1.定语 2.定语从句 3.先行词 4.关系词
1.定语：定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词的，是对 名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子， 汉语中常用‘……的’表示。 a clever boy The boiling water
>The man who you are looking for 2.定语从句：修饰某一名词或代词的从句。 .Do you know the man who came to Xiao Yang this morning? see
4.关系词： 引导定语从句的关联词称为关系词， 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。 关系代词that, which, who, whom, whose, as 关系副词where, when, why等。
关系词常有3个作用： 1，引导定语从句。 2，代替先行词。 3，在定语从句中担当一个成分。
1.She is the old woman whom I saw this morning. ______ _______________ 2. Mary is the girl whose parents work in Japan. ___ __________________ 3. Is this the key which you are looking for? ____ _______________
4.October 1, 1949 is the day when New China was ____ ______________ founded. 5.This is the house where the great man was born. ______ _________________ 6. I don’t know the reason why she looks unhappy ______ _______________ today.
5.限定性定语从句：对先行词起到修饰限制的作 用，使该词的含义更具体，更明确。这类从句不 能省掉，否则句子的意义就不完整。 I was the only person in my office who was invited. 6.非限定性定语从句：同主句的关系不十分密切， 只是对先行词作附加或补充的说明，不起限制的作 用，如果省去，主句的意思仍然清楚完整。这类定 语从句在书写时大多用逗号与主句分开。 Last week I met John, who seemed to be very excited.
A. that 指人/物，作主语或宾语
1. A plane is a machine . It can fly .
A plane is a machine that can fly. 2. He is the man . I told you about him . He is the man that I told you about.
B. which 指物，作主语或宾语 These are some trees. They were planted last year. These are the trees which were planted last year.
This recorder is made in Japan. He is using it. This recorder which he is using is made in Japan.
The man is our teacher.I talked with him. The man who I talked with him ＼ is our teacher. Wang Lin is our monitor. She is 16 years old.
Wang Lin who is 16 years old is our monitor. D. whom指人,作宾语。 The man is Mr. Li. I nodded to him. The man whom / who I nodded to is Mr. Li. The man to whom /who I nodded is Mr. Li.
whose 在定语从句中作定语，表示引导词 与 whose 后的名词为所属关系。 whose多指人，也可指物，指物时可与 of which互换使用。
This is the girl. Her parents are doctors. This is the girl whose parents are doctors. This is the book .Its cover is blue. This is the book whose/of which the cover is blue.
三、关系代词（who, whom, which, that, whose）的指代关系
指人 指物 主语 (宾语) 定语
★ ★ ★
★ ★ ★ ★ ★
who never tells a lie. Eg:1.He is such a man ______ 2. He is the model worker(whom/who) __________we should learn from. which/that 3. A dictionary is a book_______ often
helps us to know the meanings of the words. (that/which) 4. This is the film _________I like best. whose 5. The boy _________father is a professor is one of my best friends.
whose 6. The house ________roof was blown away by the storm will be rebuilt soon.
who/ that likes 7.I have a friend ___________ listening to the classical music.
8.Yesterday Emily was wearing the new that) I gave her. dress (which/ _____________ 9.The man whose ______ leg broke in a match used to be a good football player.
10.Kate is reading a book which/ ____________ that is too difficult for her.
1. 先行词被all, very, any, much, little, few, no等修饰 时 2. 序数词或形容词最高级修饰先行词时； 3. 先行词前有the only, the very, the same, the right等修 饰时；
4.all, little, much, few, none, everything, nothing, something, anything 等不定代词作先行词；
5.先行词既有人也有物 6.主句以which, who, what开头的疑问句
只用which，不用that 一、非限制性定语从句 I have lost the pen, which _____ I like very much. 二、用在介词后 有机器的房间是车间。 The room __________ in which there is a machine is a workshop. The room(which/ __________ that) there is a machine in is a workshop.
1.When 表示时间，其先行词往往是表示时间的名词 （如time, day,hour,year等） From the time when he was little, he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 2.Where 表示地点，其先行词往往是表示地点的 名词（如place, room, house,street, area等） This is the place where my mother was born. 3.Why 表示原因，常用在先行词reason的后面。
I don’t know the reason why she looks unhappy today.
I still remember the day ____ I first came to Beijing. 先行词 “the day” 在从句中做状语, 表示时间: I first came to Beijing on the day. (所以用关系副词 when。) I still remember the day ( _________ ) we spend together. 先行词 “ the day” 在从句中做spend宾语： We spend the day together. （所以在该句中用关系 代词which/that，并且可省略。）
2. This is the place _____ we worked last year. 先行词 “the place”在从句中做状语，表示地点： We worked in the place last year. ( 所以用关系副词 where。) 比较：This is the place (_________) we visited last year. 先行词 “the place”在从句中做visited的宾语： We visited the place last year.( 所以用关系代词 which/that,并且可省略。)
先行词在从句中做状语，用 关系副词； 先行词在从句中做宾语或主语，用 关系代词；
when 1.October 1,1949 was the day ________the People’s Republic of China was founded. (that/which) he 2.October 1, 1949 was the day___________
will never forget.
where was born. 3.This is the house ________I whose windows are very clean. 4.This is the house________
(that/which) love very much. 5.This is the house ___________I that/which very beautiful. 6.This is the house _________is
why 7.This is the reason __________he was late. (that/which) he gave us. 8.This is the reason ___________
Why=for /…+which 1.Do you still remember the day when(____ on which) we went to visit the museum together? 2.This is the factory where(___ in which)my father once worked.
for which) he was late. 3.This is the reason why(____
C I worked with 1. ① I still remember the days _____ the farmers.
A I spent with ② I still remember the days _____
C. when D. what the farmers. A. which B. on which
A it began to rain. 2. ① We were on the way _____ B you speak to your ② I don’t like the way _____ in which/ ○ parents.
A. when B. that C. how D. which
1. I’ll never forget the days _____________ when/ in which we worked together.
2. I’ll never forget the days __________ (that/which) we spent together. 及物动词 3.I went to the place ______________ where /in which I worked ten years ago. 4.I went to the place (which/ __________ that)I visited ten 及物动词 years ago. 5.This is the reason _____________ why /for which he was late.
that/ which he gave. 及物动词 6.This is the reason __________
where I was born. 1. This is the town _____
(Whic/that) This is the town _____ _____I visited last week. when I came to 2. I will never forget the day ____ school. (Which/that) I I will never forget the day __________ spent with you. Why/for which 3. This is the reason __________ he was late.
This is the reason (That/which) _________ he told me.
1、 非限制性定语从句通常不 能用that引导。
如： 1). I like the book, which was bought yesterday. 我喜欢这本书，这是昨天买的。 2.) I like the book which / that was bought yesterday. 我喜欢昨天买的那本书。
2.在非限制性定语从句中，指人的关系代词作宾 语时，只能用宾格whom; 不能用who替换，也不 能省
Do you know Tom, whom we talked about? Do you know Tom (who/ whom) we talked about?
The sun sends out light and heat, which makes it possible for living things to exist on the earth.
B makes His father is an engineer, ____ him very proud. Ａ．for what Ｂ. which Ｃ. that Ｄ. what
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由 “介词+关系代词”引出。 注意： 1．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只 可用whom，不可用who, that；关系代词指物 时只可用which，不可用that。关系代词是所有 格时用whose。 2．“介词+关系代词”前还可有some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few等代词或者数词
Fill in the blanks with proper preps.
on which I spent 5 yuan. 1. This is the book _____
for which I paid 5 yuan. 2. This is the book _____
3. This is the book from _____ which we can learn a lot. 4. This is the book about _____ which we often talk. 5. This is the book _____ in which I wrote down many notes.
1.In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ___ A she could turn for help.(NMET92) A. to whom B.who C.from whom D. that D 2.His glasses, ____ he was like a blind man , fell to the ground and broke. A with which B. which C through which D. without which B I came to London has flown 3.The plane ___ 10,000 miles . A. in it B. in which C. by which D. where
as引导限定性定语从句， 习惯上用于下列词组： the same....as such ...as as ... as， so…as， 在从句中作主语或宾语。 1.Such people as you describe are rare nowadays.
2.Let’s discuss only such questions as concern every one of us.
3.Would you please buy me the same novel as you bought for brother yesterday, Mum?
as we have seen, ? as is known to all, ? as anybody can see, ? as was expected, ? as you know, ? as we can imagine, ? as has been pointed out
选择最佳答案。 1. Can you think of anyone _______ could look after him a bit for the next few days? A. that B. which C. whom D. / 2. In Britain he had come across a painter _______ nobody else had heard of. A. which B. where C. with whom D. / 3. Sunday is a holiday, _______ people do not go to work. A. on which B. on when C. in which D. where
4. Yesterday was one of the coldest days _______ I have ever known. A. which B. when C. who D. that 5. I am off to St. James Park,_______ I have to give a lecture on the Theatre. A. when B. there C. where D. which 6. I did this at nine o'clock, and _______ I sat sometimes reading the paper. A. after doing it B. after which C. after while D. when 7. She was very fond of speaking French, _______ indeed she spoke very well. A. that B. where C. which D. /
8. She had two new cars, _______ was made in Japan. A. one B. which C. and one of which D. and one of them 9. My new car, _______ I paid several thousand pounds _______ , is not running well. A. which; for B. that; for C. which; / D. what; with 10. His son, _______ he was devoted, was living abroad. A. whom B. to whom C. to which D. that