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动词-ing 形式作状语 动词-ing 形式作状语可以修饰谓语动词或整个句子,表示时间、原因、结果、 条件、让步、方式、伴随或补充。 1.表示时间: 动词-ing 形式作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句。 句首或句末 Turning around, she saw a car driving up. =When she turned around, she saw a car d

riving up. 她转过身,看见一辆车朝她开来。 2.表示原因: 表示原因的动词-ing 形式一般置于句首, 相当于一个原因状语从句。 句 首句中或句末 Being ill, he could not walk any further. =As he was ill, he could not walk any further. 因为疲倦,他不能再往前走了。 3.表示结果: 动词-ing 形式作状语表示一种必然的结果,可扩展为一个含有并列谓语的简单 句。 句末 The fire lasted nearly a month, leaving nothing valuable. =The fire lasted nearly a month, and left nothing valuable. 大火持续了近一个月,几乎没剩下什么值钱的东西。 4.表示条件: 动词-ing 形式作条件状语,相当于一个条件状语从句。 句 首 Being more careful, you can make fewer mistakes. =If you are more careful, you can make fewer mistakes. 更细心点,你就会少犯错误。 5.表示让步 动词-ing 形式作让步状语,相当于一个让步状语从句。 句 首 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. =Although they knew all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。 6.表示方式、伴随或补充说明: 动词-ing 形式表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,可以扩展成为一个并列成 分。 句末 I stood by the door, not daring to say a word. =I stood by the door, and did not dare to say a word. 我站在门旁,不敢说一句话。 He was walking along the street, looking this way and that. =He was walking along the street, and looked this way and that. 他在街 上走着,左顾右盼。 特别提醒 1 [从属连词+动词-ing 形式]作状语 为了使动词-ing 形式作状语所表达的时间、条件、让步等意思更加明确,可在 动词-ing 形式前加上适当的连词(when, while, if,though,unless, even if 等)。例如: 1.Don’t talk while having dinner.吃饭时不要说话。 2.Once losing this chance, you can’t easily find it.一旦失去这次机会 你就很难找回。

特别提醒 2 要避免无依着(无逻辑主语)动词-ing 形式 动词-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致,如果状语与主语不 一致,可给从句加上主语,变成主从复合句。例如: 【错误】While reading the book, the telephone rang. 【正确】While she was reading the book, the telephone rang. 她看书的时候,电话铃响了。(reading 的动作不是 the telephone 发 出) 【错误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. 【正确】Looking out through the window, we found a beautiful garden. 从窗户里,我们看见一个漂亮的花园。(looking 的动作不是 garden 发出) 特别提醒 3 独立动词-ing 形式作状语 英语中有些动词-ing 形式,如 generally speaking, judging from…, c**idering…, talking of…,supposing…等,它们作状语时的逻辑主语可以 和句子的主语不一致。这种形式已经成为固定的用法。例如: Supposing he is ill, who will do the work? 假如他病了,谁来做这工作呢? Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls. 一般来说,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣。 词-ing 形式作状语考点聚焦 动词-ing 形式作状语可以修饰谓语动词或整个句子,表示时间、原因、结果、 条件、让步、方式、伴随或补充。 1.表示时间: 动词-ing 形式作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句。 句首 或 句末 Turning around, she saw a car driving up. =When she turned around, she saw a car driving up. 她转过身,看见一辆车朝她开来。 2.表示原因: 表示原因的动词-ing 形式一般置于句首, 相当于一个原因状语从句。 句 首 句中或 句末 Being ill, he could not walk any further. =As he was ill, he could not walk any further. 因为疲倦,他不能再往前走了。 3.表示结果: 动词-ing 形式作状语表示一种必然的结果,可扩展为一个含有并列谓语的简单 句。 句末 The fire lasted nearly a month, leaving nothing valuable. =The fire lasted nearly a month, and left nothing valuable. 大火持续了近一个月,几乎没剩下什么值钱的东西。 4.表示条件: 动词-ing 形式作条件状语,相当于一个条件状语从句。 句 首 Being more careful, you can make fewer mistakes. =If you are more careful, you can make fewer mistakes. 更细心点,你就会少犯错误。

5.表示让步 动词-ing 形式作让步状语,相当于一个让步状语从句。 句 首 Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. =Although they knew all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。 6.表示方式、伴随或补充说明: 动词-ing 形式表示行为方式、伴随情况或补充说明,可以扩展成为一个并列成 分。 句末 I stood by the door, not daring to say a word. =I stood by the door, and did not dare to say a word. 我站在门旁,不敢说一句话。 He was walking along the street, looking this way and that. =He was walking along the street, and looked this way and that. 他在街 上走着,左顾右盼。 特别提醒 1 [从属连词+动词-ing 形式]作状语 为了使动词-ing 形式作状语所表达的时间、条件、让步等意思更加明确,可在 动词-ing 形式前加上适当的连词(when, while, if,though,unless, even if 等)。例如: 1.Don’t talk while having dinner.吃饭时不要说话。 2.Once losing this chance, you can’t easily find it.一旦失去这次机会 你就很难找回。 特别提醒 2 要避免无依着(无逻辑主语)动词-ing 形式 动词-ing 形式作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致,如果状语与主语不 一致,可给从句加上主语,变成主从复合句。例如: 【错误】While reading the book, the telephone rang. 【正确】While she was reading the book, the telephone rang. 她看书的时候,电话铃响了。(reading 的动作不是 the telephone 发 出) 【错误】Looking out through the window, the garden was beautiful. 【正确】Looking out through the window, we found a beautiful garden. 从窗户里,我们看见一个漂亮的花园。(looking 的动作不是 garden 发出) 特别提醒 3 独立动词-ing 形式作状语 英语中有些动词-ing 形式,如 generally speaking, judging from…, c**idering…, talking of…,supposing…等,它们作状语时的逻辑主语可以 和句子的主语不一致。这种形式已经成为固定的用法。例如: Supposing he is ill, who will do the work? 假如他病了,谁来做这工作呢? Generally speaking, boys are more interested in science than girls. 一般来说,男孩比女孩对科学更感兴趣。 注意: a. 动词-ing 形式作状语, 当句子的谓语动词和动词-ing 形式的动词所表动作在 时间上几乎同时发生时,用 doing 作状语,;若动词-ing 形式动作发生在句子 谓语动词所表示的动作之前,用其完成时 having done 作状语,;动词-ing 形 式的否定形式为:not doing 或者 not having done,。 b. 有一些固定的动词-ing 形式作状语,这就是独立成分,。 c. 当句子主语和动词-ing 形式的主语不一致时, 则不可省略动词-ing 形式的主

语。这时可用独立主格结构,即:带有逻辑主语的动词-ing 形式作状语;或者 用 with 复合结构作伴随状语。

V-ing 作状语 4.表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句 (1)不带连词的 v-ing 表条件 Turning left at the corner of the street,you will find the bank. =If you turn left at the corner of the street,you will find the bank. (2)带连词的 v-ing 表条件,条件通常是 if ,once,unless If coming by car,you will save one hour. =If you come by car, you will save one hour. 5.表示让步,相当于一个让步状语从句 (1)不带连词的 v-ing 表示让步 Knowing the reason.the made me par for the damage. =Although they knew the reason.the made me par for the damage. (2)带连词的 v-ing 表示让步,连词通常是 though,although,wether、、、or、、、 Whether waking or sleeping,the subject is always in his mind. =Whether he is waking or sleeping,the subject is always in his mind.

Practice:Translation 1. 只要刻苦学习,你会成功的。 ___________hard at your lessons,you will success. 2. 2.要不是今天在办公室遇到了出乎意料的麻烦,我早就回家了。 Unless _____the unexpected difficulties at the office today,I shall be home early. 3. 尽管很努力,它考试还是没有通过。 __________,he failed the exam again. 4. 尽管不懂希腊语,尼克也能与他们交流。 Though ______no greek, Nick was able to communicate with them.

透视高考试题 解读 V-ing 形式作状语
先看一道 2004 年的上海春招试题:

Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ________ the girl and took her away, ________ in the woods.

A. seizing; disappeared

B. seized; disappeared

C. seizing; disappearing

D. seized; disappearing

本题选 D。由句中的 and 可知前一空选与 took 并列的谓语动词,用 disappearing 是现在分词作状语。 句意是"突然,一个开着黄色车的男子抓住那个女孩并把她带走了,而后消失在树林中 "。

现在分词作状语是历年的高考热点之一,本文将结合部分高考试题解读动词作状语的 V-ing 形式。

作状语的现在分词所表示的动作是句子谓语动词的一部分,表示与谓语动词的动作(状态)同时发生,通 常用逗号与句子隔开。其逻辑主语通常要与句子的主语保持一致,即句子的主语就是动词 V-ing 的动作执行 者。

一、V-ing 形式所作的状语成分

1.时间状语 (可以与 when 等引导的时间状语从句转换)

1) Finding her car stolen, ________.

A. a policeman was asked to help

B. the area was searched thoroughly

C. it was looked for everywhere

D. she hurried to a policeman for help

(key:D)

可以转换成:When she found her car stolen, she hurried to a policeman for help.

2) Having closed the windows, he went out of the classroom. 关上窗户后,他走出教室。

可以转换成:After he closed the windows, he...

2.原因状语(可以与 as/since/because 等引导的原因状语从句转换)

1) ________ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.

A. Having sufferedB. Suffering

C. To suffer D. Suffered (key:A)

2) ________ a reply, he decided to write again.

A. Not receivingB.Receiving not

C. Not having received

D. Having not received

本题答案是 C。可以转换成:He hadn't received a reply so he decided to write again.

3.条件状语(可以与 if/ unless 等引导的条件状语从句转换)

1) Using your head, you'll have a good idea.

(= If you use your head, you'll have a good idea./ Use your head and you'll have a good idea.) 如果 你动动脑筋,你就会想出办法来。

2) Turning to the left, you will find a house whose gate faces to the east.

(= If you turn to the left, you will find a house whose gate faces to the east./Turn to the left, and you will find a house whose gate faces to the east.) 向左转,你就会看到一座大门朝东的房子。

4.伴随状语(不可以转换成从句,但可以转换成并列句)

1) The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks, ________ that he had enjoyed his stay here.

A. having added B. to add

C. adding D. added (key:C)

可以转换成:The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with the talks and added that he had enjoyed his stay here.

2) "Can't you read?" Mary said________to the notice.

A. angrily pointing

B. and point angrily

C. angrily pointed

D. and angrily pointing (key:A)

5.结果状语(可以与 so... that...引导的结果状语从句相互转换,有时也可以转换成非限制性定语从句)

1) European football is played in 80 countries, ________ it the most popular sport in the world.

A. making B. makes

C. madeD. to make (key:A)

可以转换成:European football is played in 80 countries, which makes it the most popular sport in the world.

2) A number of new machines were installed in the factory, thus resulting in an increase in production.这家工厂安装了许多新机器,因而增加了生产。

6.方式状语

Travelling by car, we visited many places. 我们乘车游览了许多地方。

7.让步状语(可以与 though/ even though"尽管、即使"转换)

Working very hard, he didn't feel a bit tired. 尽管拼命地工作,却丝毫不感到疲劳。

可以转换成:Though he worked very hard, he didn't feel a bit tired.

Admitting what she said, I still think she hasn't tried her best. 尽管承认她所说的话,但我仍然认为她 没有尽到最大的努力。

二、 分词独立结构

有时现在分词有自己的逻辑主语,这时其逻辑主语相对于句子的主语来说是独立的,因此又叫独立主格 结构,构成形式是"名词/代词+V-ing"。

She being ill, her mother had to look after her at home.她生病了,母亲不得不在家照顾她。

The meeting being over, we went to play football. 会议一结束,我们就去踢足球去了。

三、悬垂分词状语

严格地说,作状语的分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,如果不是,那么分词短语就悬垂无依附了,也就成了 病句。但有时有些作状语的分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致也是正确的,这些分词多半已经转化成介词 或连词。如:

1. 副词+speaking。

Generally speaking, as a foreign language Chinese is more difficult to learn than English.一般地说, 作为一门外语,汉语要比英语难学。

2. 转化成介词。如:including (包括),following (在……之后),according to(根据)等。

There are 50 students in our class, including Tom. 包括汤姆在内,我们班有 50 名学生。

3. 转化为连词。如:supposing(如果),seeing that(鉴于、由于)。

Supposing he is not in, what shall we do?如果他不在家,我们怎么办?

四、连词+现在分词

由 when / while / after / before / if /

though / unless/as if 等引导的状语从句的主语与主句的主语一致时,如果从句的谓语动词是主动语态, 则可以省略从句的主语,而保留原连词,形成"连词+现在分词"的结构形式。

1) Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university.

A. lacked B. lacking of

C. lacking D. lacked in (key:C)

可以转化成:Though they lacked(缺少)money, his parents managed to send him to university.

2) ________, I went to the railway station to see my friend off.

A. After eating quickly my dinner

B. After my quickly eating dinner

C. After eating my dinner quickly

D. After eating my quickly dinner (key:C)

巩固练习:

1. The secretary worked late into the night, ________ a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare B. preparing

C. prepared D. was preparing

2. She set out soon after dark ________ home an hour later.

A. arriving B. to arrive

C. having arrived D. and arrived

3. She's upstairs ________ letters.

A. writes B. is writing

C. write D. writing

4. ________ from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes.

A. Suffered B. Suffering

C. Having suffered

D. Being suffered

5. He sent me an E-mail, to get further information.

A. hoped B. hoping

C. to hope D. hope

6. She asked me to help her,________ that she could not move the heavy suitcase alone.

A. only to realize

B. realizing C. have been realized

D. realized

7. While building a tunnel through the mountain, ________.

A. an underground lake was discovered

B. there was an underground lake discovered

C. a lake was discovered underground

D. the workers discovered an underground lake

8. ________ your composition carefully, some spelling mistakes can be avoided.

A. Having checked

B. Check C. If you check

D. To check

Key: 1-5 BDDCB 6-8 BDC

(文/王玉峰 吴穿云;英语通高中一年级版 03~04 学年第 5 期; 版权归英语辅导报社所有,独家网络 合作伙伴新浪教育,未经许可,不得以任何形式进行转载。)


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