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专业英语1.1 Introduction and vocabulary


药 学 英 语
梁现蕊

电话: 15314607627
E-mail : liangxrvicky@zjut.edu.cn

An advantage of using the solar energy is

that it won’t produce any pollution.
<

br />It is conceivable that knowledge plays an
important role in our life.

One of the least complicated approaches to the

manufacture of sustained release dosage forms(缓释制
剂) involves the direct compression of blends of drug,

retardant material(缓释剂) and additives(添加剂) to
form a tablet in which drug is embedded in a matrix

core of the retardant.

1.为什么要开设专业英语?
① 顺利阅读专业文章,丰富专业知识 ② 从事学习与科研工作的重要工具

③ 国际学术交流

2.如何学好专业英语?
① 掌握专业英语的特点
② 记忆一定量的专业词汇 ③ 大量阅读和翻译专业外文文献

④ 及时查阅专业词典

3.一些学习专业英语的素材
① 图书馆外文期刊室

② 图书馆网上资源
③ 进入外国大学网站

④ 看英文原版教材

参考教材
《药学英语》李有贵编, 高教出版社 《药学英语》胡廷熹编, 人卫出版社 《Medicinal Chemistry》科学出版社 《药学专业英语》自编讲义

教学安排
1. 学时分配: 32学时(16周) 2. 教学进度: 第1-4周:词汇介绍 第5-10周: 阅读技巧训练 第11-12周:药品说明书及阅读训练

第13周:药典介绍及阅读训练
第14-15周:专利介绍及阅读训练

第16周:考查

专业英语的特点 一、文体特点

二、词汇特点

(一)科技英语的文体特点
科技英语泛指一切论及或谈及科学或技术的英文书面语和口头 语,具体包括:

(1)科技著述、科技论文、科技报告、实验报告等;
(2)各类科技情报及其它文字资料; (3)科技使用手册(仪器、仪表、机械和工具等的结构描述和 操作规程; (4)科技会议、会谈及交谈用语; (5)科技影片或录象等有声资料的解说词等。

例句
Drugs for use in rare diseases, or in life-threatening and

yet untreatable states, may be evaluated in patient
groups at an earlier stage than those with readily

measurable effects on common diseases.

.

药物用于罕见病例,或病情危急生命或属不治之症时,其药效 评价可于前期进行;如药物用于常见病例,其效果随时可见, 评价则在较后阶段进行。

特点: 严谨周密,概念准确,逻辑性强,行文简练, 重点突出,句式严整,常用前置性陈述句

清晰、准确、精练、严密

例句
The formulation must be preserved against

decomposition due to chemical degradation and
protected from microbial contamination and the

destructive influences of excessive heat, light,
and moisture.
药品保存时必须防止化学降解引起的变质,避免微生物污染以 及因过度的光、热和潮湿引起药品成分的变质。

(二)专业英语的词汇特点
词汇形式

基础词汇型 科技缩略型 专有名词型 专业术语型

基础词汇型
(1) 广泛使用表示动作或状态的抽象名词,以及 有名词功用的动名词

(2) 广泛采用名词连用形式
(3)形容词或分词与名词连用形式 (4)复合词

(1) 广泛使用表示动作或状态的抽象名词,动名词

absorption rate constant therapeutic drug monitoring compound preparations

吸收速率常数 治疗药物监测 调配剂型 缓释片 主动靶向制剂

sustained release tablets
active targeting preparation

(1) 广泛使用表示动作或状态的抽象名词,动名词

recycling elution

循环洗脱

sampling survey
sampling error

抽样调查
抽样误差

thickening agent
random screening in drug discovery drug-loading rate

增稠剂
药物发现中的随 机筛选 载药量

(2) 广泛采用名词连用形式

safety range target cell surface tension

安全范围 靶细胞 表面张力

surface activity
titration curve

表面活性
滴定曲线

apparent solubility

表观溶解度

(2) 广泛采用名词连用形式

base adsorption consistency curve

基质吸附率

稠度曲线
配位数 晶型

coordination number
crystal form side effect

副作用

(2) 广泛采用名词连用形式

drug tolerance receptor stimulant receptor antagonist drug excretion drug absorption

药物耐受 受体激动剂 受体拮抗剂 药物代谢 药物吸收

drug interaction

药物相互作用

(3)形容词或分词与名词连用形式

compressed tablets adhersive strength cohesive strength accelerated testing

普通片
粘附力

内聚力
加速试验

convective mixing
critical relative humidity

对流混合
临界相对湿度 临界速度

critical velocity

(3)形容词或分词与名词连用形式

cumulative size distribution

累积分布

diffusive mixing
dispersed phase dispersible tablets distilled water half life long-term testing

扩散混合
分散相 分散片 蒸馏水 半衰期 长期试验

(3)复合词

bond-covalent

共价键

bond-ionic
habit-forming

离子键
成瘾

coated-tablets
scored-tablets

包衣片
刻(划)痕片

sugar-coated tablets
film-coated tablets

糖衣片
薄膜片

(3)复合词

ion-exchange blood-brain barrier concentration gradient first-pass effect

离子交换 血脑屏障 浓度梯度 首过效应

专有名词型 Arrhenius equation 阿雷尼乌斯方程

Clausius-Clapeyron equation 克劳修斯-克拉伯龙方程 Friedel-Crafts Reaction 傅克反应 Bronsted-Lowry's acid-base theory 布朗斯特-劳里酸 碱理论

科技缩略型

APC (Aspirin compound ) QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) CYD (cyclodextrin) 环糊精 CA (cellulose acetate) 醋酸纤维素 CCNa (croscarmellose sodium) 交联羧甲基纤维素钠

科技缩略型 DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) DMF (dimethyl formamide) AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance )

(二)专业英语的词汇特点
专业术语型
1. 医药科技英语词汇主要来自于英语、希腊语、拉

丁语及现代英语等。
技术词的构词方式(1)直接从希腊语和拉丁语

中吸收;(2)利用希腊语和拉丁语的词素(前
缀或后缀)构成。

2. 科技英语词汇的词义单一,具有准确性和严密性
的特点。

1. Element
element H name Hydrogen element O name Oxygen

Li Na
Mg

Lithium Sodium
Magnesium

F C
N

Fluorine Carbon
Nitrogen

Al
Si K

Aluminum
Silicon Potassium

P
S Cl

Phosphorus
Sulfur Chlorine

例 句
Like the other alkali metals, sodium is a soft, lightweight, silvery white, reactive element that is never

found unbound in nature. It is highly reactive, burns
with a yellow flame, oxidizes in air and reacts violently

with water, forcing it to be kept under oil.

2. Binary compounds

Symbol
Br Cl F H I N

Element
Bromine Chlorine Fluorine Hydrogen Iodine Nitrogen

Stem
BromChlorFluorHydrIodNitr-

Binary Name Endings Bromide
Chloride Fluoride Hydride Iodide Nitride

O
P S

Oxygen
Phosphor Sulfur

OxPhosphSulf- or Sulfur

Oxide
Phosphide Sulfide

例 句
Binary compounds are those composed of the atoms of
two elements. When one of the elements is a metal and

the other is a non-metal the resulting compound is
composed of electrically charged atoms called ions.

Positively charged ions are called cations, and
negatively charged ions are anions. .

hydro + 非金属词干 + ic + acid
Formula HF HCl HBr HI H2S Name Hydrofluoric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydriodic acid Hydrosulfuric acid

H2Se

Hydroselenic acid

例 句

Fluorine and its compounds are used in producing uranium(铀)(from the hexafluoride) and more than 100 commercial fluorochemicals, including many hightemperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid etches(蚀刻, 蚀 镂) glass of light bulbs. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are extensively used in air conditioning and refrigeration.

金属 + 非金属词干 + ide
Formula MgBr2
Na2O AlCl3 PbS NH4F Ca(OH)2 KCN

Name Magnesium bromide
Sodium oxide Aluminum chloride Lead(II) sulfide Ammonium fluoride Calcium hydroxide Potassium cyanide

The alkylation reaction is more widely used than the acylation

reaction, although its practice is more technically demanding
because the reaction is more sluggish. For both reactions, the aluminium chloride, as well as other materials and the equipment, should be dry, although a trace of moisture is necessary for the reaction to proceed. A general problem with

the Friedel-Crafts reaction is that the aluminium chloride
catalyst sometimes is required in full stoichiometric quantities, because it complexes strongly with the products .

3. Ternary
Formula H2SO3 name Sulfurous acid

compounds
Formula HClO4 name Perchloric acid

H2SO4 H3PO2 H3PO3
H3PO4 HClO HClO2 HClO3

Sulfuric acid Hypophosphorous acid Phosphorous acid
Phosphoric acid Hypochlorous acid Chlorous acid Chloric acid

HNO2 HNO3 HBrO3
HIO3 H3BO3 H2C2O4 H2CO3

Nitrous acid Nitric acid Bromic acid
Iodic acid Boric acid Oxalic acid Carbonic acid

非金属词干 + ous/ic + acid

例 句
Phosphoric acid, used in many soft drinks (primarily
cola), has been linked to lower bone density in

epidemiological(流行病学) studies. For example, a
study using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(双能X

射线吸收仪) rather than a questionnaire about
breakage, provides reasonable evidence to support the

theory that drinking cola results in lower bone density.

金属名称 + 除氧以外的非金属词干 + ite/ate
Formula K2CO3 Al2(SO4)3 KClO3 AlPO4 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 PbCrO4 NaNO2 name Potassium carbonate Aluminum sulfate Potassium chlorate Aluminum phosphate Iron(II) sulfate or ferrous sulfate Iron(III) sulfate or ferric sulfate Lead (II) chromate Sodium nitrite

例 句
Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Examples are sulfuric acid and tricholoroethanoic acid. Weak acids are only partially dissociated. Most organic carboxylic acids are weak acids. In distinction to an acid, a base is a compound that produces hydroxide

ions in water. Bases are either ionic hydroxides (e.g.
sodium hydroxide ) or compounds that form hydroxide

ions in water.

.

4.

Salts

盐的二元化合物通常以 –ide 结尾, 而其三元化合物一般以-ite/ate结尾

4.

Salts

bi-: 用于含两个氢原子的三元酸,其中

一个氢原子被金属取代
KHSO4 Ca(HSO3)2 NH4HS Potassium hydrogen sulfate or potassium bisulfate Calcium hydrogen sulfite or calcium bisulfite Ammonium hydrogen sulfide or ammonium bisulfide

5. bases

金属名称+hydroxide

KOH NH4OH NaOH

potassium hydroxide ammonium hydroxide sodium hydroxide

例 句
Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid available in pellets, flakes, granules, and as a 50% saturated solution. It is hygroscopic(吸湿性的) and readily absorbs water from the air, so it should be stored in

an airtight container. It is very soluble in water with
liberation of heat. It also dissolves in ethanol and

methanol, though it exhibits lower solubility in these
solvents than does potassium hydroxide .

6. Alkanes: 其特征词缀是 -ane
Molecular formula CH4
C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16

Name
Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane

Molecular formula C9H20
C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32

Name
Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Tridecane Tetradecane Pentadecane

C8H18

Octane

例 句

As the most volatile hydrocarbon that is liquid at room temperature, pentane is often used in the laboratory as a

solvent that can be conveniently evaporated. Also because of
its nonpolarity and lack of functionality, its dissolving power is poor, thus only non-polar or alkyl-rich compounds are soluble in it. Pentane is completely miscible, however, with many common solvents such as chlorocarbons, aromatics, ethers, but

not short chain amines or short chain alcohols

.

Cycloalkane(单环饱和烷烃):

cyclo + 相应同碳烷烃

Cyclopentane
Cyclobutane Cyclopropane Cyclohexane

7. Alcohols and Ethers
Class Formula IUPAC name Common name

Primary
Primary Primary

CH3OH
CH3CH2OH CH3(CH2)3CH2OH

Methanol
Ethanol 1-pentanol

Methyl alcohol
Ethyl alcohol n-pentyl alcohol

Primary
Primary

CH3(CH2)6CH2OH
(CH3)2CHCH2OH

1-octanol
2-methyl-1propanol

n-octyl alcohol
Isobutyl alcohol

Secondary
Secondary Tertiary

CH3CH(OH)CH3
CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)3COH

2-propanol
2-butanol 2-methyl-2propanol

Isopropyl alcohol
Sec-butyl alcohol t-butyl alcohol

例 句
A solution of 70-85% of ethanol is commonly used as
a disinfectant; it kills organisms by denaturing their

proteins and dissolving their lipids: it is effective
against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses,

but is ineffective against bacterial spores. This
disinfectant property of ethanol is the reason that

alcoholic beverages can be stored for a long time.

(1) 由相应的烷烃去掉-e,加-ol;多元醇:烷烃名称 + di/tri + -ol

(2) 由相应的烷基取代基 + alcohol
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH 1-Pentanol
HO OH

1,4-cyclohexanediol

(CH3)3COH tert-butyl alcohol

C6H5CH2OH benzyl alcohol

醚:连接在氧原子上的两个取代基名称+ ether

8. Carboxylic Acids
(1) 除C1-C5和脂肪酸外,其余由同碳烷烃去掉-e,加--oic acid;
(2) 先命名除-COOH以外的其他部分,后面加carboxylic acid

structure

Name of the acid

HCO2H
CH3CO2H

Formic acid
Acetic acid

CH3CH2CO2H
CH3(CH2)2CO2H CH3(CH2)3CO2H CH2=CHCO2H C6H5CO2H

Propionic acid
Butyric acid Valeric acid Acrylic acid Benzoic acid

例 句
Benzoic acid is converted to its salts and esters for the

use of preservative application in foods, drugs and
personal products. Sodium benzoate, sodium salt of

benzoic acid, is used preferably as one of the principal
anti-microbial preservatives used in foods and

beverages (but it's concentration is limited usually not
exceeding 0.1% because it is poisonous), as it is about

200 times more soluble than benzoic acid

.

9. Diacids
二元酸可由同碳烷烃名称 + --dioic acid; 但通常采用俗名。

Structure HO2CCO2H HO2CCH2CO2H HO2C(CH2)2CO2H

Name Oxalic acid Malonic acid Succinic acid

Cis-HO2CCH=CHCO2H
Trans- HO2CCH=CHCO2H

Maleic acid
Fumaric acid

HO2CCH(OH)CH(OH)CO2H Tartaric acid

10. Sulfonic acids
除-SO3H以外部分的名称 + --sulfonic acid

CH3SO3H
Methanesulfonic acid

C6H5SO3H
benzenesulfonic acid

p-CH3C6H5SO3H p-toluenesulfonic acid

11. Acid Anhydrides
由相应的羧酸名称去掉 acid,加上anhydride构成。

O O

O H3C

O O

O CH3

benzoic anhydride

acetic propionic anhydride

12. Acid Halides
将相应的羧酸名称后缀--ic acid 改为--yl,加上卤化物名称。

O Br H3C

O Cl

benzoyl bromide

acetyl chloride

13. Amides
将相应的羧酸名称后缀—oic/--ic acid 改为—amide;

O H3C NH2 H3C

O NH2

hexanamide

acetamide

14. Esters and salts of carboxylic acids
O原子上取代基的名称 + 羧酸母体名称,同时将羧酸后缀--ic

acid 改为—ate;

CH3(CH2)4CO2CH3

Methyl hexanoate

CH3CO2CH2CH3
CH3CH2CO2Na

ethyl acetate
sodium propionate

15. Aldehydes
(1)将相应的羧酸名称后缀--oic acid 改为—al;

(2)将相应的羧酸名称后缀—oic/--ic acid 改为—aldehyde;

CH3(CH2)4CHO
CH3CHO C6H5CHO

hexanal
Acetaldehyde benzaldehyde

16. Ketones
将母体烷烃名称最后的字母--e改为 —one,同时在最前面标出羰

基的位置;

O H3C CH3 H3C

O CH3 H3C

O CH3

2-hexanone

acetone

3-pentanone

例 句

Acid halides are ordinarily derived from acids or their

salts by replacement of hydroxyl groups by halogen
atoms. The most important organic acid halides are the

chlorides derived from carboxylic acids and from
sulfonic acids. The carboxylic acid chlorides, called acyl

halides, are generally more reactive than the sulfonic
acid chlorides, called sulfonyl chlorides. .

例 句
The two aldehydes of greatest importance in industry,

formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, have complicated
behavior because of their tendency to polymerize.

Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by
industry to manufacture building materials and

numerous household products.

.

例 句
Tartaric acid, also called dihydroxybutanedioic
acid , a dicarboxylic acid, one of the most widely

distributed of plant acids, with a number of food
and industrial uses. Along with several of its salts,

cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and
Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate), it is

obtained from by-products of wine fermentation.

例 句
After inhaling acetone fumes or ingesting acetone, it

enters the blood, which then carries it to all the organs
in the body. If it is a small amount, the liver breaks it

down to chemicals that are not harmful and uses these
chemicals to make energy for normal body functions.

Breathing moderate- to-high levels of acetone for
short periods of time, however, can cause nose, throat,

lung, and eye irritation; headaches and so on.

例 句

Aspirin is a brand name coined by the Bayer company of Germany for acetylsalicylic acid, part of the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

例 句
Chemically, nylon is a condensation polymer made of repeating units with amide linkages between them: hence it is frequently referred to as a polyamide. It was the first synthetic fibre to be made entirely from inorganic ingredients: coal, water and air. These are formed into two intermediate chemicals, most commonly hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid (a

dicarboxylic acid), which are then mixed to polymerise. The
most common variant is nylon 6,6, also called nylon 66, which refers to the fact that both the diamine and the diacid have 6 carbon backbones. .

17. 常用词头
anti-: 抗 antibiotic 抗生素 抗老化剂

antiaging agent
antiarthritic antidepressant antidiarrheal agent

抗关节炎药
抗抑郁药

止泻药

Antidepressants typically have fewer adverse effects than the tricyclics (the oldest class of antidepressant drugs), although such effects as drowsiness, dry mouth, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia, decreased appetite and long-term weight gain may occur.

17. 常用词头
cef-: 头孢 ceftizoxime 头孢唑肟 头孢氯嗪

cefaclomezine
cefalexin cefoperazone cefotaxime

头孢氨苄; 先锋霉素IV
头孢哌酮

头孢噻肟

Cephalexin (cefalexin) is a cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, the bones, the skin, and the reproductive and urinary systems. Cephalexin (cefalexin) works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall formation. This weakens the cell wall, causing it to rupture, and kills the bacteria.

17. 常用词头
holo-:全,整体,完全
holoenzyme 全酶 全蛋白

holoprotein
holocrine holocrine gland holocrystalline holomycin

全(质分)泌
全分泌腺

全结晶
全霉素

Holomycin has recurrently been suspected to affect transcription elongation in growing bacteria, but no effects have been observed in vitro.

17. 常用词头
poly-:多,聚 polyacrylate 聚丙烯酸酯 聚合酶

polymerase
poly(1-butene) poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polyarthritis polyatomic molecule

聚丁烯
聚四氟乙烯

多关节炎
多原子分子

17. 常用词头
oligo-,olig-:少,低聚,寡 oligogene 寡基因 寡肽

oligopeptide
oligomer oligoplasmatic

低聚物
细胞浆过少的

Polyarthritis is any type of arthritis which involves five or more joints — an inflammation of two, three or four joints is an oligoarthritis(少关节炎).

17. 常用词头
hepa-,hepat-:肝 heparin 肝素 肝胰腺

hepatopancreas
hepatocyte hepatoma

肝细胞
肝癌

17. 常用词头
hypo:下,低,次 hypoglycaemia 低血糖 低血压

hypotension
hypocellular hypocorticalism

细胞减少的
肾上腺素皮质机能减退

Hypokalemia is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the level of 血钾过少, 低钾血 hypokalemia potassium in the blood drops too low. Potassium is needed for cells,

especially nerve and muscle cells, to function properly. The kidneys
remove excess potassium in the urine to keep a proper balance of the mineral in the body.

17. 常用词头
hyper:超过,过多

hypersensitive
hypertension

过敏的

高血压

17. 常用词头
Acetoxyacetone
Acetylamino benzoic acid 乙酰基丙酮 乙酰胺基苯甲酸 酰胺丁二酸 氨基苯磺酸 氨基苄醇 淀粉酶

Amidiosuccinic acid
aminobenzene sulfonic acid Aminobenzyl alcohol Amylase

17. 常用词头
Amylo-cellulose 淀粉纤维素

Androgen
Estrogen

雄性激素
雌性激素

β-anilino-ethanol
Antialcoholic drug

Β-苯胺基乙醇
解酒药

Antibacterial
Antiarthritic

制菌物质
治风湿药

17. 常用词头

Aryl iodide Aryl sulfonyl chloride Azaindole

芳基碘
芳基磺酰氯 氮杂吲哚 叠氮苯甲酸 偶氮胺类

Azidobenzoic acid
Azoamines

Azoformamide

偶氮甲酰胺

17. 常用词头

Basic carbonate Basic solvent Basophil

碱式碳酸盐 碱性溶剂 亲碱的

Benzoyl phenylhydroxyamine 苯甲酰苯基羟胺

Benzyl aniline
Benzyl butyrate

苄基苯胺
丁酸苄酯

17. 常用词头
双环霉素 二环[4.2.0]辛烷 双(2,6-二甲基-4庚基)磷酸 双(羟)香豆素 联苯基乙醛 叔丁基邻苯基苯酚

Bicyclomycin Bicyclo[4.2.0]octane Bis(2,6-dimethyl-4-heptyl)

phosphoric acid
Bishydroxycoumarin

Biphenyl acetadehyde
Tert-butyl-o-phenyl phenol

17. 常用词头
deacetylation Deshydroxy Desolvation 2-desoxyribose Desoxycholic acid Dextrase Dextromycin 脱乙酰作用 脱羟 去溶剂化 2-脱氧核糖 脱氧胆酸 右旋糖酶

右霉素

17. 常用词头
Diazobenzene sulfonic acid Diazomethane synthesis Dihydroriboflavin 重氮苯磺酸

重氮甲烷合成
二氢核黄素

Epidermal area
Epimerase

表皮层
差向异构酶

Epoxy chlorpropane
Erythromycine

环氧氯丙烷
红霉素

Erythropoiesis

红细胞生成

17. 常用词头
Fluorescence chromatography Fluorochloromethane 荧光色谱法

氟氯甲烷

Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase 甲酰四氢叶酸合成酶 Heptachlor-1-naphthol Heterocyclic chemistry Hexanitrodiphenylamine Homocitric acid

7-氯-1-萘酚
杂环化学

六硝基二苯胺
高柠檬酸

18. 常用词缀
clormecaine aminocidin 氯甲卡因 氨基杀菌素 杀真菌素 杀草菌素 羧苄青霉素 青霉素 苯氧乙基青霉素

fungacidin
herbicidin

carboxybenzyl penicillin
penicillin

phenoxyethyl penicillin
semisynthetic penicillin

半合成青霉素

练 习

allyl acetic acid allyl benzene amino toluene benzyl dimethylamine amino-azotoluene poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

烯丙基乙酸 苯丙烯 氨基甲苯 苄基二甲胺 氨基偶氮甲苯 聚四氟乙烯

硝基水杨醛
Nitrosalicylaldehyde heteroaromatic compound phosphodihydroxyacetone 芳香杂环化合物 磷酸二羟丙酮

poly (4-methyl-1-pentene)

聚4-甲基-1-戊烯
N-benzoyl-alpha-naphthylamine

N-苯甲酰-α-萘胺
benzyl aminophenol hydrochloride

盐酸苄氨基苯酚

sulfamethythiadiazole

磺胺甲噻二唑
1, 1-dimethyl-3, 5-diketocyclohexane

1, 1-二甲基-3, 5-二酮环己烷
1, 2-dibromo-3-chloropropane

1, 2-二溴-2-氯丙烷
1, 3-dihydroxynapthalene

1, 3 -二羟基萘

1, 4-dichloro-2, 5-dimethoxybenzene

1,4-二氯-2, 5-二甲氧基苯
1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene

1-氟-2, 4-二硝基苯
1-hydroxy-2-cyanoethane

1-羟基-2-氰乙烷
1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonic acid 对氨基萘磺酸

2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine 2,4-二硝基苯肼 2-ethylhexyl bromide

2-乙基己基溴
acetylaminobutylaldehyde

乙酰氨基丁醛
heterocyclic amine

杂环胺

cefotiam dihydrochloride 二盐酸头孢替安 epoxy ethane alcohol solution 环氧乙烷乙醇溶液

Phosphohexonate
磷酸己糖酸酯

4-methoxysalicylaldehyde
4-甲氧基水杨醛


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