名词性从句 幻灯片 2 辨别下列名词性从句的类别： 1.How the book will sell depends on its author. 2.John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 3.The fact is that he has not been seen rec
ently. 4.The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 5.He will talk to us about what he saw in U.S. 6.It is impossible that I go and attend the meeting. 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 宾语从句 主语从句 幻灯片 3 名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。
引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类： 连接词：that, whether, if 连接代词：what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词：when, where, how, why 1。that 只起连接主句和从句的作用，在从句中不担任任何成分， 本身也没有词义，宾语 从句中可省略 2。不充当介宾 3。 引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句,that 不可省略。 幻灯片 4 That/wh-clause + v +?主语从句 S +be/link.v + that/wh-clause 表语从句 S + vt + that/wh-clause 宾语从句 S + vi + prep + wh-clause 宾语从句
幻灯片 5 一．主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句，通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主 语 it 代替，而本身放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语 It 作形式主语代替主语从句， 主要是为了平衡句子结构， 主语从句的连接词没有变化。 例如： It is a pity that you didn’t go to see the film. It doesn’t interest me whether you succeed or not. 幻灯片 6 2. what 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分，如主语．宾语．表语，而 that 则不然。例如： 1) ______you said yesterday is right. 2) ______she is still alive is a good thing. What It is right what you said yesterday.
That It is a good thing that she is still alive.
幻灯片 7 二．宾语从句
宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句，通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动 词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如： I heard that he joined the army. (2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句，例如： She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me. (3) 动词＋间接宾语＋宾语从句。例如： She told me that she would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语，例如： Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate(合作）with one another. 幻灯片 8 3. 作形容词的宾语，例如： I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. I am sure (that) he will win the game. 4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语， 还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾， 特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 例如： We thought it good news that the fog had finally gone. 幻灯片 9 5. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等，其后的宾语从句若含有否定意义，一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上，从句谓 语用肯定式。例如： ________________________________我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 I don’t think the dress fits you well 幻灯片 10 三．表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句，放在系动词之后，一般结构是“主语 ＋连系动词＋表语从句” 。可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。另 外，常用的还有 the reason is that? 和 It is because 等结构。例如： 1) The question is _________ we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is ____ we can’t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains ___ we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason ______ he is late for school is ____ he missed the early bus. whether/how why that why that 幻灯片 11 四．同位语从句
同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释，说明名词的具体内容，一般由 that 引导，例如： 1) The king’s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 2. 同位语在句子中的位置 同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面，而是被别的词隔开。例如： He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 幻灯片 12 3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词，同时以在从句中作某个成分（主语或宾语） ，而同 位语从句中的 that 是连词，只起连接主句与从句的作用，不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的，其功能是修饰先行词，对先行词加以限定，描述它的性质或 特征；同位语从句是名词性的，其功能是对名词进行具体内容的补充说明。例如： 1) The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.（他告诉我的 消息是汤姆明年将出国。（第一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句，that 在从句中作宾语） ） 2)The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.（汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。 ） （同位语从句，that 在句中不作任何成分） 幻灯片 13 ? whether 与 if 均为 “是否” 的意思。但在下列情况下，whether 不能被 if 所 取代： ? 主语从句 Whether he will come is unknown. 2. 表语从句，如： The question is whether you should accept it. 3. 同位语从句，如： The question whether he’ll attend the meeting is not decided. 4. 从句作介词的宾语，如： I’m not interested in whether they’ll go or not. It depends on whether we have got enough money. 5. 直接跟不定式连用，如： She hasn’t decided whether to go or not. 幻灯片 14 用 if 或 whether 填空 whether/if ? 1. I don’t know __________ I’ll be free tomorrow. ? 2. I don’t know _______ or not I’ll be free tomorrow. ? 3. The question is ______ this book is worth writing. 4. It depends on ______ we will have enough money. ? 5. ______ they can do it matters little to us. ? 6._______ you are not free tomorrow , I’ll go without you.
whether whether whether Whether If 幻灯片 15 that 在同位语从句 同位语从句
与定语从句的区别 定语从句 that(关系代词) 充当一定的句子成分(主， 宾，表） 定语从句对先行词起修饰作用， “?的” 表示 。 而定语从句中的关系代词 that，当其在从句 中做宾语时，常常可以省略
that（连词）只起连接的作用,不充当句子成 分 同位语从句与前面的名词是同位关系，表示 这个名词的内容 同位语从句的 that 一般不能省
幻灯片 16 （I）试比较下面两个例句: 1.The suggestion that he raised at the meeting is very good. 2.The suggestion that the students should have plenty of exercise is very good. （that 引导定语从句, 作宾语, 可以省略） （that 引导同位语从句,在从句中不担当任何成分，但不可以省略） 幻灯片 17 辨别下列从句是定语从句还是同位语从句 1.We heard the news that our team had won. 2.We must face the fact that we had spent all our money. 3. The news that he told me yesterday was false. 4. I have no doubt that he will come soon. 5. The fact is that we have spent all our money. 同位语从句 同位语从句 定语从句 同位语从句 表语从句 幻灯片 18 翻译以下句子，并指出带下划线的从句属于名词性从句中的哪一种。 1.What he wants is a book. 2.It is so nice that we can learn this grammar point together.
3.I’m so glad that I can make friends with you. 4.This is why he did it. 5.Do you agree to the suggestion that we (should) have a trip in Tibet? 6.That he wants a book is certain. 7.I suggested just now we (should) take part in this activity. 8.Whether you like him or not doesn’t matter too much. 9.He doesn’t know whether you can sing it well. 10.The problem is whether you can sing it well. 11.The problem whether it is right or wrong has not been decided. 12.Please tell me who your monitor is. 主语从句 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 主语从句 宾语从句 主语从句 宾语从句 表语从句 同位语从句 宾语从句
幻灯片 19 1.what / that a.____ he said at the meeting surprised us. b._____ he spoke（发言） at the meeting surprised us. 2. if / whether _______you go or stay at home won’t make any differences. 3. What a pity _____is _____you didn’t arrive by daylight. A. there, because B. it, that
C. he, when D. that, for 4.no matter how/who/what/where/when We are ready to do ______ the country wants us to do. A. what B. which C. no matter what D. whatever What That Whether B D
幻灯片 20 高考再现 1. (NMET 1995) is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 2.(NMET 1996) we can’t get seems better than we have. A. What,what B. What,that C. That,that D. That,what 3.(NMET 2001 春)I read about it in some book or other, does it matter it was? A.where B.what C.how D.which 4.(NMET 1997)It’s generally considered unwise to give a child he or she wants. A. however B.whatever C. whichever D.wherever 5.(NMET 1999) –I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. -Is that you had a few days off? A.why B.when C.what D.where D A D B A
幻灯片 21 A 6.(上海 2002) There’s a feeling in me is-----not ever. A.that B.which C. of which we’ll never know what a UFO D.what
幻灯片 22 1.It is important that ______ our education in all available ways. A. we must develop B. we shall develop C. we would develop D. we should develop 2.It is necessary that ______ by the end of the week. A. we got everything ready B. we have got everything ready C. We get everything ready D. we must get everything ready 3.It was natural that _______. A. my pictures would surprise them B. my pictures surprised them C. my pictures should surprise them D. my pictures would have surprised them 4.I wonder _______. A. whether or not I’ll catch the last bus B. if or not I’ll catch the last bus C. that I’ll catch the last bus or not D. that I’ll catch the last bus
幻灯片 23 5.We all thought ______ a pity that we had missed the lesson. A. so B. such C. it D. that
6.I took ______ for granted （想当然）that they were not coming. A. that B. this C. it D. so 7.I heard ______ said that he had great concern（关心） for his classmates. A. and B. that C. was D. it 8.I wish I ______ to the football match last night. A. went B. go C. should go D. had gone
幻灯片 24 综合运用： as/which ? The earth is round, _________ is known to everybody.
As 2. ____ is known to everybody, the earth is round. That 3. ______ the earth is round is known to everybody. It 4. ____ is known to everybody that the earth is round. that 5. Everybody knows _____ the earth is round. It 6. _____ surprised us very much that our teacher left without a word. What 7. ______ surprised us very much was that our teacher left without a word. 幻灯片 25