单词 1 equal adj. 相等的；同样的 n. 相等的人或物 vt. 等于；比得上 equally adv. 同样地；相等地 equality n. 相等；平等；同等 be equal to 和??相等；能胜任；能应付 【活学活用】 (1)He is _________(能胜任)the job. (2)He __________
____________(与我力气相当)，but not in intelligence. 2 order n. 顺序；订购；订单；(点的)饭菜；秩 序；命令 vt. 命令；订购 disorder n. 混乱，紊乱，无秩序 in order 有秩序；有条理 out of order 紊乱；出故障 put sth in order 使??有条理，使??按顺序排列 in order to do/in order that 以便；为了 in good order 状况良好 place an order for 订购 take one's order 记下某人的订单 keep order 维持秩序 order sb to do 命令/吩咐某人 做某事 【经典句式】 order ＋that 从句(用 should 表示虚拟语气， should 可以省略) 【活学活用】 (1)The young teacher can't ____________in her classroom. 那位年轻教师无法维持课堂秩序。 (2)The phone is_____________. 电话坏了。 3 stress n. 重压；压力；强调；重音 vt. 着重；强调；重读 stressful adj. 压力重的；紧张的 stressed adj. 焦虑不安的；紧张的 lay/place/put stress/emphasis on? 把重点放在??上 stress the importance of? 强调??的重要性 be stressed out 焦虑不安；心力交瘁 4 influential adj. 有影响的 influence vt. 影响；对??起作用 n. 影响力 have an influence on 对??有影响 【活学活用】 根据句意，用 influence 的适当形式填空
(1)Don't be ____________by bad examples. (2)Dewey was ____________in shaping economic policy. (3)What exactly is the __________of television on children? 5 invent vt. 发明；创造；编造；想出 invention n. 发明；创造 inventor n. 发明者；创造者 【短语辨析】 invent，discover, find 和 find out (1)invent 指发明出原来不存在的东西。 (2)discover 指发现早已存在的，但不为人所知的东 西。 (3)find 意为“找到，发现” ，通常指找到或发现具体 的东西，也可指偶然发现某物或某种情况，强调的是 找的结果。 (4)find out 指通过观察、探索而发现事实的真相， 意为“查明，弄清楚” 。 【活学活用】 用 invent, discover 或 find out 的适当形式填空 (1)Laszlo Biro _________the ballpoint pen. (2)Columbus is said to ________________America in 1492. (3)Can you _________what time the meeting will start? (4)You are always __________excuses. 6 condition n. 状况；条件；环境 be in?condition 处于??状况 on this/that/what condition 在这种/那种/什么条 件下 on no condition 无论如何都不；绝不 on condition that 条件是 working/living conditions 工作/生活条件 【词语辨析】 state，situation，condition 和 position (1)state 表示某事物所显示出的具体状况或状态， 常 与 a 连用。如： The house is in a dirty state. 房子处于一种脏乱的状态。 (2)situation 意为“情况，形势，局面” ，主要是指各 种情况之间的相互联系及影响。如： international situation 国际形势 (3)condition 指具体的某种“条件”或“状态” ，可 用单数或复数；泛指“环境，情况”时多用复数。 (4)position 指“位置，职位” 。 7 contribution n. 贡献；促成作用；捐款；捐献
物；投稿(跟 to 或 towards 搭配 contribute v. 捐款；贡献；有助于；投稿 make a contribution to? 对??作贡献 contribute to 增加；添加；促成 短语 1.bring up 教育；养育；提出 bring down 使落下；使跌下；使倒下；减价 bring in 引入；提出；获利 bring about 引起；导致；致使 bring along 带来 bring out (使)显出 2..look 照顾，照料 look on 回顾，回忆 look on 看不起；轻视 look __ to 仰慕；尊敬 3..believe 信任 Hold a belief 持有??思想 believe__it__or not 信不信由你 4.be at war wirh 与??处于交战状态 declare war on 向??宣战；向??发动进 攻 Make peace with sb.与某人和解 5.be proud of 为??自豪 take proud in 为??感到自豪 with pride 自豪地 6.be different from 与??不同；不同于 the difference 区分；辨别 make a difference 根本没有影响；无所谓 7. in conclusion 总之 Make a conclusion 得出结论 Come to a conclusion 草率下结论 8. for the first time 首先；第一次 first of all 首先；第一 the first place 首先；第一 9.a sense of responsibility 责任感 In no sense 决不 in a sense 在某种意义上 A sense of 理解--there is no sense (doing) sth. (做)某事是不 明智的 10.become interested in 对??感兴趣 Have an interest in 对??感兴趣 句型 1. Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to those of Confucius. 孟子是一位 思想家，他的学说与孔子的学说极为相似。 ?is similar to/different from/more?than,
etc. that/those of? 【易错警示】 在表示比较的句型中，those 可用来替代前文中的 复数名词。若前文名词为不可数名词或单数名词，则 用 that。 2． Cars were first used at the end of the nineteenth century，and were no faster than a horse. 汽车 首次在 19 世纪末开始使用，跑得和马一样慢。 【要点解读】 no ＋比较级＋than 表示“两者都不” ；not＋ 比 较级＋than 表示“前者不如后者” 。 1. Robert is said abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A.to have studied B.to studied C.to be studying D.to have been studying 2． Albert Einstein, for ________ life had once been very hard, was successful later in science. A. whom B. whose C. which D. his 3．Our teacher is always busy preparing lessons until 11 o'clock at night, ________ we students have gone to sleep. A. that time B. by which time C. by that time D. which time gone to sleep 4．The river, ________ the banks are covered with trees, is very long. A. whose B. which C. of which D. which of 5．We can never forget the days ________ the two astronauts in spaceship worked together and the days ________ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 6. The reason he was late for the meeting was he was held up by traffic jam during rush hours. A.why;because B.that;that C.why;that D.that;because 7. __________，her health has improved，but she is still not really well. A．All the way B．In a way C．In the way D．By the way 8.She brought with her three friends，none of ________ I had ever met before. A. them B. who C. whom D. these 9．A person ________ e－mail account is full won't be able to send or receive any e－mails. A. who B. whom C. whose D. whoever
10．I have reached a point in my life ________ I am supposed to make decisions of my own. A. which B. where C. how D. why 11．Try on this red skirt; you will look great ________ it. A. on B. by C. in D. for 12．It is reported that the police will soon ________ the case of the two missing children. A. look upon B. look after C. look into D. look out 13．You'd better not leave the medicine ________ kids can get at it. A. even if B. which C. where D. so that 14．By nine o'clock, all the Olympic torch bearers had reached the top of Mount Qomolangma, ________ appeared a rare rainbow soon. A. of which B. on which C. from which D. above which 15．American Indians ________ about five percent of the U．S. population. A. fill up B. bring up C. make up D. set up 16．Running a company is not ________ a matter of hiring people—they also need to be trained. A. simply B. partly C. seriously D. equally 17．All men are created __________. A． equally B． equaling C． equal D． equaled 18．In class our teacher asked us to recite the text _____. A．from beginning to end B．from the beginning to the end C．from beginning till end D．from the beginning till end 19．In the future, more stress should be placed __________ the education of the young. A．on B．to C．for D．with 20．Can you find something __________ Mary and Jones? A．similar from B．similar between C．similarity between D．differ between 21．The child __________ in the countryside knows how to __________ animals like dogs, pigs and so on. A．brought up；raise B．fed；raise C．raised; bring up D．fed up; bring up
22．The players of the basketball team are __________： John， Dick, Miller， Jordan， and so on. A．like follows B．as following C．like that D．as follows 23．He had to __________ his position as manager of the company owing to his illness. A．sign B．design C．resign D．apply 24．I'm sure your suggestions will __________ the problem. A．contribute to solving B. contribute to solve C．be contributed to solve D. be contributed to solving 25．Charles Babbage is generally considered __________ the first computer. A．to invent B．to have made C．to have invented D．having discovered 26．The patient isn't out of danger. He is __________ than he was yesterday. A．no better B．worst C．not worse D．not more 27．What a wonder! They have finished __________ 30 percent of the task within one week. A．no more than B．no less than C．not more than D．much less than 28．—When does the next train leave? —You ________ one by five minutes. Trains ________ every half an hour, so you'll have to wait for a while. A．have just missed; will leave B．are just missing; leave C．are just missing; will leave D．have just missed; leave 29．I thought her nice and honest __________ I met her. A．first time B．for the first time C．the first time D．by the first time 30．You may borrow the book，__________ you don't lend it to anyone else. A．in good condition B．on no condition C．on condition that D．in no condition 31． The reason ________ he was late for the meeting was ________ he was held up by traffic jam during rush hours. A．why; because B．that; that C．why; that D．that; because
一.定语从句及相关术语 1.定语从句：修饰一个名词或代词的从句称为定语从 句，一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词后面。 2.关系词：引导定语从句的关联词成为关系词 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等； 关系副词有 where, when, why 等。 关系词常有 3 个作用：1，引导定语从句。2，代替先 行词。3，在定语从句中担当一个成分。 二.关系代词引导的定语从句 1.who 指人，在从句中做主语 (1) The boys who are playing football are from Class One. (2) Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 2. whom 指人，在定语从句中充当宾语，常可省略。 (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus. (2) Mr. Ling is just the boy whom I want to see. 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语和非正式语体中常用 who 代替，可省略。 (3) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 3. which 指物， 在定语从句中做主语或者宾语， 做宾语 时可省略 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 4. that 指人时，相当于 who 或者 whom；指物时，相 当于 which。 在宾语从句中做主语或者宾语， 做宾语时 可省略。 (5) The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million. (6) Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? 5. whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语 (1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose 指物时，常用以下结构来代替 (3) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. (4) The classroom the door of which is broken will soon
be repaired. (5) Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? (6) Do you like the book the color of which is yellow? 三.介词+关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中做介词宾语时， 从句常由介 词+关系代词引导 (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. (2) The school in which he once studied is very famous. (3) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. (4) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. (5) We'll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. (6) We'll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 注意：1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如： look for, look after, take care of 等 (1) This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T) (2) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F) 2. 若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom， 不可用 who 或者 that；指物时用 which，不能用 that； 关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (2) The man who/that you talked with is my friend. (F) (3) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) (4) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3.“介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
解答"介词+关系代词 "类型的定语从句题时，关 键在于分析定语从句中的谓语动词（该动词是不及物 动词）习惯上常与什么介词搭配使用。这就需要同学 们在平时学习时要注重某些不及物动词和介词惯用的 情形，并要灵活运用。例如： In the dark street, there wasn't a single person ________ she could turn for help. A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom 简析:本题定语从句中的 turn 与介词 to 构成固定短 语"turn to sb. for help (向某人求助）"。所以，D 是正 确选项。 四．关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间，在定语从句中做时间状语 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. 2. where 指地点，在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 3. why 指原因，在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don't know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意： 关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词” 引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which/where I was born. 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构，因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使 用，例如： There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京 是我的出生地。 Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗？ 五．限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句
限制性定语从句举例： (1) The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. (2) China is a country which has a long history. 非限制性定语从句举例： (1) His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. (2) China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 要注意区分以下几个句子的不同 (1) His brother who is now a doctor always encourages him to go to college. 他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。（他还有其 他的哥哥） (2) His brother, who is now a doctor, always encourages him to go to college. 他的哥哥是当医生的，常鼓励他要考上大学。（他 只有一个哥哥） 难点分析 （一）限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况 1． 当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时，或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时 (1) Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li has said? (2) There seems to be nothing that seems impossible for him in the world. (3) All that can be done has been done. (4) There is little that I can do for you. 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可以用 who (4) Any man that/.who has a sense of duty won't do such a thing. 2. 当先行词被序数词修饰 (1) The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3. 当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 (1) This is the best film that I have seen. 4. 当形容词被 the very, the only 修饰时 (1) This is the very dictionary that I want to buy, (2) After the fire in his house, the old car is the only
thing that he owned. 当先行词指人时，偶尔也可以用 who (3) Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting/ 5. 当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 (1) Who is the man that is standing there? (2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 6. 当先行词既有人，也有动物或者物体时 (1) Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? （二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句，有相同之处也有 不同之处。具体情况是： 1．As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语， 代表前面整个句子。 (1) He married her, as/which was natural. (2) He was honest, as/which we can see. 2. as 引导非限制性定语从句，可放在主句之前，或者 主句之后， 甚至可以切割一个主句； which 引导的非限 制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外，as 有“正 如……，正像……”的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don't believe. 注意：当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时，常用 which (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. 3. 当先行次受 such, the same 修饰时，常用 as (1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (2) He is not such a fool as he looks. (3) This is the same book as I lost last week. 注意：当先行次由 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引 导定语从句， 但是和由 as 所引导的定语从句意思不同 (4) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. 她穿着她在 Mary 婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 (5) She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。 （三） the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, 以 that 引导，而且通常可以省略。 (1) The way in which/ that/./ he answered the question was surprising. (四) but 有时也可以做关系词引导定语从句
(1) There are very few but understand his idea. ( but= who don't ) (五)区分定语从句和同位语从句 1．定语从句修饰先行词，它和先行词是修饰关系；同 位语从句说明先行词的具体内容，是补充说明的关系 (1) The plane that has just taken off is for London. 定 语从句 (2) The fact that he has been dead is clear. 同位于从 句 2．定语从句由关系代词或者关系副词引导，关系词在 句中充当成分， 有时可以省略； 同位语从句主要由 that 引导， 在句中一般不做成分； 句子也可以由 when, where, how, why, whether, what 等词引导，充当成分 (1) The news he told me is true. (2) The news that he has just died is true. (3) The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. 定语 (4) The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. 3. 同位语从句和先行词一般可以用 be 动词发展成一个 完整的句子，而定语从句不可以 (1) The idea that we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. (2) The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. (3) The fact that the earth moves around the earth is known to all. 同位语 (4) The fact is that the earth moves around the earth.