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2014高考英语二轮


专题八 情态动词和虚拟语气

情态动词

一、情态动词 定义:情态动词是一种本身具有一定词义,但要与动词原形及其 被动语态一起使用的词。它给谓语动词增添情态色彩,表示说话 人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,认为其可能、应该或必要等。 二、情态动词的特点 情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否 定式构成是在情态动词后面加“

not”。 个别情态动词有现在式和 过去式两种形式, 过去式用来表达更加客气, 委婉的语气, 时态 性不强, 可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属于非及物动词, 故没有被动语态。

三、情态动词的语法特征 (1) 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情,只表示期待或 估计某事的发生。 (2) 情态动词除ought 和have 外,后面只能接不带to 的不定式。 (3) 情态动词没有人称和数的变化,即其第三人称单数不加?s。 (4) 情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式,分词形式,也没有 相应的动名词。 四、情态动词的基本用法
情态 动词 can和 could 用法 表示能力 表示请求 或允诺? 表示客观可能性 例句 He can speak English better than you. You can have the book when I have finished it. Could you come again tomorrow? Accidents can happen on such raing days.

表示猜测(惊讶、怀疑、 不相信的态度)

Can this green bike be Liu Dong’s?

may和 might

表示请求和允许 表示猜测、可能性(不用于 疑问句)

He may come if he likes. It may rain this evening. You’d better take an umbrella .

must

She must come and look after the child. 否定式 must not(mustn’t)表 — Must we finish the work tomorrow? 示“禁止”;needn’t/don’t have to 表示“不必” — No, you needn’t (don’t have to), but you must finish it in three days. You mustn’t touch the fire. 表示必须
表示推测 They must have heard the news.

have to ought to

表示必须,是一种客 I had to give it up because of illness. 观需要 表示根据某种义务或 必要“应当”做某事 Everyone ought to obey the traffic regulations.

表示推测(客观推测)
dare 常用于否定句,疑问 句和条件从句中

He ought to be home by now.
Dared he break the traffic regulations again? She doesn’t dare to stay at home alone at night.

在疑问句或否定句中, 可接带to或不带to的 不定式 need 常用于否定句和疑问 句中

He needn’t worry about us now.

He shall go first, 用于第二、三人称,表示说话人 给对方请求、命令、警告、强制、 whether he wants to or not. 威胁或允诺 All payments shall 用于法律、合同、规章中表强制 be made in cash. 性的“必须” shall Shall I open the 用于第一人称,表示说话人征询 door? 对方意见或请求指示 表示“建议”或“劝告”,有 “应该”之意 should You should learn from each other.

表示说话人对已经出现的事态感 I’m amazed that Mr. Harris should have 到“惊奇、惊喜、怀疑” said nothing about the matter.

表示意志决心

I have told him again and again to stop smoking, but he will not listen. Will you please tell me how to get to the Capital Gymnasium? Every morning he will have a walk along this river. The door won’t open.

will

在疑问句中,用于第二人称,表示说 话人向对方提出请求或询问对方的 意愿

表示一种习惯性的动作,含有“总 是”或“会要”之意

表示意志和决心

He promised he would never smoke again.

would

在疑问句中,用于第二人称,表示 Would you like some more coffee? 说话人向对方提出请求或询问对 方的意愿,比will的语气更加委婉
表示过去的习惯动作,没有“现 已无此习惯”的含义 During the vacation he would visit me every week. It would be about ten when he left home.

表示估计和猜想

【考点一】考查表示能力的情态动词 情态动词can和could可以表示能力;be able to do强调设法成功完 成某一具体动作(相当于manage to do/succeed in doing)。 If it were not for the fact that she can’t sing, I would invite her to the party. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ①The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ______ get out. A. had to B. would C. was able to D. could 解析:选C。考查情态动词。have to不得不; would表示意愿或过 去常常;could倾向于表示经过长期训练而获得的能力;be able to 表示经过努力而能够做到的事或成功地做了某事。根据句意,选 C。

【考点二】考查表示请求或允诺的情态动词 (1)向对方提出建议时用:①Shall/May/Might/Can/Could I/we...? ②Shall he/she/they...?③Would/Will you...? (2)could/might/would/should表示委婉的语气,其肯定回答时不用 could/might表示,用may/can;否定回答时用can’t/mustn’t。 —Could/May I use your bicycle tomorrow morning? —Yes, you can/may. —Shall he come to see you? —Of course, please. And I’d rather he told me the truth. 【考点三】考查情态动词表示推测的用法 表猜测的时态 结构 例句

将来情况 的推测

情态动词+动词 原形

She must/may/might/could arrive before 5. I can’t be at home this Friday. Can he come to my party next Friday?

现在或一 般情况的 推测

情态动词+动词 原形/ 情态动词 +be doing/情态动词 +be

Hemust/may/might/could be listening to the radio now. He can’t (couldn’t)/may(might) not be at home at this time. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How can (could) he be late for the opening ceremony?

过去情况 的推测

情态动词 + have It must/may/might/could have rained last night. The ground is +过去分词 wet. The door was locked. He can (could) not/may (might) not have been at home. Can/Could he have gotten the book?

注意:1. 在肯定句中一般用might, may和must;否定句中用might not, may not, couldn’t和can’t;疑问句中用could和can。can还可用于 肯定句中表示客观的或理论的可能性。 2. might, could并非may, can的过去式,它们表示语气较为委婉或可 能性较小。 Accidents can happen on such rainy days. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ②Sorry, I’m late. I ______ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A. might B. should C. can D. will 解析:选A。might have done(过去)可能做过某事;should have done 本应该做某事。根据句中提供的情境表明,说话人可能把闹钟关上 了。

【考点四】考查情态动词表示责备、批评、抱怨

形式

含义

例句

may/might/ He might have given you more help, 过去本来可 can /could 以……,而实际 even though he was very busy. have done 上没有…… —Did you listen to the speech? —No, we could have attended it. But we were ill. should The plant is dead. Maybe I should 过去本来应 have done 该……,而实际 have given it more water. 上没有…… ought to 过去本该……, You ought to have given him more help. 而未…… have done

needn’t have 本不必……, done 却……

—Mr Smith didn’t come last night, did he? —No. We needn’t have waited for him. You had better have started earlier. You had better not have scolded her.

had better(not) have done

用于事后的建 议,含轻微责 备的口吻,表 示“本应该做 而没有做”

would 表示“当时宁 I would rather have taken his advice. rather(not) 愿做了某事”, I would rather not have told him the have done 肯定形式与否 truth. 定形式均表示 “后悔”之意

注意:didn’t need to do sth. 表示没有必要做某事其实也没有做。 【即学即练】 单项填空 ③The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ______ the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. A. should have taken B. could have taken C. needn’t have taken D. Mustn’t have taken 解析:选C。should have done本应该做而实际上没做;could have done表示对过去的假设,意为“本来能够做某事而没有 做”;needn’t have done本不需要做却做了;must have done通常用 于肯定句,故D项排除。根据句子语境可知,选C。 【考点五】考查would rather的用法 (1)would rather do sth.意为“宁可(愿)……” (2)would rather do sth. than do sth. 宁可(愿)……(而)不要 (愿)……;与其……不如……可改写成 “would do sth. rather than do sth.”。 (3)would rather+从句(虚拟语气)表示“宁愿,但愿……”。用一

般过去时表示现在或将来要做的事;用过去完成时表示已经做过 的事或过去要做的事。 I would rather you had stayed with us yesterday, but you left. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ④—_______, he is well. —But I would rather to see him yesterday. A. Personally; go B. Personally; have gone C. As far as I am concerned; / D. As far as I am concerned; went 解析:选B。“would rather+动词过去完成式”表示过去的情况, 再根据would rather后跟虚拟语气的用法和句子语境可知,选B。 【考点六】考查used to的用法 used to表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在。在疑问句、 否定句、否定疑问句中,其变化形式如下:

句式 疑问句

形式 Did sb. use to Used sb. to do

例句 Did you use to go to the same school as your brother? Used you to go to the same school as your brother? I usedn’t to go there. I didn’t use to go there. Usedn’t you to be interested in the theatre? Didn’t you use to be interested in the theatre?

否定句

usedn’t to do didn’t use to do Usedn’t sb. to

否定 疑问句

Didn’t sb. use to

【考点七】考查情态动词的其他用法 must表示与说话人愿望相反及不耐烦,意为“偏要,非得”。 can’t but do sth./can’t help/choose but do sth.意为“不得不做某事, 只好做某事”。 may well + 动词原形,表示“完全能,很可能”,相当于be likely to do sth.。 may as well + 动词原形,表示“最好;满可以;倒不如”。 can’t(never等否定词)与enough连用,表示“再……也不为过”, 相当于“can’t...too...”。 may可以用于祈使句,表示祝愿。 Just as I was sitting down to supper, the telephone must ring. Since he can’t win the race, he may as well quit.

虚拟语气

定义:虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,而不表示客 观存在的事实,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实相 反。虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。

【考点一】考查虚拟语气在非真实条件句中的基本用法

时间 与现 在事 实相 反的 假设 与过 去事 实相 反的 假设

从句 If +主语+ 动词的过 去式 (be用 were) If +主语 +had+动 词的过分 词

主句 主语 +would/should /could/might /ought to +动 词原形 主语 +should/would /could/might+ have+过去 分词

例句 If they were here, they would help you. If we had enough money, we would buy a computer. If I were you, I wouldn’t do it. If he had come yesterday, I should have told him about it. If I had been in her position, I’d have quit. If the weather hadn’t been so bad , we might have gone out. I should never have done it if I hadn’t been so hard up.

对将来 不大可 能发生 的事情 的假想

If +主语+动 词的过 去式

should/would/ could/might/ ought to+动词原 形

If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If they invited me, I would certainly attend it. If he went, would you go too?

与将 来事 实相 反的 假设

①were+不定 式 ②should+动 词原形 ③一般过去 时

should/would/ could/might/ ought to +动词 原形

If it were to rain tomorrow , we would stay at home. If it rained tomorrow , we would stay at home.

【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑤If the weather had been better,we could have had a picnic. But it ______ all day. A. rained B. rains C. has rained D. is raining 解析:选A。句意为:如果天气好的话,我们是能够去野餐的,但是 下了一天的雨。句子前半部分陈述的是与过去事实相反的事情,所 以用了虚拟语气;“下了一天的雨”是事实,所以用陈述语气。 【考点二】考查含蓄虚拟条件句 这样的虚拟句不含有if从句,而是以but for/without/or/otherwise等 引导的句子代替if从句,主句谓语动词的形式与虚拟语气的基本用 法相同。 But for your help/Without your help, we couldn’t have finished the task ahead of time. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑥Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we_______ it without you.

A. can manage B. could have managed C. could managed D. can have managed 解析:选B。由语境可知,这里要表达的意思是“如果没有你们辛勤 的工作,我们不可能处理好这件事。”这是对过去发生的事实的虚 拟,所以要用could have done。 【考点三】考查主从句时间不一致的虚拟条件句 虚拟条件句中,主句和条件从句的谓语动作若不是同时发生时,虚 拟语气的形式应作相应的调整。 ①从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发 生的事实不符。 ②从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。 ③从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发 生的情况相反。 If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer now, too. If he knew her, he would have greeted her. If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better.

【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑦It’s hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ________ in love,at the age of seven,with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. A. wouldn’t have fallen B. had not fallen C. should fall D. were to fall 解析:选B。句意为:如果不是我在七岁时爱上家乡的Melinda Cox 图书馆的话,很难想象今天的我会是什么样子。主句描述的是与现 在事实相反的事情,从句描述的是与过去事实相反的事情。 【考点四】考查省略非真实条件句中的if 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有were, should, had时,if 可以省略,这 时条件从句要用倒装语序,即将were, should, had等词置于句首。 Were he to leave today, he would get there by Friday. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑧_____ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be cut off. A. Would you be B. Should you be C. Could you be D. May you be

解析:选B。分析句意可知,空格处表示条件关系。当条件从句谓 语动词中含有were, should, had时,将其移至句首,省略if,句子 结构为省略倒装结构。故选B。此处相当于:If you should be。 【考点五】考查名词性从句中的虚拟语气 在含有表示坚持、建议、命令、要求等动词或名词(suggest, demand, order, require, insist, propose, advise, suggestion, advice, proposal等)的名词性从句和在it作形式宾语或形式主语的复合句 中,宾语补足语是necessary/strange/essential/natural/a pity/a shame等表示“惊奇、惋惜或理应如此”等含义时,从句中的谓语 动词需用“should+动词原形”,其中should可以省略。 He suggested that we (should) start off early the next day. It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off until next week. It is strange that he (should) have acted towards his parents like that.

【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑨—Don’t you think it necessary that he _____ to Miami but to New York? —I agree,but the problem is ______he has refused to. A. will not be sent;that B. not be sent;that C. should not be sent;what D. should not send;what 解析:选B。上半句句意为:难道你不认为必须把他送到迈阿密而不 是纽约吗?句意表示理应如此的含意。 【考点六】考查其他虚拟语气 (1)wish后面接宾语从句,表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用 过去式;表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用“had+动词过去 分词”;表示将来难以实现的愿望,谓语动词用“should/would+ 动词原形”。 注意:if only与as if/though用法相同。 I wish I knew the answer.(与现在事实相反) I wish I had known the answer. (与过去事实相反)

I wish you would shut up. (与将来事实相反) (2)If only引导的感叹句中,用虚拟语气,表示愿望;用过去时或 “would/could+动词原形”表示与现在或未来事实相反的愿望;用 过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的愿望。 If only I were taller. (与现在事实相反) If only he had followed your advice! (与过去事实相反) If only the rain would stop. (与将来事实相反) (3)It is (high/about) time that sb. did sth./should do sth., 从句中谓语 动词常用过去形式,有时也用“should+动词原形”,意为“该 是……的时候了”。 It is time you thought about your future. (4)would rather后面接从句时表示愿望,意为“宁愿,但愿”。I would rather you didn’t speak rudely to her. (与现在事实相反) I’d rather you hadn’t spoken rudely to her. (与过去事实相反) (5)在lest/in case/for fear that...引导的目的状语从句,若用虚拟语气, 谓语动词用(should)+动词原形。 He took his umbrella lest it should rain.

2013高考真题
【2013北京】35. --- You needn’t take an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain. --- Well, I don’t know. It do. A. might B. need C. would D. should 1【答案】A 【解析】考查情态动词。第一个人说不会下雨,第二人回答I don’t know,因此可知,到 底下不下雨是不能肯定的事情,故使用might表推测“有可能”。 【2013湖南】32. He ________ sleep, although he tried to, when he got on such a hunt for an idea until he had caught it. A. wouldn’t B. shouldn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t 2【答案】C 【解析】考查情态动词。根据后文“although he tried to”可知他不能入睡。故选C。 【2013江西】29. When I was a child, I ______ watch TV whenever I wanted to. A. should B. could C. must D. need 3【答案】B 【解析】考查情态动词。A项“应该”;B项“能够”;C项“必须”;D项“需要”,根 据句意,当我还是孩童的时候,每当我想看电视的时候都能够看。故答案选B。

【2013辽宁】31. Harry is feeling uncomfortable. He _____ too much at the party last night. A. could drink B. should drink C. would have drunk D. must have drunk 4【答案】D 【解析】考查情态动词。此处考查情态动词对过去发生事情的推测。根据句 意:Harry感觉不舒服。昨晚的聚会上他肯定喝得不少。对过去发生事情的肯定推测,用 must have done,故选D。 【2013陕西】21. The children lost in the woods; otherwise, they would have been at the lakeside camp as scheduled. A. must have got B. must get C. should have got D. should get 5【答案】A 【解析】考查情态动词。副词otherwise之前的句子表示推测,之后的句子表示虚拟。句 意为:孩子们肯定在树林里迷路了;否则的话,他们就该按计划在湖边的宿营地了。故 选A,must have done表示对过去发生事情的肯定推测,意为:过去肯定已经…。 【2013四川】5. —Why are your eyes so red? You _______ have slept well last night. —Yeah, I stayed up late writing a report. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. won’t 6【答案】A 【解析】考查情态动词。根据语境“眼睛那么红,昨晚不可能睡得很好”可 知,此处考查情态动词can的否定式can’t表推测,意为“不可能”。can’t have done表 示对过去的推测,意为“过去不可能…”。故选A。

【2013天津】9. No one be more generous; he has a heart of gold. A. could B. must C. dare D. need 7答案】A 【解析】考查情态动词。译为:不可能有人比他更慷慨;他有一颗善良的心。can’t/ couldn’t表不可能,故答案选A。 【2013新课标II卷】6. Since nobody gave him any help, he have done the research on his own. A. can B. must C. would D. need 8【答案】B 【解析】考查情态动词。根据句意,由于没人帮他,因此他定是一个人做的那个调查。 情态动词must表肯定推测。故选B。 【2013新课标I卷】29.The door open , no matter how hard she pushed. A. shouldn’t B. couldn't C. wouldn't D. mightn't 9【答案】C 【解析】考查情态动词。此处描述主语the door的特点“老是打不开”,其固有的特性, 用情态动词would(will)描述,故选C。

【2013浙江】3. I ________ myself more—it was a perfect day. A. shouldn’t have enjoyed B. needn’t have enjoyed C. wouldn’t have enjoyed D. couldn’t have enjoyed 10【答案】D 【解析】考查情态动词。此处情态动词否定式couldn’t与比较级more搭配表达最高级的 意义;couldn’t此处表推测“不可能”。答案为D。
【2013重庆】26. - What are you doing this Saturday? - I’m not sure, but I go to the Rolling Stones concert. A. must B. would C. should D. might 11【答案】D 【解析】考查情态动词。根据“I’m not sure”可知说话者不能确定,因此使用might表示 推测,表示“有可能”。 【2013安徽】34. It be the vocabulary that caused you the problem in the exercise because you know a lot of words. A. may B. couldn’t C. should D. needn’t 12【答案】B 【解析】考查情态动词。根据原因状语从句“因为你认识很多单词”可知“在练习中不 可能是词汇给你造成了这个问题”,故选B表推测“不可能”。

【2013北京】34. If we a table earlier, we couldn’t be standing here in a queue. A. have booked B. booked C. book D. had booked 13【答案】D 【解析】考查虚拟语气。根据句意:如果我们早点订桌的话,我们就不可能在这里站着 排队了。可知if从句是对过去的虚拟,用过去完成时态。 【2013福建】30. ----Do you think George has passed the driving test? ----No. If so, he ______ his car to our college yesterday. A. would drive B. drove C. would have driven D. had driven 14【答案】C 【解析】考查虚拟语气。根据句意,如果这样的话(乔治已经通过驾照考试),他昨天 就驾车来我们大学了,可知是对过去的虚拟。If so= If he had passed the driving test, 主句使用情态动词+ have done。故答案选C。 【2013江苏】30. I should not have laughed if I you were serious. A. thought B. would think C. had thought D. have thought 15【答案】C 【解析】考查虚拟语气。此处为if虚拟条件句,其主句使用的是should have done,可 知是对过去的虚拟,故从句用过去完成时态表示对过去的虚拟。

【2013陕西】12. My mom suggests that we eat out for a change this weekend. A. should B. might C. could D. would 16【答案】A 【解析】考查虚拟语气。题干关键词为suggest,表示建议,其后所接的名词性从句应用 “(should+)动词原形”的虚拟语气,故选A。
【2013天津】14. If he had spent more time practicing speaking English before, he able to speak it much better now. A. will be B. would be C. has been D. would have been 17【答案】B 【解析】考查虚拟语气。此题为if虚拟条件句,从句时间为before,故是对过去的虚拟, 用过去完成时态,主句时间为now,故是对现在的虚拟,因此用情态动词过去式后接动 词原形,答案为B。 【2013浙江】8. Eye doctors recommend that a child’s first eye exam ______ at the age of six months old. A. was B. be C. were D. is 18【答案】B 【解析】考查虚拟语气。题干关键词为recommend,表示“推荐,建议”,后接宾语从 句时应用(should+)动词原形的虚拟语气,此处省去了should,故答案为B。

【2013重庆】29. - It rained cats and dogs this morning. I’m glad we took an umbrella. - Yeah, we would have got wet all over if we A. hadn’t B. haven't C. didn't D. don't 19【答案】A 【解析】考查虚拟语气。虚拟条件句主句从句均为对过去的虚拟,if从句使用过去完成时 态,故选A。 【2013安徽】28. I to my cousin’s birthday party last night, but I was not available A. went B. had gone C. would go D. would have gone 20【答案】D 【解析】考查虚拟语气。根据句意:昨晚我本想要去参加我表亲的生日聚会,但我没空。 选项中能表示对过去虚拟的只有D答案:用情态动词过去式后加have done表示。

2010高考真题和模拟题 1. Jack described his father, who ______ a brave boy many years ago, as a strong-willed man.(2010· 安徽) A. would be B. would have been C. must be D. must have been 解析:选D。句意为:杰克把多年前曾是勇敢男孩的父亲描述为一 个意志坚强的人。must have been表示对过去事情的肯定推测。 2. You ______ buy a gift, but you can if you want to. (2010· 湖南) A. must B. Mustn’t C. have to D. don’t have to 解析:选D。don’t have to 意为“没有必要”,符合语境。句意为: 你没有必要买礼物,但如果你想买的话,你也可以买。 3. I have told you the truth. _____ I keep repeating it? (2010· 江西) A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will 解析:选A。must 必须;一定;can 可以, 能够;may 也许;will 将 要。句意为:我已经告诉你事实了,我还必须重复一遍吗?

4. I ______ have watched that movie-it’ll give me horrible dreams. (2010· 山东) A. shouldn’t B. needn’t C. couldn’t D. mustn’t 解析:选A。句意为:我本来不应该看那部电影——它会使我做噩 梦的。表示“本来不应该做而做了某事”用shouldn’t have done, 所 以A项正确。 5. Mark ______ have hurried. After driving at top speed, he arrived half an hour early. (2010· 天津) A. needn’t B. wouldn’t C. mustn’t D. couldn’t 解析:选A。句意为:迈克本来不必要那么急的,这么高速驾驶之 后,他提前了半个小时到达。用needn’t have done 结构,表示“本 来不必要做某事而实际上做了”。 6. —_____ I take the book out? —I’m afraid not. (2010· 四川) A. Will B. May C. Must D. Need 解析:选B。表示请求可用情态动词can, may, could, might,表示允 许用can, may。句意为:——我可以将这本书带出去吗?——恐怕 不行。故应选表示请求的情态动词may。

7. Just be patient. You _______ expect the world to change so soon. (2010· 全国Ⅰ) A. can’t B. needn’t C. may not D. will not 解析:选A。考查情态动词。can’t不可能;needn’t没有必要;may not可能不; will not 将不会。句意为:要耐心。你不能期望世界会 这么快地改变。 8. —I haven’t got the reference book yet, but I’ll have a test on the subject next month. —Don’t worry. You ______ have it by Friday. (2010· 江苏) A. could B. shall C. must D. may 解析:选B。could能够;must 必须; may也许;可以。shall在第二 人称中表示允诺,还可以表示强制,命令,威胁,警告,符合语境。 9. —May I take this book out of the reading room? —No, you ______. You read it in here.(2010· 陕西) A. mightn’t B. won’t C. needn’t D. mustn’t 解析:选D。考查情态动词。could,might表示询问或征求意见的 问句中,肯定回答要用can或may来代替could或might;may或 might表示征求意见的问句中,否定回答用mustn’t,故选D。

10. I’m afraid Mr. Harding _______ see you now. He’s busy. (2010· 全国Ⅱ) A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t 解析:选A。考查情态动词。句意为:恐怕Harding先生现在不可 能见你,他很忙。can’t用于疑问或否定句中表推测。 11. Doctors say that exercise is important for health, but it ______ be regular exercise. (2010· 辽宁) A. can B. will C. must D. may 解析:选C。考查情态动词。句意为:医生说锻炼对身体健康重要, 但是必须是有规律的锻炼。can表示“可能;能力”;will表示“愿 意”;may表示“可能”;must表示“必须”。由句意可知,选C。 12. —Good morning. I’ve got an appointment with Miss Smith in the Personnel Department. —Ah, good morning. You _____ be Mrs. Peters. (2010· 北京) A. might B. must C. would D. can 解析:选B。根据语境,双方应是事先预约好的,所以双方都明确 彼此的身份,故用must表示“一定”。

13. “You ______ have a wrong number,” she said. “There?s no one of that name here.”(2010· 浙江) A. need B. can C. must D. would 解析:选C。need需要;can能,可以;must一定,必须;would 要,会。由语境可知,空格处的词对目前的情况作出肯定判断。 14. —Sorry, Professor Smith. I didn?t finish the assignment yesterday. —Oh, you _______ have done it as yesterday was the deadline. (2010· 上海) A. must B. mustn’t C. should D. shouldn’t 解析:选C。根据语境可知,此处表示和过去事实相反的情况,应 该用should have done 表示本来应该做,而未做。 15. Bob would have helped us yesterday, but he______.(2010· 安徽) A. was busy B. is busy C. had been busy D. will be busy 解析:选A。前半句表示对过去的虚拟,而but之后表示过去的客 观事实,故用一般过去时态。

16. If he _____ my advice, he wouldn’t have lost his job. (2010· 湖南) A. followed B. should follow C. had followed D. would follow 解析:选C。选C。根据“wouldn’t have lost”可判断if引导的状语 从句表示与过去事实相反。 17. —John went to the hospital alone. —If he _____ me about it, I would have gone with him. (2010· 天津) A. should tell B. tells C. told D. had told 解析:选D。答句句意为:如果他告诉我的话,我会跟他一起去的。 前一句是陈述语气,说明动作发生在过去,而且后一句的主句已经 是would have gone,说明是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,与之对应 的从句结构,应该用had +过去分词。 18. If we ______ the other road, we might have arrived here in time for the meeting. (2010· 陕西) A. take B. had taken C. took D. have taken 解析:选B。考查虚拟语气。根据主句的谓语动词might have arrived可知,本句是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,所以if条件句中 应该用had+过去分词形式。

19. Had I known about this computer program, a huge amount of time and energy ______.(2010· 浙江) A. would have been saved B. had been saved C. will be saved D. was saved 解析:选A。句意为:如果我早知道这个电脑程序,就可以节省大 量的时间和精力了。根据句子的倒装特征判断此处是省略了if的虚 拟语气,原句为:If I had known about this computer program, a huge amount of time and energy...。 20. —The weather has been very hot and dry. —Yes. If it had rained even a drop, things would be much better now! And my vegetables_______. (2010· 北京) A. wouldn’t die B. didn’t die C. hadn’t died D. wouldn’t have died 解析:选D。由条件句中的had rained可知,这是与过去事实相反 的虚拟语气,但主句有时间状语now,所以用了与现在事实相反虚拟 语气would be;最后一句话也是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故用 would’t have died。


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