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2013届英语基础知识复习课件:Unit2 Cloning(新人教版选修8)

(2011·南京二模)请你根据下面这幅漫画用英语写一篇短 文。短文内容应该包括以下三个方面:

2.是否同意他们的教育方式, 并陈述理由。 3.对家庭教育提出建议。


参考词汇: 溺爱 spoil

v. As can be seen in the cartoon,the young couple educate their

child in different ways._____________________________________


ucate_their_child_in_different_ways.Father educates their child wi th a ruler but mother with a bar of chocolate.②What is illustrated i

n the picture is that father is too hard on their child while mother
spoils him.They adopt strikingly inconsistent methods,which make s their child confused. ③I subscribe to neither of their education methods.If we al ways give children severe punishment,they will become nervous an d lack self-confidence or become violent and aggressive,following in the father's footsteps.If we always love children too much,they w ill turn out to be self-centered and dependent,tending to do whatev er they want to.

④So far as I am concerned,it is better to use appropriate

methods based on children's individual personalities.Since praise
and criticism both play vital roles in children's education,it is essent ial that parents should try to maintain the balance between love and st

rictness.Only in this way can children benefit from proper family edu
cation and achieve all-round development.


adopt strikingly inconsistent methods 采取截然不同的做法
lack self-confidence缺乏自信 to maintain the balance between love and strictness 宽严适度


1.The purpose of the cartoon is to show us that the young cou
ple educate their children in a quite different way. 2.We can see the point of the cartoon is that father is too hard

on their child while mother spoils him.
3.In neither case can I agree. 4.Personally,childr- personalities are the most important en's factor concerning proper educating methods.

1.__________n.合唱;合唱队 chorus regulation 2.__________n.规则;规章;法规

3.__________vi.不同;相异 __________adj.不同的 differ different __________adv.不同地 differently morally 4.__________adj.道德的;伦理的 __________adv.有道德 moral
morality 地 __________n.美德;道德原则 accumulate 5.__________vt.积累;聚积 accumulation n.积累 __________ 6.__________vi.退休;离开 __________adj.退休的;退役 retire retired retirement 的 __________n.退休 7.__________vt.崇拜 __________vt.钦佩 adore admire

8.__________vt.反对 __________n.反对 object objection compulsory 9.__________adj.必须做的;义务的;强制的 assume 10.__________vt.假设;假装assumption __________n.假定;设想 11.__________vt.装饰 decoration __________n.装饰 decorate popular 12.__________adj.流行的;受欢迎的 popularity __________n.流行


The argument about cloning is disturbing and bothersome.The ideas quite differ.Some feel cast down because they think it is not morally reasonable and should be forbidden.Actually many countries undertake it and obtain great breakthroughs.So we are unable to resist it.

Ⅱ.重点短语 pay off 1.____________得到好结果;取得成功;偿清 cast down 2.____________沮丧;不愉快 3.____________反对 object to in favour of 4.____________赞成;支持 be bound to 5.____________注定;一定做??
6.strike...into one's heart____________ 使……刻骨铭心 7.in vain___________________________ 白费力气 枉费心机 状况很好(坏) 情况很好(坏) 8.in good/poor condition___________________________ 禁止某人做某事 9.forbid sb to do sth____________ 归功于……;欠某人账 10.owe sth to sb________________________


1.Humansdiffer from _other mammals in their ability to spea ________
k. 人与其他哺乳动物的不同之处在于人能说话。 on the grounds 2.I object to the plan __________ that it is too expensi ve. 我反对该项计划,理由是花费太大。 3.He wasforbidden to leave the base as a punishment. ______________ 作为惩罚,他被禁止离开基地。 4.She ________ her good health ________ her regular life. owes to 她把健康归功于生活有规律。 5.All those weeks of studying will pay off ________ when you take t he exam. 所有那几周的学习都会在考试的时候见成效。

Medical cloning is very important for curing serious illnesses th at at present have no__1__;for example,to replace nerve cells in s

omeone who has__2__a stroke.Most profitably they can be used to h
elp with__3__that gradually cause people to lose their ability to mov e easily __4__to think (such as Parkinson's Disease).With the help of special cloning__5__,such people can be restored to perfect heal th and be able to live a__6__life again.This is a wonderful thing for t hem__7__it improves their quality of life.The advantages of the proc edure are obvious.__8__is no danger of the body refusing to accept t he new cells.Nobody needs to__9__their own organs for someone els

e's benefit.Moreover,__10__can be treated immediately.







6.normal 7.because 8.There 9.donate 10.patients

differ about/on/over在??上意见不一致

differ about moral standards 道德标准不同
differ as to 关于??意见可能不一致 differ from不同于,和??意见不一致 differ from individual to individual 因人而异 differ from others 不同于其他人 differ in color 在颜色上不同 differ with sb on that point 在那一点上与某人意见相左

辨析 这组词的共同意思是“不像”“不同”。其区别是:

vary指显而易见的差异和一系列的区别,常说明区别人或 物的方式、程度、要点; disagree强调不一致,不仅不相同,而且不协调、不调合、 不和谐; dissent指个人或人群之间的意见分歧,可指拒绝承认或同 意某方提出的事情,也可指持反面意见的人表达不同的看法。

用,与一般现在时相比时,意思相差不大,仅仅感情色彩有 别。例如:

He is always differing with his classmates.
He often differs with his classmates. 前者带有感情色彩,后者是客观陈述,无个人情绪在内。 (2)下面四个句子的意思相同: Customs differ in different countries. Customs differ among different nations. Customs differ with countries. Customs differ from country to country.


They differed long ago,but have made it up.从前他们有过口 角,但现已重归于好了。

He and his wife differed constantly.
他与他妻子口角不断。 distinguish/differ 这组词的共同意思是“不同于??”。其区别是:distingui sh既可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词,而differ只可作不及物 动词。当differ译作“有区别,不同于”时,一般不以人作主 语。此外,differ还可作“看法不同,与??意见相左”解,而d istinguish则无此义。

(1)She differs from

her sister in the colour of her eyes.

她眼睛的颜色与姐姐的不同。[英华大辞典] (2)I have to differ from you on the question of cost.


Leaves are found on all kinds of trees,but they differ greatly_ _________size and shape.(上海卷)

C.by 答案 D


解析 考查动词短语differ in,在某方面不同。

undertake duty 承担义务 undertake a job 承担工作

undertake a piece of work 开始做一项工作
undertake a project 从事一项工程 undertake to_do sth 答应、许诺做某事

undertake that 许诺??;保证??

undertake的意思是“担任,承揽”,指将某事揽入自己的 职权范围内或就任某一职务。undertake还可指“开始着手进行

或that从句作宾语。可用于被动结构。undertake可以指承担责 任、承担义务、承担工作,但是下列一组词

insure , ensure ,assure , guarantee , pledge ,promise 都有
“保证”之意,ensure侧重使人相信某个行为或力量产生的结 果。 insure常与ensure换用,但前者多指经济方面的保证、保 险。 assure侧重指消除某人思想上的怀疑或担心,从而有达到目 的的保证感,但不如ensure普通。

任的保证。 pledge正式用词,指通过郑重许诺、协议或立誓等保证承

promise侧重表明自己的主观意向,设法用语言使人感到稳 当可靠。

(1)We can't undertake the work for the time being.
我们暂时不能开始这项工作。[英华大辞典] (2)Will you undertake to let him know what has happen

(3)I can't undertake that you will win the game. 我不能担保你在比赛中获胜。[英华大辞典]

The Qinghai-Tibet Railway,as the chief engineer said,was t he hardest engineering project they had ever __________in the past 3

0 years.(2012·威海模拟)
A.offered C.suffered 答案 D B.afforded D.undertaken

a.The main limitation of the article is that the survey sample was restricted to mid-level management,thus the authors indicate t

hat further,more extensive research needs to be undertaken to devel
op a more in-depth understanding of employee turnover and job perf ormance.(2010·上海) b.As soon as they arrived there,they undertook to clean the rubbish.(湖北) c.He always begins his lessons with a warm-up exercise.(山 东)

object to反对,抗议 object against 反对?? object of study 研究对象 direct object n.直接宾语;直接客体

辨析 object的基本意思是“由于某种原因不赞成某事”,引申可

出来,着重个人不喜欢,无好感,以及由于与个人密切相关而 提出反对意见,多以口头方式提出反对,有时伴有一定的具体 动作;object用作及物动词不可直接接名词或代词作宾语,须与 介词to连用表示“反对”“不喜欢”,后可接名词、代词或动名 词。 protest通常指通过言语或文字表露出来的强烈抗议;oppose 表示轻微的、激烈的等各种不同程度的反对,甚至发展到以武


(1)We appreciate your reasons for objecting to the proposal.我
们理解你反对这项提议的理由。[英华大辞典] (2)I

object against

him that he is too young to go to schoo


—How do Americans like to be called? —Most of them don't object ________them by their first name.

A.to call C.to calling 答案 C B.for calling D.that I call

解析 考查动词短语object to doing sth 反对做某事。

forbid sth禁止某事 forbid sb sth禁止某人某事

forbid sb to_do sth禁止某人做某事
forbid sb from doing sth阻止某人做某事 forbid doing sth禁止做某事

God forbid!苍天不容!

辨析 都有“禁止”“阻止”的意思。其区别在于:

政府、机关等作出的规定或准则;prohibit只指以法律或官方行 政手段,尤指以正式规章制度的形式加以禁止。

益或维护正常秩序。 (3)forbid用于禁止较小的事物;prohibit用于禁止影响比较 大的事物。 (4)forbid较直接,较随便;prohibit则较正式。 (5)forbid后可接不定式或从句作直接宾语 ,还可接双宾 语;而prohibit通常与from搭配。

(1)Parliament passed an Act forbidding the killing of rare anim
als.国会通过了一项法令,禁止捕杀珍稀动物。[英华大辞典] (2)Women are forbidden from going out without a veil.


(1)The students are forbidden,unless they have special passe s,__________after 11 pm.(2012·天津南开中学模拟)

A.from staying out
C.staying out 解析 后学生禁止外出”。 答案 B

B.to stay out
D.stay out

be forbidden to do sth 禁止某人做什么,“晚上11点

(2)He was so stubborn that no one could__________him to go t
here.(2012·北京模拟) A.forbid B.stop

答案 A


resist sth抵制某事

resist doing sth忍住不做某事
can't resist doing sth忍不住做某事 resist the temptation抵制诱惑;抵挡住诱惑

resist heat 耐热

(1)Any attack will be resisted with force.
任何攻击都会受到有力的抵抗。[英华大辞典] (2)She could hardly resist laughing on those occasions.


She is overweight,but she can't__________the temptation to eat more delicious food.(2012·武汉质检)

C.allow 解析 某事的诱惑。 答案 D


考查动词短语resist the temptation to do sth,抵制做

obtain employment就业,找到工作 obtain information获得信息;索取资料或合同

obtain evidence 取证
obtain knowledge获得知识 obtain through从??中获得

obtain by通过??获得

n 辨析

(1)除secure是正式用词外,其余各词均为一般用词。 (2)achieve主要指取得成功、成就或实现预期目的; acquire主要指逐渐获得知识、能力、荣誉等,习得; attain主要指达到重要目标或获得珍贵的东西; earn凭借劳动赚得或获得工资、报酬、荣誉、赞赏等; gain主要指获得或赢得有一定价值的东西;

obtain指获得所需之物或达到预期目的; secure指得到渴望或竞争性的东西;

获得人们的爱戴?好感?等。 (3)acquire的宾语多为知识、技能等;earn的宾语多为金 钱、荣誉等理应得到的东西;obtain的宾语多为期望已久的东 西;gain的宾语多为经验、利益、优势、好处等;而win的宾语 则为比赛、战斗等;get的宾语则比较广泛,既可以是具体的东 西,也可以是抽象的事物。例如: He got what he had earned.


You must work hard to acquire a good knowledge of English.
你要用功,以便精通英语。 Our firm has gained a good reputation.

Then I'll go and get you a chair. 我去给你拿把椅子来。 At last,he obtained his father's pardon. 他终于得到了父亲的原谅。 They won the basketball match. 他们打赢了这场篮球赛。

(1)Further information can be obtained from head office.
详细资料可从总部得到。[朗文] (2)He always manages to obtain what he wants.


Luck was__________a job to work abroad immediately after h e graduated from university.(2012·山东济宁月考)

C.provided 答案 B


pay off得到好结果;取得成功 pay sth off 偿还清债务等

pay a bill 付账
pay a price 付出代价 pay a visit to 访问

pay an account 付账
pay cash 付现款 pay debt 还债 pay sb's wages 付某人工资

pay back 偿还,报答,向??报复
pay for 为??付钱;为??付出代价 pay sb for sth 付钱给某人作为??的费用

pay sb to do sth 付钱给某人做某事
pay up 全部付清 pay the taxes 付税金

辨析 都可以表示“花费”。

(1) spend time /money on sth在……上花费时间(金钱)。(2) spend time /money (in) doing sth花费时间(金钱)做某事。(3)spe

nd money for sth花钱买??。
cost的主语是物或某种活动,还可以表示“值”,(doing) st h costs (sb) +时间,某物(做某事)花了(某人)多少时间。注意:c ost的过去式及过去分词都是cost,并且不能用于被动句。 take后面常跟双宾语,常见用法有以下几种:(1) It takes sb +时间+to do sth做某事花了某人多少时间。(2)doing sth takes sb +时间,做某事花了某人多少时间。

(1) pay (sb) money for sth付钱(给某人)买??。 (2)pay for sth付??的钱。

(3)pay for sb替某人付钱。
(4)pay sb付钱给某人。 (5)pay money back 还钱。 (6)pay off one's money还清钱。

take 一般用it作主语,例:It takes sb some time to do sth. spend 一般是人作主语,例:I spent an hour finishing my ho

cost表示某物值什么的(价值或钱)例:The book costs 200 yu an. pay一般是人作主语,例:I paid ten dollars for the book. (1)Ray paid some kids to wash the car. 雷花钱雇了一些孩子洗车。 (2)They took a hell of a risk but it paid_off. 他们冒了很大风险,但事情成功了。

—Mom,I can't see any point in studying hard at all the subject s at school.

—Come on,dear!Years of hard study and work will surely__
__________in the future of your career.(2012·山东枣庄模拟) A.make sure C.bring back 解析 B.pay off D.pay back

pay off得到好结果,取得成功,make sure确信;证

实,bring back拿回来;使??恢复;使??回忆起来;pay back 偿还;报答,所以选择pay off“多年的努力一定会成功。 答案 B

1.全部倒装是将句子中的谓语动词全部臵于主语之前。此 结构通常只用于一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有: (1) here,there,now,then,thus等副词臵于句首,谓语动 词常用be,come,go,lie,run。 There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter.

(2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语臵于句首,谓语表示运
动的动词。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

Ahead sat an old woman.
注意:全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语 是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 Here he comes.Away they went.

omise,suggestion,reply,problem,belief,doubt,truth,orde r,thought等,它们本身有一定的意义,但表达得不够具体。为

补充说明该名词的内容,这个从句就叫做同位语从句。例如:T he news that our team had won the match spread the whole country.有时如果主句的谓 语动词较短,为保持句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,同位语从句也 常与要说明的名词分开。例如:Word came that he died yesterda y.消息传来说他昨天死了。同位语从句的引导词有that /why/whe n/whether等,表示陈述意义时通常用that。注意that不能省略。

The fact that he didn't pass the college entrance examination dis appointed his parents.

The king made a promise that he would make anyone rich if on
e could cure his illness.当名词doubt用在否定句中时,其后的同位 语从句应用that引导;而用在肯定句或疑问句中时则可以用其他 词来引导。例如: I never have the doubt that you can look after yourself. Some people have the doubt how such a little boy can lift so he avy a box.

与主语从句相似。例如:The question whether he can finish the w ork within two days remains unknown.表示疑问时也可用其他引导

This student asked a good question why pollution can't be stopp ed. He had no idea when she would come back.

(1)Word came that

I was needed at home.

有信儿来说家里需要我。[牛津] (2)The word is that he's left the country.


(1)When the news came __________the war broke out,he dec ided to serve in the army.(2011·辽宁卷,32) A.since C.that 解析 B.which D.because


军。the war broke out是news的具体内容。因此为同位语从句作n ews的同位语,且从句中不缺少句子成分,所以用连接词that。th at引导同位语从句虽不作任何成分,但不能省略。 答案 C

(2)Modern science has given clear evidence________smoking
can lead to many diseases.(2011·天津卷,13) A.what B.which

答案 C


解析 名词性从句的考查,本题是that引导同位语从句。

(3)John opened the door.There__________he had never seen b
efore.(2010·陕西卷) A.a girl did stand B.a girl stood

C.did a girl stand

D.stood a girl


句首,且当句子的主语是名词时,句子用全部倒装句,选D。 答案 D

1.As we know,French d________ from English in many as pects.

2.Applying for a passport in Shanghai is a straightforward p_
___. 3.Jack has u________ to pay the money back in six months.I think he is reliable. 4.The situation is so dangerous that the relief agencies have_f ________ their workers to go there. 5.Sorry to b________ you,but would you mind moving yo ur bag?

6.Dust and dirt soon__________(积累)if a house is not clean
ed regularly. 7.Some experts think that there are now too many rules and__

________(条例) governing small businesses.
8.I was completely in their power,and knew it was senseles s to__________(抵制). 9.They are ready to accept these ideas__________(仅仅) bec ause they have never been challenged. 10.I haven't been able to__________(获得) that record anyw here;can you get it for me?

答案 1.differs

2.procedure 3.undertaken 4.forbidden

5.bother 6.accumulate 7.regulations 8.resist 9.merely 10.obtain

cast down;in favour of;be bound to;pay off;object to;fr om time to time;in vain;bring back to life;in good condition;p

ass on
1.He happened to be saved by a kind man and was______aga in. 2.I stayed off work,as I didn't want to__________my cold t o anyone. 3.All the doctors did was__________,and the patient died a fter three days' treatment. 4.I still see her________though we live far from each other.

5.I bought the bicycle ten years ago.It still stays ________.

6.Two years of business school really__________.He got suc
cess in his career. 7.He seemed quite__________when he knew the result.

8.I really__________being charged for parking.
9.I'm all__________equal pay for equal work. 10.You've done so much work — you__________pass the exa m. 答案 1.brought back to life 2.pass on 4.from time to time 7.cast down 8.object to 9.in favour of 3.in vain 10.are bound to 5.in good condition 6.paid off

1.人与其他哺乳动物的不同之处在于人能说话。(differ...i n)

2.她把健康归功于生活有规律。(owe...to) __________________________________________________ 3.所有那几周的学习都会在考试的时候见成效。(pay off) __________________________________________________ 4.日复一日,她徒劳地等待他的电话。(in vain) __________________________________________________

5.作为惩罚,他被禁止离开基地。(be forbidden to)
__________________________________________________ 6.汤姆是最先来的,接着来的是约翰。(then+倒装)


答案 1.Humans differ from other mammals in their ability to
speak. 2.She owes her good health to her regular life.

3.All those weeks of studying will pay off when you take the
exam. 4.Day after day she waited in vain for him to telephone her. 5.He was forbidden to leave the base as a punishment. 6.Tom was the first one to come,then came John.

一篇完形填空,五分之一分值。共有三大问题,务必引起注意。 词汇语法欠缺,忽视知识根基。见木不见森林,没有俯视勇气。 干涉作者文意,偏离文章主题。力争有限目标,学会自我激励。

信息提示周边!分门别类攻坚,集中限时训练。预测速览判断, 或可边看边填。通读一遍检验,确定正确答案。

As a young child I can always remember running down steps o n Christmas morning and looking around the tree for the biggest box.

I always believed that within the biggest box__1__the most expensiv
e and best gift from my family.But I__2__realized that each and ever y gift was special,unique,and meaningful.In fact,those presents that I__3__are the gifts that came directly from the heart,such as on e of my__4__handmade sweaters.Christmas truly is not about the gift itself,__5__the thought behind the gift!

I know I have already been__6__to receive the most beautiful p
resent in the world,my girlfriend Angela.But the true__7__of Chris tmas is found in the word “giving”.So,this Christmas I__8__mys

elf to search and find the most incredible gift for the most incredible_
_9__. I spent many days searching crowded stores,but nothing seem ed to 10 .As Christmas quickly approached I __11__if I would ev er find that “perfect” gift.I decided to try the local__12__at last.But as I__13__passed from one store to the next,nothing__14__my eye s.Somewhat defeated,I slowly made my way to the mall exit.But__ 15__I could reach the door,I suddenly found that “perfect” gift.

No,this gift was not found in a(n)__16__department store.It
will not be__17__in pretty Christmas paper;I found it in the eyes of an elderly couple holding hands,I heard it in the__18__words betw

een a grandfather and a grandson,and I saw it in the__19__of a pro
ud new mother. Yes,the gift is love.So,Angela,this Christmas I give you my love and__20__that you will always keep it with you!

C.appeared 2.A.once

D.changed B.often

3.A.buy C.borrow 4.A.classmate's C.relative's 5.A.but C.or rather 6.A.encouraged

B.remember D.distribute B.colleague's D.mother's B.rather than D.other than B.blessed



C.meaning 8.A.promised

D.success B.forced

9.A.son C.boy 10.A.move on C.come in 11.A.wondered C.required 12.A.school

B.daughter D.girl B.stand out D.grow up B.asked D.proved B.church



C.quietly 14.A.protected

D.gradually B.attracted

15.A.before C.though 16.A.ordinary C. modern 17.A.contained C.included 18.A.difficult

B.because D.until B.cheap D.expensive B.wrapped D.buried B.practical



C.excuses 20.A.guess

D.orders B.declare





候在圣诞节的早晨寻找圣诞礼物的情景。随着年龄的增长,作 者逐渐懂得:每一件礼物都是与众不同的,都有其深刻的意




盒子里。rise意为“上升,提高”,appear意为“出现”,cha nge意为“改变”,均不符合语境。]



作者很快意识到每一件礼物都是特殊的。] 3.B [根据下文中的“such as one of my__4__handmade s weaters”可知,此处表示作者所记得(remember)的那些礼物。] 4.D [根据上文中的“As a young child I can always reme mber...the most expensive and best gift from my family”及生活 常识可知,这里应该是指妈妈手工制作的毛衣。]




7.C 8.A 9.D

[下文提到作者要送给女朋友礼物,由此可知,作 [下文叙述作者去商店买礼物,再结合上文可知, [根据上文中的“I know I have already been bl


此处应是指作者保证(promised)要找到最好的礼物。] essed to receive the most beautiful present in the worl d,my girlfriend Angela.”可知,作者要把最好的礼物送给最 好的女孩(girl)。] 10.B [根据下文中的“if I would ever find that?pe




能找到“完美的”礼物。] 12.D [根据下文中的“I slowly made my way to the mall e

13.C 店。] 14.B 睛。] 15.A 物。] [作者还没到达门口,就发现了那件“完美的”礼 [上文中提到作者想购买“完美的”礼物,虽然作 者 四 处 寻 找 , 但 是 没 有 任 何 东 西 吸 引 (attracted) 住 他 的 眼 [作者静静地(quietly)从一家商店找到另一家商


[根据下文中的“Yes ,the gift is love.”可


18.C “爱”。] 19.A 20 . D



者 是 在 爷 爷 和 孙 子 之 间 幽 默 的 (humorous) 话 语 里 听 到 了
[此处表示作者在初为人母的母亲的自豪的行动中 [ 作 者 认 为 “爱 ”是 最有价值 的东西 , 他要把

看到了“爱”。] “爱”送给女朋友,并且相信女朋友会一直拥有他的“爱”。]

I found it in the eyes of an elderly couple holding hands;I hea rd it in the humorous words between a grandfather and a grandson,

and I saw it in the actions of a proud new mother.(Paragraph 4)
该句在结构上属于并列句。它是由连词and连接的三个并列 的简单句。根据上下文的语境可知,句中的it指代上文提到的“t hat‘perfect?gift”,也就是指“爱”。 句意:我在牵手的老年夫妻的眼神中发现了爱,我在祖孙 之间幽默的话语中听到了爱,还有,我在初为母亲的自豪的行 动中看到了爱。

短语 look around环顾,环视

1.I spent many days searching crowded stores,but nothing s eemed to stand out.我花了多日在拥挤的商店里寻找,但是好像没 有引人注目的东西。 2.Somewhat defeated,I slowly made my way to the mall exi t.我感到有些挫败,于是慢慢地往购物中心出口处走去。