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高考英语阅读、完形填空长难句教学探索


高考英语阅读、完形填空 长难句教学探索

尤溪一中

周尚清

长难句教学探索 一.问题引入 内容摘要: 二.问题分析 三.问题对策

一.问题引入:什么是“长难句”
? 一副网络对联:
上联: 在乎你的我只在乎我在乎的是是否在乎在乎你的我, 我在乎的你是否和在乎你的我在乎我在

乎的你一样

在乎在乎你。
下联:

想念我的你只想念你想念的是是否想念想念我的你,
你想念的我是否和想念我的你想念你想念的我一样

想念想念你。

? 2013厦门质检语文试题 ? 把下面这段文字改写成三个短句:

?

3月6日国家税务总局某官员基于个税起征点提高到 3000元已让纳税人的人数减少三分之二的事实对全国 政协会议代表们继续提高个税起征点的呼吁表示不可能。 ? (1)___________ ? (2)___________ ? (3)___________

英语“长难句”定义: 1. “长句”+ “难句”
2. “句长”→“难句”

二.问题分析:长难句“难”在 哪
1. 心理因素(注意力,思维接受能力,心理承受能力等) 2. 英语多从句,句子长且结构复杂
Decision thinking is not unlike poker — it often matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. (NMET2000. C 篇) 做决策像打扑克牌,起
作用的不但是你怎么想的,还包括别人对你的想法是怎么看的以 及你对别人的看法是如何考虑的。

3. 英语多被动结构

? An idea suddenly struck me. 我突然想到 了一个主意。 ? A strange peace came over her when she was alone. 她独处时便感到一种特殊 的安宁。 ? Not a sound reached our ears.我们什么 也没听到

4. 标点
1) I confess that when first I made acquaintance with Charles Strickland I never for a moment discerned that there was in him anything out of the ordinary. 2) … And your personal car, if you have one,

becomes just one more tool in the toolbox ---and often an inadequate one, limiting both your mobility and your wallet.(2012湖北卷B篇)

加标点: Woman without her man is nothing Woman, without her man, is nothing. Woman! Without her, man is nothing.
① I think China is a great country. ② China, I think, is a great country.

5. 干扰成分
Jone plays football as well as, if not better than, David.

6. 隔裂现象(动词与宾语,名词与定语,名词与of,等)
1. Employers will certainly require as their employees students with higher qualifications than were sought a few years ago. 2. The acceptance of this concept is the basis of the many suggestions to teachers to make clear to children, by discussion, by visits and excursions, and in other ways the social relevance of the school’s activities.

(一)在思想上消除“畏难怕长”情绪。

三.问题对策:如何攻“长”克 “难”
如何看待长难句? 足够长就好。不怕长,只怕短。

(On my way home,I met a robber )
A: Stop! B: Why? A: Money. B: No. A: Kill! B: Ah-----. Robber: Stop! I : Why? Robber: Money. I: No. Robber: Kill! I: Ah-----.

(二)在阅读中调动多种感官提高长难句理解 能力。
从眼、口、耳、脑、手等多种感官入手,促进 英语长难句教学。
⑴找谓语,把握核心。 ⑵找名词,了解大意。 ⑶提主干,去除枝叶。

Ⅰ. 眼

⑷寻关联,辨认逻辑。 ⑸还真相,降低难度 ⑹看标点,理清思路。 ⑺找搭配,变生为熟。

⑻视觉差,培养层次感。

⑴找谓语,把握核心。

例题:Tennis star Chris Evert, who retired from
the game after eighteen years, perhaps _____ more than anyone to make women’s professional tennis a widely respected career. A. who did B. has done C. and doing D. to do

⑵找名词,了解大意。

? They may think that eating lunch is the cause of the sleepiness. Or,in summer, they may think it is the heat. However,the real reason lies inside their bodies. At that time —about eight hours after you wake up—your body temperature goes down. This is what makes you slow down and feel sleepy. (NMET 2008 四川卷C篇)

⑶提主干,去除枝叶。

?

例句:The smallest and appropriate references to persons and places and events contained in the accounts of the Exodus, for instance, or the biographies of such Biblical heroes as Abraham and Moses and David, can lead, if properly considered and prusued, to extremely important historical discoveries. The references can lead to discoveries.

寻找句子主干的时候要注意,一般句子开头的第一
个独立名词(前面没有介词或关联词)就是句子主语. eg. 1. In the classroom, my teacher is writing… 2. That she was coming here is a surprise to me. 如果看到两个名词重叠,基本可以断定第一个名词是 主语,而第二个则是修饰它的定语从句的主语,如: The boy the girl… The pen Mr Smith… 定语从句 The city you…

谓语动词

主语

另外,提取句子主干往往要进行跳读:跳读插入语、介词 词组、非谓语动词、分隔现象、定语从句、状语从句等。

例句:I know even of a case where the husband,
because he did not want to exact his mark of selflessness from his wife who was sick and in bad health, refused, when urged by the wife, to take a concubine, but the wife, without his knowledge and consent, not only bought a concubine, but actually forced him to take the concubine into the house. “Case”的主要内容: The husband refused to take a concubine, but the wife not only bought a concubine, but (also) forced him to take the concubine into the house.

⑷寻关联,辨认逻辑。

? 例句:They may think that eating lunch is the cause of the sleepiness. Or,in summer,they may think it is the heat. However,the real reason lies inside their bodies. At that time —about eight hours after you wake up—your body temperature goes down. This is what makes you slow down and feel sleepy.

⑸还真相,降低难度。
难句往往有省略、插入语、前置、倒装、强调、被 动、双重否定等非常规结构。我们可以利用还原法,还 复杂句型以本来面目 。 ①No longer will the public accept the old attitude of “Buy it,throw it away,and forget it.”(NMET2001 C
篇)

→还原成:The public will no longer accept the old attitude of “Buy it,throw it away,and forget it”.

②Decision thinking is not unlike poker —
→简化成: Decision thinking is like poker —

⑹看标点,理清思路。 ? 标点符号(特别是逗号)在句中的主要作用是:断 句衔接和引导插入语。 ①逗号与并列的句子成分 He stood up,put on his coat(,) and went out. They reached home at last, cold, tired(,) and hungry.
We swear that we all obey the rules, that we must work hard(,) and that we should love our motherland.

②逗号与做状语的非谓语动词
“We can’t go out in this weather,”said Bob, looking out of the window.
It being Sunday, there were no students having classes in the school.

③逗号与定语从句 ? As is well known to all, China is a large country with a long history.
? 试比较: (不止一个儿子)

? His son who works in Xiamen came back last week.
? His son, who works in Xiamen, came back last week.
(只有一个儿子)

④逗号与同位语 Beautiful Zhang Ziyi plays the part of Yu Jiaolong, a young woman who is not as good as she seems. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, one I will always treasure.

⑤逗号与一些副词,插入语,介词短语和单成分句
? 副词:however, though, therefore, besides, moreover… ? 介词短语: in my opinion, for example, in addition, on the contrary… ? 插入语:I think, I believe… ? 单成分句:what’s more, what’s worse, that’s to say, I dare say… ⑥破折号
I must be getting fat ---- I can hardly do my trousers up. Turn down the radio ---- the baby’s asleep in the next room.

Mary, come here ---- everyone else,stay where you are.

⑺找搭配,变生为熟。

? 例1:Some companies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products,to some degree,their main selling points and emphasize it in their advertising.

例2:The acceptance of this concept is the basis of the many suggestions to teachers to make clear to children, by discussion, by bisits and excursions, and in other ways, the social relevance of the school’s activities.

⑻视觉差,培养语句层次感。 ? ①Jenny’s not having been trained as a dancer
? ? ? ? is her regret. ②After what seemed like hours he came out with a bitter smile. ③She spoke so fast that none of us understood what what she said meant. ④Lucy is the only one of the students who has handed in the paper. ⑤The father as well as his three children goes skating every Sunday. ⑥The long-lasting war, filled with blood and deaths, ended in people’s sadness, reaching no result.

?

以上例句中,①②③培养学习者对强调部分的整体感, 而④⑤⑥则凸显句子主干,淡化次要成分。

(二)在阅读中调动多种感官提高长难句理解 能力。
从眼、口、耳、脑、手等多种感官入手,促进 英语长难句教学。 1. 利用意群朗读教学法培养句子 层次感

Ⅱ. 口
2. 利用添枝加叶造句法培养句子 层次感。

A.利用意群朗读教学法培养句子层次感。 ⑴ Thinking that︱you know what in fact you don’t︱is a terrible mistake. ? ⑵ You can’t imagine︱how fast our ancestors were︱compared with modern humans. ? ⑶ He criticizes communication technology︱for lying to us︱by telling us that︱it will bring people together︱when it actually keeps them apart. ? ⑷ It was at the end of the nineteenth century,︱ with the perfecting of the electric light bulb,︱the telephone,︱the photograph,︱and the like,︱that the ordinary man began to feelthat ︱science could actually benefit him.
?

对于一些易混易错的句子,为增强感受效果,可用 夸张的换气法代替停顿: ? ? ? ⑴ What water is(换气)is known to all. ⑵ The theory he stuck to(换气)proved correct. ⑶ The number(换气)of people who own cars (换气)is increasing. ? ⑷ People caught driving while drunk twice in the same year(换气)will have their licenses taken away for up to five years. ? ⑸ Usually at the beginning of school, the noise of desks being opened and closed, and lessons repeated at the top of the children’s voices(换气) could be heard out in the street. ? ⑹ The only problem facing us at present is that (换气) we don’t have much money.

B. 利用添枝加叶造句法培养句子层次感。 ? The old man died. ? → The old man died in the lonely house. ? → The old man died in the lonely house yesterday.
? → Having suffered from starvation, the old man died in the lonely house yesterday. ? → Having suffered from starvation, the old man died in the lonely house yesterday,
leaving nothing. ? →…

(二)在阅读中调动多种感官提高长难句理解 能力。
从眼、口、耳、脑、手等多种感官入手,促进 英语长难句教学。 材料一:美国小学枪击案奥巴马 哽咽落泪演讲

Ⅲ. 耳

材料二:奥巴马就职演说

材料三:I Have a Dream
材料四:世界上最遥远的距离The furthest distance in the world

材料一:美国小学枪击案奥巴马哽咽落泪演讲

? …Because while nothing can fill the space of a lost child or loved one, all of us can extend a hand to those in need — to remind them that we are there for them, that we are praying for them, that the love they felt for those they lost endures not just in their memories but also in ours.

材料二:奥巴马就职演说

? …We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths – that all of us are created equal – is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great Mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth….

?

?

? ?

材料三:I Have a Dream I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day down in Alabama with its vicious racists with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification, one day right down in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers….

材料四:世界上最遥远的距离
The furthest distance in the world

? The furthest distance in the world

世界上最遥远的距离
Is not between life and death

不是生与死
But when I stand in front of you

而是 我就站在你面前
Yet you don't know that I love you

你却不知道我爱你

? The furthest distance in the world

世界上最遥远的距离

Is not when I stand in front of you

不是 我就站在你面前 你却不知道我爱你

Yet you can't see my love But when undoubtedly knowing the love from both

而是 明明知道彼此相爱
Yet cannot be together

却不能在一起

? The furthest distance in the world

世界上最遥远的距离
Is not being apart while being in love

不是 明明知道彼此相爱 却不能在一起
But when painly cannot resist the yearning

而是 明明无法抵挡这股思念
Yet pretending you have never been in my heart

却还得故意装作丝毫没有把你放在心里

? The furthest distance in the world

世界上最遥远的距离

Is not when painly cannot resist the yearning

不是 明明无法抵挡这股思念

yet pretending you have never been in my heart

却还得故意装作丝毫没有把你放在心里
but using one's indifferent heart
To dig an uncrossable river

而是 用自己冷漠的心对爱你的人

掘了一条无法跨越的沟渠

For the one who loves you

(二)在阅读中调动多种感官提高长难句理解 能力。
从眼、口、耳、脑、手等多种感官入手,促进 英语长难句教学。

Ⅳ. 脑

语 言 “ 解 码 ” 过 程

1.线性顺序

2. 层次结构

? 一篇文章的段落结构可能是①-②-③-④-⑤,也有可 能是这样的:

② ① ------- ③ ----- ⑤ ④
句子的结构,和文章结构有相似处。
2012高考北京卷阅读A篇长句:

①In addition to learning how to perform various mathematical operations, ②students discover ③ why these operations work, ④how a particular mathematical topic relates to other branches of mathematics, ⑤and how these operations can be used practically.

句子在头脑中形成层次结构:
? ①In addition to ---②students discover ? ③ why … ④ how … ⑤ how …

(二)在阅读中调动多种感官提高长难句理解 能力。
从眼、口、耳、脑、手等多种感官入手,促进 英语长难句教学。

Ⅴ. 手

经常动手划出长句的谓语动词、名词 等,培养寻读主干信息的习惯。

充分挖掘利用阅读中遇到的长句资源。

教材中的长句资源: ? 例1:M9,U2 Sailing the Ocean ,Using Language阅读材料(P17)第一句话 ? I am proud to have sailed with Captain Bligh on his journey of over 40 days through about 4,000 miles in an open boat across the Pacific Ocean in 1789.

例2:M6,U5 The Power of Nature, WB, Reading Task: Trapped by the Flood (P72)文中有这样的动作细节描写

? Sara dressed baby James in warm clothes and collected the things she would need for him over the next few days. She put the lead on the dog and went in search of Monty, the cat. It took her a long time, but eventually she found him safe and warm under the covers on her bed. She placed him in his cat basket and took him into the kitchen where James and the dog, Rosie, waited.

? Just as she was reaching for the car keys, Sara heard a sound like the noise bath water makes when you pull out the plug. She looked at the back door. Water was flowing in underneath. Turning around she saw dirty brown water fountaining out of the drain and filling the sink. Quickly she put James into her backpack and pulled it onto her back. Calling to Rosie, she picked up the cat basket and ran to the front of the house and out into the front garden.

?

The water was already up to her knees. Rosie was swimming beside her. Knowing the water would soon be much deeper, Sara ran to the car and opened the doors. She threw the cat basket onto the roof of the car and pushed Rosie up beside it. Using the car seat as a step she climbed first onto the front of the car and then onto the roof. James, safely attached to her back, made no sound at all. Sara stared down at the water which was rushing past the car. It was already half way up the doors, and still rising.

课后延伸:Robinson Crusoe , Chapter 4

(三)在完型中运用阅读策略提高分析长难句 能力。
? 联系上下文的逻辑关系和行文内容以及生活常识进行预 测、推理和判断。 例1. 2013厦门质检完型: Memories happen even if we aren’t ___50(aware) of it. The stressful and difficut moments often become memories that we__51(look back upon) later with laughter and joy. The memories of past hurts, bitterness, and anger, __52__, should be left behind ___53__. These are the things that we should never___54__ until the next time they come, mail back, or bring with us to __55__ next visit….

The stressful and difficut moments often become memories that we look back upon later with laughter and joy. 插入成分__52__连接前后两句,语义逻辑:对比。

The memories of past hurts, bitterness, and anger should be left behind

? 54空在意思上延续上句的意思“不好的回忆永 远不要保留”,因此,它的意群读法应该是: ? These are the things that we should never ︱ keep until the next time they come.
而不应该是:
These are the things that we should never keep︱ until the next time they come.

? 例2. 2012高考完形填空试题: (安徽卷)… 41 I’d left myself plenty of time, soon it was 42 I was going to be late, as I had mistakenly boarded a bus that was taking me in the 43 direction.
分析: 41空对前句的plenty of time和后句的late进行逻辑上 的转折,故选 although。

43空呼应前面的mistakenly,故选opposite

? (江西卷) There he was, working hard at his small business, ___48___ at passers-by and stopping to chat now and then ___49___ elderly men and women on their way to the market nearby.
搭配:chat with 三个动词并列,都表“友好”, 故48空选waving

结 束 语
考场上,每一位考生都是一名对自身的知识与能力 运筹帷幄的指挥员。

指挥员正确的部署来源于正确的决心, 正确的决心来源于正确的判断, 正确的判断来源于周到的和必要的侦察, 和对于各种侦察材料联贯起来的思索。 ----毛泽东


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