Line 32, Para. 5)
vt. take no notice of, refuse to pay attention to 不顾,不理,忽视

情景造句:水资源短缺问题 People all over the world should not ignore severe water shortage problems. 情景造句:她不理睬我 I said hello to her, but she ignored me completely.

情景造句:驾驶员 闯红灯
A good driver never ignores a red light.

9. convey (Line 42, Para. 6) v. 1) communicate information or a message 表达,传递 我将不得不把那个坏消息告诉他。 I will have to convey that bad news to him. 当地政府领导向那位牺牲的消防员的家属表示了 最深切的慰问。 conveyed their The leaders of the local government _____________ deepest sympathy _______________ to the relatives of that sacrificial fireman.

2) transport or carry 运送,载送,输送

Those trucks had secretly conveyed weapons to the local anti-US forces. 那些卡车已经把武器秘密地运给了当地的反美武装 部队。 公共汽车把旅客从城里运送到了机场。 A bus conveyed the passengers from the city to the airport.

10. on the verge of (Line 53, Para. 9) very close to, on the border of 接近于,濒于 on the verge Her husband’s death almost pushed her ___________ of emotional collapse ___________________. (精神崩溃的边缘) Zhao Benshan’s humorous performance even made his on the verge of laughing serious-looking father _____________________. (差点儿笑出来) Famous singer Kris Phillips on the verge of fifty (年近50了) _________________. is

找人帮忙 言语是传递信息的 一种方式。

go to sb. for assistance / help Speech is a means of conveying information.

没人关心我。
没把他的话当回事 他俩就要吵起来了。

I don’t feel heard.
to take his words lightly They are on the verge of arguing.

省略介词 介词的省略翻译包括两种情况,一种是英文

的句型借助介词构成固定搭配用汉语无法译出,
一种是有些介词短语如时间、地点状语中的介词 可省。

They accused him of stealing the jewels. 他们控告他偷了珠宝。(固定搭配,无法译出) In spite of all the evidence against him, he refused to admit to the allegation. 尽管种种证据对他不利,他仍然拒不辩解。 (固定搭配,无法译出) Smoking is prohibited in public places. (地点状语) 公共场所严禁吸烟。 On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. 3月14日下午2点45分,当代最伟大的思想家停止了思考。

(时间,地点状语)

省略连词 汉语词语之间连接词用得不多,其上下文逻辑 关系常常表现为暗含,由词语的次序来表示。英语 则不然,连接词用得比较多。例如,英语因果句中 一般用连接词表示因果,而汉语则往往通过词序 (即前因后果)来表示因果关系,译文“因 为··所以”往往可以省略。再如,表示条件的连 ·· ·· 词if,译文“假如、如果”在大多数情况下可以省 略。再如,表示时间关系的when, as,如果汉语时 间先后次序明显,为了简略,译文“当··时”往 ·· ·· 往可以省略。

He looked gloomy and troubled.

他看上去有些忧郁不安。(并列连词)
If I had known it, I would not have joined in it. 早知如此,我就不参加了。(条件连词)

What could marriage mean if we did not feel ourselves capable of love?
连爱都爱不起来,还谈什么婚姻?(条件连词)

学生反映表述不清的主要问题:
1. 使用了多余的词、不必要的从句和短语,使意思重复、 行文罗嗦、表达累赘。 2. 使用修饰语时,因修饰语所处位置不当而产生歧义。 3. 追求难词怪句,以为这种句子能得高分。

4. 汉化英语令读者不知所云。

1. 同一层次、相关的意思用同一种句型表达,适当合 并“同类项”。 2. 使用修饰语时,一定要把修饰词、短语或从句与它 真正被修饰的词靠近。

3. 真正的经典名句都是用朴实无华的语言揭示生活哲 理。学生选取寻常的表达式,同样可传达真知灼 见。
4. 不要想当然地杜撰;要想方设法利用自己有把握的 表达手段清晰准确地表述。

你在写下面这篇作文时,将如何运用上面的方法写 出表述清晰的文章? Directions: Write a composition on the topic: How to Avoid Misunderstandings. Your composition should be no less than 120 words according to the outline given below in Chinese: 1. 误解在日常生活中十分普遍; 2. 要避免误解有许多办法; 3. 只要注意,很多误解可以避免。没有误 解,生活会更美好。

How to Avoid Misunderstandings?
Misunderstandings may frequently occur in our everyday life. For example, there is a misunderstanding when people use the same words but do not mean the same things. Misunderstanding may also arise between people who behave differently. Misunderstanding each other may cause a lot of trouble in our daily life. Many a quarrel has come about through misunderstanding. Generation gaps appear because of misunderstandings. A serious misunderstanding fractures (使··破裂) friendship. When a couple misunderstand ·· ·· each other badly, marriage is likely to break up. Misunderstanding can lead to great problems for both teachers and students. Then how can we clear up misunderstandings?

Misunderstandings can be avoided in many ways. Here are some tips. To begin with, don’t use ambiguous (有歧义的) words. Speak plainly, clearly and directly. Next, highlight your important points. Make sure that others know what your major concerns are. Besides, be honest and modest. Claim to know what you know, don’t claim to know what you don’t know, and this is wisdom. (知 之为知之,不知为不知,是知也。) Moreover, when you do not comprehend others fully, don’t feel ashamed to ask, “Pardon, I didn’t catch your meaning.” or “I’m sorry. Would you please explain it again?” Finally, be aware of cultural differences. It is always smart to talk about misunderstandings and respect mutual (相互的) differences.

Though it is impossible to eliminate all misunderstandings, if you keep all the tips above in mind, you will, to the greatest extent, avoid many potential misunderstandings and understand each other better. Without misunderstandings among people, the world will be a better one, and everyone can enjoy a harmonious (和 谐的) and happy life.

II. [GRE作文题目]

Directions: Discuss how well-reasoned you find this argument.
High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication.

III. [ TOEFL作文题目]
Directions: Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Telephones and email have made communication between people less personal.


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