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现在完成时
现在完成时的构成 现在完成时的主要用法

现在完成时的时间状语
短暂性动词与时间段的关系

have been 与have gone 比较

与一般过去时的用法比较
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现在完成时的构成
主语+have / has + done 主语+have / has not + done have / has +主语 + done

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现在完成时的主要用法
1.表示过去发生的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 -- It’s so dark. --Someone has turned off the light. (有人刚把灯关了,对现在造成的结果是:现在很黑) -- Are you free? --I have finished my homework. I am free (我已经完成了家庭作业,对现在造成的结果是很有空)

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现在完成时的主要用法
2.表示过去已经开始,

持续到现在的动作或状 态.常与since + 过去的时间点,for + 一段时 间,so far 等时间状语连用。 I have learnt English for more than ten years. 我已经学了10多年的英语。 She has swum since half an hour ago. 我已经游泳了半个小时
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现在完成时的时间状语
◆常与①already, ②never, ③ever, ④just, ⑤yet, ⑥before, ⑦up to now, ⑧so far, ⑨for/in the last few weeks ⑩these days, ⑾since ⑿for a long time 连用
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1). I have ever seen the film. 2). Have you had your lunch yet?
3)In the past few years, great changes have taken place in my hometown. 4). He has worked here since 1999. 5).How long have you studied English?

短暂性动词与时间段的关系
●短暂性动词在肯定句、疑问句中不能与时

间段连用,这些动词是: ①become, ②begin, ③buy, ④borrow,

⑤come (go, arrive), ⑥die, ⑦finish, ⑧join, ⑨ leave, 等。

●为了表述这种意思,我们常用相应的延

续性动词 来代替短暂性动词。

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become →be, begin→ have , borrow → keep, buy → have, come (go, arrive, get) →be here/there/in…, die→ be dead, finish→ be over, join→ be in …(be a member of … ) leave→ be away ( from…),

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? 翻 译 练 习:
1.我买了这块手表五年了。 I have bought this watch for five years.W I have had this watch for five years/since 5 years ago.

2.这位老人已经死了十年了。
The old man has died for ten years. W The old man has been dead for ten years/since 10 years ago.

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3.他已经回来三天了。 He has come back for 3 days. He has been back for 3 days/since 3 days ago. 4.自从六点钟他就来这儿了。 He has come here since 6 o’clock. He has been here since 6 o’clock. 5.我离开家乡已十年了。 I have left hometown for 10 years. I have been away from hometown for 10 years.
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have been 与have gone 的用法比较
have been to 意思是“到过,去过”, 表示曾经到过某处,但现在人不在那儿。 have gone to 意思是“去了”,表示已 经去了某地,现在人可能在去的途中或 已在那儿了。 have been in 意思是“呆在某处一段时 间了”

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Has she ever been to Nanjing? 她曾去过南京吗? You have never been there, have you? 你以前从未去过那儿,是吗? I have been to Guiling ,I went there last year. 我去过桂林,我去年去的。 She has gone to Nanjing. 她已经去南京了。
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?与一般过去时的用法比较
一.现在完成时和一般过去时都是说过去的 事情,现在完成时:注意的不是事情本

身,而是强调事情与现在保持的某种密 切联系
He has bought an English-Chinese dictionary. He bought an English-Chinese dictionary

一般过去时:则只讲述发生在过去的动作 和事情,与现在没有关系。
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二.当有一个表示过去某一特定时间 的状语时,不用现在完成时,而用 一般过去时:
eg: I saw the film on television yesterday .

但since(自…以来)+某一过去时间或叙 述过去事情的从句总是与现在完成时 连用。
eg: They have known each other since 1950 .

Since he was a child ,he has lived in England.

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①I have worked here since 2008. I worked here in 2008. ②He have lived here since two years ago. He lived here two years ago. ③He has learned English for three years. He played football regularly for many years when he was young.

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★特殊用法 ? 1). 现在完成时在时间,条件状语从句中表 示将要完成的动作。 ? ①. 一When shall we restart our business? ? 一Not until we our plan. ? A.will finish B.are finishing ? C.are to finish D.have finished ? ②.Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. ? 2) It is/has been + 一段时间+since… 主句常用现在完成时。但since 从句常用过去时 。 ? Eg: It has been 3 years since he returned to his hometown.

D

3). It is the first( second…)time that… 从句常用完成时 Eg: It is the first time we have visited the Great Wall.

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1. The house is dirty. We _______it for weeks.
A didn’t clean C don’t clean B hadn’t cleaned D haven’t cleaned

2. ---____the sports meeting might be put off.
---Yes, it all depends on the weather. A I’ve been told C I’m told B I’ve told D I told

3. ---- I’m sorry to keep you waiting. ----Oh, not at all. I _____here only a few minutes. A have been B had been C was D will be

4. You don’t need to describe her. I _______ her several times.

A. had met B have met

C met

D meet

5. -----Will you go to Beijing for vacation ?

-----I _______ to go , but I don’t know if I can go . A was planning B have planned C had been planning D have been planning 6. --When will they leave ?
---They ______very soon . A do leave leave B are leaving C have left D

7 --Was he studying for an exam ? --Yes , he's ____ it last week. A doing B to take C making D to give 8.The teacher told the pupils that the earth ____ round. A is B would C was D were

9. She _______ such an interesting book before.
A was never reading C had never read B will never read D has never read C will last D lasts

10.How long do you think the meeting ______ A is lasting B is lasted

? 11.The country life that he was used to ____ greatly since 1990. A. has changed B. change C. changing D. changed 12.This is the first time we ____ a film in the cinema together as a family. A .see B. had seen C. saw D. have seen

? 13. The book has been translated into thirty languages since it _______on the market in 1973. ? A had come B has come ? C came D comes

? 14.He _______football regularly for many years when he was young. ? A was playing B played ? C has played D had played

? 15. —When did you move to Sanya? ? — In 2008. But I ______in Tibet for 8 years. ? A has worked ? B has been worked ? C have been working ? D worked


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