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语法复习十三:非谓语动词(二)


中国特级教师高考复习方法指导〈英语复习版〉

语法复习十三:非谓语动词(二)——动词-ing 形式
(二)-ing 形式:动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征,可以带有
其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing 短语。 1、-ing 的形式:-ing 有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing 还有主动语态和被动语态,而不及物动词的 -ing 则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词 make 和不及物动词 go 为例,将其-ing 各种形式列表如下: 动词 语态 形式 一般式 完成式 2、-ing 形式的基本用法。 (1)作主语:Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. –ing 作主语时,如果其结 构较长, 可用 it 作形式主语, 而将作主语的-ing 后置。 如: isn’t much good writing to them again. It’s no use It waiting here. (2)作表语:Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps. (3)作宾语:①作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much.;②作某些短语动词的宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York.;③ do+限定词(my, some, any, the 等)+ -ing,表示“做?事”之意, 如:We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④作 介词的宾语: sister is good at learning physics.; Her ⑤作形容词 worth, busy 等的宾语: This book is well worth reading. –ing 作宾语带有宾语补足语时,要用 it 作为形式宾语,而将作宾语的-ing 后置,如:We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it necessary trying again? (4)作定语: The sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the gate? 注:-ing 形式作定语用时,如果-ing 只是一个单词,就位于其修饰的名词之前,如果是-ing 短语,就位于其修饰的 名词之后,-ing 作定语时,被-ing 所修饰的名词就是该-ing 的逻辑主语。另外,-ing 作定语用时,其动作 和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的,如果不是同时进行的,就不能用-ing 作定语,要使用定语从 句,如:The girl who wrote a letter there yesterday can speak English very well. (5)作宾语补足语:We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注:当-ing 在复合宾语中作宾语补足 语用时, 句中宾语就是这个-ing 的逻辑主语, 可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有 see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep 等。 (6)作状语:①时间状语:Seeing Tom, I couldn’t help thinking of his brother. 分词在句中作时间状语 时, 其前一般可加 when 或 while, When crossing street, you must be careful. ②原因状语: 如: Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. ③方式或伴随状语:Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty. 3、主动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动词所表示的 动作之前,一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语,并且是它所表示的动作的执行 者,如:Having answered the letter, she went on to read an English novel. 4、 被动语态-ing 一般式的基本用法。 被动语态-ing 一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中的被动动作, 而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。 它一般在句中作定语或状语用。 The truck 如: being repaired there is ours. 5、被动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作 之前,在句中一般作状语用。如:Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library. 6、-ing 形式的复合结构。在-ing 前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing 的复合结构。其中的物主代词 或名词所有格为-ing 的逻辑主语。 这种结构在句中可作主语、 宾语或表语, Your smoking and drinking too 如: much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中, 这种结构如作宾语用, 其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格, 名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替,如:She insisted on Peter’s (or Peter)going there first. 主动语态 making having made 及物动词 make 被动语态 being made having been made 不及物动词 go 主动语态 going having gone

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中国特级教师高考复习方法指导〈英语复习版〉
7、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来,表示一个比较抽象或泛指 的动作时多用-ing 形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时,多用动词不定式,如:Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today. 8、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing 形式作定语用时,其动作一般与句中谓语动词所 表示的动词同时发生,而动词不定式作定语时,其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表示的动作之后。如: The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write. 9、-ing 形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。 (1)不定式作宾补时,其动作一般发生在谓语动 词所表示的动作之后,如:I have told them to come again tomorrow.(2)在 see, watch, hear, feel 等之后,如 果用-ing 形式作宾补,表示其动作正在进行中,而用不带 to 的不定式作宾补时,不定式所表示的动作是一 个动作的过程,如:I hear her singing in the room.我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听 见她在屋里唱过歌。 10、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing 形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方式或伴随 情况,而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时,一般是作目的或结果状语,如:Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked into the window to see what was going on inside.

练习、非谓语动词(二)
1. Alien said that his trip was _______. A. interested B. interest C. interesting B. his postponing to make D. his postponing making C. why laugh C. arguing, arguing C. that you leave C. being taken C. to, to C. to be fish C. to put back C. being not C. do C. having said B. finish to read D. have finished to read D. you laughing D. to argue, argue D. leave D. have D. of, / D. being fishing D. will put back D. not being D. done. D. to have said D. of interest 2. We can't understand ______ a decision until it is too late. A. him to postpone to make C. him to postpone making 3. I couldn't understand ______ at the poor child. A. you to laugh A. arguing, argue A. to leave A. take A. of, to A. fishing A. putting back A. to not be A. to do A. say A. have finished reading C. will finish reading B. you laugh B. to argue, arguing B. leaving B. taking B. for, to B. to fish B. having put back B. not to be B. doing B. to say 4. It's no use______ with him. You might as well ______ with a stone wall. 5. It is no good ______ today's work for tomorrow. 6. The old man's ______ pity on the snake led to his own death. 7. It's very kind ______ you ______ say so. 8. Some people's greatest pleasure is ______ . 9. Remember ______ the book, when you have finished it. 10. You didn't hear us come back last night. That's good. We tried ______ noisy. 11. Though he failed, he tried _______ it again and again. 12. You'll regret ______ those words. You may hurt her feelings. 13. You can keep the book until you ______ .

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中国特级教师高考复习方法指导〈英语复习版〉
14. We are looking forward to ______ another chance ______ it again. A. be given, to try A. collect A. coming, asking A. laugh at A. to read 19. "I usually go there by train." A. to try going 20. I was too excited ______ . A. speak A. to invent A. ask him A. being tied A. never to drive A. open A. lay A. invited A. spoken 29. "Can you read?" Mary said A. angrily, pointing A. followed A. Given A. Followed C. Being followed 33. Your flat needs _____ . Would you like me A. to clean, to do A. know to take 34. Does your new secretary ____ short hand? B. know how to take C. know how take D. know how taking 35. Tommy had his big brother _____ his shoes for him. B. to speak B. inventing B. to ask him B. having tied B. to never drive B. opening B. lain B. to invite B. speaking to the notice. C. angrily, pointed C. to be followed C. Giving B. Followed by D. Having been followed it for you? D. to be cleaned, doing B. cleaning, doing C. cleaning, to do D. and angrily pointing D. being followed D. Having given B. and point angrily B. following B. To give C. not to speak C. to have invented C. that you ask him C. to be tied C. never driving C. having opened C. laying C. being invited C. be spoken D. speaking D. having invented D. asking him D. tied D. never drive. D. opened. D. lying D. had been invited D. to speak 21. Charles Babbage is generally considered ______ the first computer. 22. It is no use _____to come now. He is busy. 23. The murder was brought in, with his hands _______ behind his back. 24. Mrs Smith warned her daughter ____ after drinking. 25. The computer centre, ______ last year is very popular among the students in this school. 26. Do you know the boy _______ under the big tree? 27. Most of the artists ______ to the party 'were from South Africa. 28. English is a language ______ in many countries. B. give, to try B. to collect .C. giving, trying C. collecting D. having, to try D. collected D. to come, being asked D. laughing D. being read D. try going : 15. Most of the students enjoy_____ stamps. 16. Excuse me for _____ in without ______. B. coming, being asked C. to come, asking B. to laugh at B. to be read B. trying to go C. laughing at C. reading C. to try and go 17. People couldn't help ______ the foolish girl. 18. "What do you think of the book?" "Oh. excellent, it's worth _______ a second time." "Why not ______ by boat for a change?"

30. There was a terrible noise _______ the sudden burst of Tight. 31. ____ more attention, the trees could have grown better. 32. _____their students, the famous teacher came into the hall.

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中国特级教师高考复习方法指导〈英语复习版〉
A. to tie A. don't A. rather not have A. of seeing A. help to notice A. taking B. tie B. not to B. rather not to have B. for seeing B. be helping to notice B. to take C. tied C. not C. not rather had C. to see C. be helping noticing C. take D. tying D. to not D. rather not having D. to seeing D. help noticing D. taken 36. Would you please ______ write on the textbooks? 37. I'd ______ the operation unless it is absolutely necessary. 38. Your mother and I are looking forward________ you. 39. The girl couldn't_____ how red his face was. 40. Excuse me, but it is time to have your temperature ______.

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