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作文结构分析


高考英语写作结构: 必须在有限的时间内完成, 而且字数不宜过多。 因此多数是以三段居多,且要求学生做到:语言精简,表达到 位,切莫用中文的思路去写英语高考作文。 三段分为:引言段、主体段和结尾段。 第一段:开门见山导入主题; 第二段:采用先总后分的手法,即先亮出主题句,然后再用发展句充实段落。 最后一段:一定要与引言段收尾呼应。 ? 中间段落如何写: (先总后分的方法) 例一:

How to save the rare wild animals My suggestions to deal with the problem are as follows. To begin with, it is urgent to create nature reserves. Secondly, certain rare wild animals that are going to be extinct should be collected, fed and reproduced artificially. Finally, those who hunter them must be punished severely. 例二: How to deal with the air pollution caused by cars: One possible solution is to design and develop clean cars and clean fuels. In Tsinghua University, campus buses are driven by electricity. In Beijing some of the public buses begin to run on natural gas, which does not give off as much carbon dioxide as the petrol. But it may take decades for the new models of clean cars to completely replace the traditional ones. Another way is to develop modern public transportation systems and restrict the use of private cars. If the price of petrol rises constantly and the public vehicles are efficient and convenient enough, most people will not private cars. And the total number of cars in big cities will reduce greatly. 例三: Why is the fast food restaurant so popular? There are several reasons for its popularity. First, it is very convenient and saves a lot of time. The trends of modern society seem to all point to one ultimate goal—saving time, and fast food well serves this purpose. You just go into a fast food restaurant, order your food, and your food is ready in no time. You can either eat it there or take it away. Second, its popularity is also attributed to the clean and comfortable environment of fast food restaurants, the excellent service, and the guaranteed quality of food. 经典句型: 1. 提出现象 (点出论题) : 位于段首 (开头点题) : ① there is a widespread (普遍的) concern over the issue that 对… 有广泛的关注;② there is a heated discussion that+ 现象。 。 。; ③…is a very popular topic which is much talked about not only by …but also by 2. 两方面阐述: on one hand, on the other hand; for one thing, for another; in the first place, in the second place, to begin with, to continue with; 3. 我认为: as far as I am concerned= in my opinion= personally speaking= from my point of view; I hold the view that + 从句…: I firmly believe that… +从句; as for me, 4. 综上所述: taking everything into consideration / account 综合考虑, through the above analyses 通过以上 分析; From what is mentioned above ,综上所述;considering / in view of+名词 鉴于,考虑到 in conclusion(最后, 综上所述); all in all(总的来说); so it goes without saying that+从句(不言而喻); above all (首要的是,最重要的是, 尤其); that is to say= namely 也就是说 5. 倡议: We should spare no effort to take some measures to solve this problem. I am here to call on everyone to work together … so it’s high time that we dealt with this problem jointly and cooperatively(虚拟). Only through the joint efforts , can we ... (倒装句); it is the joint efforts and the determination to undo the problem that can bring us success at last. (强调句) 6. It is of great importance to practice the proverb: It is of practical use to stick to the saying: 谚语 It is of no good to a friendly and harmonious society… 对创建友好和谐的社会毫无益处。 It is worthy of praise to .. … 是值得表扬的。 What we should do is that…. 我们应该做的事情是… 补充部分: on account of= because of 因为;…by and large(大体上说); on behalf of 为了…的利益; for the sake of…为
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了…起见; and the forth= and so on 等等; take… seriously/ reasonably 认真对待; 理性对待; to some extent/ degree=in a/ some sense 在某种程度上,从某个意义上; thanks to = due to= owing to 因为; according to 根据; on the contrary = contrary to sth 相反地; in contrast to / with 对比,比照; by contrast 对比之下; compared with 与…比对; by chance/ accident 偶然地; in all aspects 在各个方面; be bound to do sth 一定会做; be employed in =be engaged in= be occupied with= be busy with 忙于;in general 大体而言;take… for granted 认为…理所当然; in honor of 对…表示敬意; on the increase/ decline 在增长/ 降低; At length= in the end= in conclusion 最后; let alone(动词原形或名词)更不要说= not to mention; to say nothing of; judging from/ by 由…判断; in the light of 鉴于;按照; 根据; in the long run/ term 长远来看; at a loss 茫然不知所措; in the main 大体上; as a matter of fact 事实上; by means of 依靠; not to mention 更不要说= let alone; 注意句型的运用: 非谓语: ① 独立主格: with…; with piles of homework to do…; generally/ personally/ frankly speaking(一般来说, 个 人来言,坦白来讲) ② 从句(when)….+主句 倒装句:Never… Not until… that ; only in this way… 虚拟语气: but for (要不是); If only(要是…就好了); It?s high time + (did) 是做…的时候到了。 It is suggested/ advised / proposed that + (should) do It is advisable / important/ necessary / + (should) do There is no doubt that There is possibility of doing / that There is no denying the fact that +同位语从句 There is no chance that 没有可能性 There is no point (in)doing sth 做某事没有意义 There is no sense in doing sth 做某事没有意义/ 道理 There is no need to do sth have no choice/ alternative but to do sth 别无选择只能做。 。 。 can?t helping doing / can?t help but do 情不自禁 ① 范文:学生在网上查答案(寒暑假作业的) Seeing the picture, I can?t help sighing with a heavy heart. In the picture, the whole family are helping the little boy with his winter vacation assignments. And it?s not hard to imagine the unreasonable amount of homework he is faced with. The phenomenon may be caused by various reasons. In the first place, it is the exam-oriented education that forces teachers to give out more assignments. What?s more, parents? over-expectation may be another reason to pressure the schools to increase academic burden. It is understandable that we want to embrace a brighter future through excellent academic performance. Nevertheless, in my opinion, the large amounts of homework are by no means identified with good marks, let alone individual development. The influential components for a successful life are complex and various including health, thought and so on. If I were the teacher, I would enhance the efficiency in class instead of loading students with piles of homework. If I were a parent, I would take my child to visit a museum or enjoy a movie rather than enrolling in extra curriculums for my kids. The cultivation of children is not confined to paper work. When we advocate multi-culture, we should also advocate multi-education. 开头+内容+结尾
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十二句作文法(十二句原则: 3+6+3) 考生一般都希望作文达到字数而又不至于写得太多,因为写得太多一方面暴露自己语言上的弱点,另一方面又 会占用过多的时间。写得太多还易跑题,一个有效的方法就是十二句作文法。 我们知道,高考作文倾向于选择三段式。我们算一下,如果我们在每一段中写上四句,即主题句加两三句扩展 句和一个结论句就可以了。这样全片在十二句左右,每一句十多个词,就有 120-150 个字。 一、开头类: ① 名人名言+谚语俗语 一篇 120 字左右的作文里,出现 1-2 句名言点缀一下即可,切忌为求华丽生搬硬套,那样只会成为你的累赘,在老 师眼里也只是一种显摆的行为,不讨巧。 在用到名言的时候,大致有这么 4 种写 1. A proverb says,…… 2. It goes without saying that …… 3. As a classic proverb goes that ……(推荐!as a proverb/saying goes 几乎人人会用,但加上个 classic 味道一下子就 不一样了! ) 4.there is much truth in the saying “……”(俗话说得好……) 5. cited as saying,“……” 援引……的话(这个比较漂亮,用的人也相对较少,推荐! ) 在论述努力学习一类的作文中可用到以下这些 It's never too old to learn. 活到老,学到老。 A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.千里之行始于足下。 (强调脚踏实地的重要性) One false step will make a great difference. 失之毫厘,谬之千里。 (强调治学要严谨) An idle youth, a needy age. 少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。 (不好好学习你就悲剧了) As a man sows, so shall he reap. 种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。 (声明天道酬勤的真理) Action speaks louder than words. 行动胜过语言。 (学习,是要去做的) Experience is the mother of wisdom. 实践出真知。 (做学问要实践) Rome was not built in a day. 伟业非一日之功。 (学习是个积累的过程) All work and no play makes jack a dull boy. 只工作不休息,聪明孩子也变傻。 (也要说说学习不能过度) 外表的一些名句+谚语 A fine coat does not make a gentleman. 衣着并不能装扮出一个君子 Never judge a book by its cover. 不可以貌取人 Beauty is only skin-deep. 美貌不过一张皮 Beauty will buy no beef. 漂亮不能当饭吃。 Beauty without virtue is like a rose without fragrance. 无德之美犹如无香之玫瑰,徒有其表。 Good looks are not a must. 美貌并非必需 ② 描述身边现象 1. Many individuals, if not the most, harbor the idea that …… (比较高阶的一种,词漂亮又有插入语,推荐! ) 2. Now, it is generally accepted/commonly thought that …… 3. There is a growing tendency for …… to do ……(……开始呈现上升趋势) 4. …… has caused wide public concern recent years(描述某件引起广泛关注的话题时) 5. There is a general debate on/over ……Heated/hot debates have been stirred up these day/recently(写到有争议的 话题时)
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③ 介绍某些人、事、物 1. When speaking/ talking of/ When it comes to...in terms of/ in light of/ in view of/ with regard to/ for/ 2. ……,described as ……,is …… e.g. Microblog, described as an entire new form of communication, has now caught on 流行 quickly among teenagers by enabling the users to update their latest status within just a few words. 3. It seems that …… is ……(sweeping the world/catching on/becoming popular overnight) (比如说说科技的飞速发展, 电脑、网络的兴起等等) ④ 气势磅礴的排比 1.For ……,it is …… .For ……, it is …… .And for ……,it is……(从多方面多角度去描述你要写的东西,前两个要 为第三个蓄势,观点最后亮) e.g. For baseball fans, 2009 was the year of the Yankees. For job seekers, it was the year of the Great Recession. And for people who track baby names, it was the year of the vampire. 2. …… is a ……,a ……, a ……(递进式) e.g. First love, is a surge of adrenalin(肾上腺素), a rush of blood, a thing of innocence and pain that lasts a lifetime. 初恋是情感巨浪的汹涌,是情感在热血中的奔流,是情感纯真的表露,亦是一生中永恒的伤痛 ⑤ 回忆式开头 回忆式的写法的作用就相当于语文中的倒叙,用你的开头将读者带回到当时的情景,用在叙述一件事情的作文中效 果尤其好 1. I never forget/remember/bear in mind the …… day when …… I never forget the sweet day when we walked down the street hand in hand. 2. Gone are the days when ……was/were; did/could do (! ! ! 强大句型! 抒情记叙说明文通用! 此句一出如同必杀> <) Gone are the days when we strove, we laughed and cried together with Deng. Gone are the days when we could release the greenhouse gases without a second thought. 3. Once upon a time …… was just a ……(用于强调某人某物今非昔比时) Once upon a time Liubei was just a peddler selling straw sandals. 曾经刘备也只是个卖草鞋的小贩 4. There are very few things/people I truly love/hate in life.(few 表达你对该事物的特殊感情,再用 truly 进一步强调, 接着要做的就是开始具体叙述你所要写之事) ⑥ 否定句开头 1. Perhaps no one/nothing else (on Earth/in history)has such a …… as ……(用来强调描写对象的独一无二) (对你 来说珍贵的人或物) Perhaps no one else on Earth has such an affinity(close relationship) with the North Pole as Jean-Louis Etienne. 也许这个世界上没有人会像 Jean-Louis Etienne 那样与北极有过如此亲密的接触 2. There aren?t many …… (people/teenagers/citizens)who have had the honor/chance to …… There aren?t very many US citizens who have had the honor to meet a president, let alone a kid from a foreign country. 3. No …… has received more praise and abuse than ……(电子产品:ipad, microblog 等) No invention has received more praise and abuse than computer. ⑦ 数字统计,用报告说话 1. According to a recent survey, 2. A recent statistics shows that …… 3. A recent survey revealed that ……

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二、文章内容类: 要在内容部分得高分,用到的技巧大约有:长短句交叉、使用插入语、用词多样准确生动又形象、关键词灵活 换用不重复、句型使用多样表述地道 内容技巧一:华丽丽的长短句 写长短句的宗旨,一张一弛,文武之道,一长一短,长句在前短句后,通篇长句累死读者,通篇短句不够刺激,长 句华丽短句简洁,穿插着用方为王道 1. These delicate sentences said by Audrey Hepburn, who is widely recognized as one of the most beautiful women, aim at one topic: it is one?s inner beauty that really counts.(非限制性定从,放在句子中间修饰中心词 sentences, 显然要比直 接+aim at 好得多) 2. Backham, who has been a legend in his time, will definitely be an immortal(不死的,永恒的), even though he might no longer be striving on the sparkling pitch.(一个非限制性定从+ 一个让步状语从句) 3. However, flows of advertisements will not only impact the producer?s image, but also make the potential customers bored and even spoil the advertising program.(not only …… but also 也是写长句时的主力军! ) 4. Wherever they go or whatever they do, they always bear in mind that they are messengers of peace, representing China.(bear……in mind, 一个宾从&现在分词作状语) 5. Almost at the same time the news came that people in drought-stricken south-western China are facing horrible shortage of drinking water, people in the rest part of China joined hands to donate water and other resources, hoping to give a hand to those in trouble and be no onlooker. 6.Even though Zhao has been handsomely compensated 650,000 yuan by government, which is expected to be more, this financial compensation still can not hold a candle to(简直不能与...相比) Zhao?s 11 years? torturous and freedom-lost prison life, thus confirming the saying that, “Money is not everything” .(让步状从+非限制性定从+复合形容词+现在分 词作结果状语+引用谚语) 7. Sunshangxiang stood out as a dazzling pearl from quantities of distinct historical figures, confirming the saying that, ?Women are no inferior to men?. (现在分词作结果状语与引用名言的完美结合,推荐) ② 神出鬼没的插入语 单词作插入语,如:besides, however, otherwise, therefore, though 1.On the other hand, however, computer is not without its defects/disadvantages. (however 作插入语,作无论如何/但是的意思,是最常用的一个插入语) 2. We should, therefore, take advantage of the fruits of computers and avoid the opposite fact 方面. 短语作插入语,如 for example, by the way, in other words, in addition, on the contrary, in comparison, to mention the worst/ best, in a sense, to some degree, on a large scale, in a way, in the long run, so far, as a matter of fact, as a result 等等 1. China and India, for example, are neighbours. 2. The United Nations are calling for more environment-friendly actions, in other words, they are demanding that people all over the world (should)switch to green products and do their bit to protect the earth. ③ 被动替换主动
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适当用被动句,更能反映客观事实,如: 1. Attention should be paid to 替换 We should pay attention to 2. Immediate/Instant/Effective measures should/is needed to be taken/carried out to…… 替换 We should take immediate measures to …… 3. Great/Joint effort should be made to …… 替换 We should make great/joint effort to …… 4. It should be pointed out that/It should 替换 never be neglected/overlooked/ignored that ……I must point out that ……/ We should never neglect/overlook/ignore that …… 5. We are brought up to believe that …… 替换 We firmly believe that …… 内容技巧四:关键词、高频词句的表达多样性 1. 我(个人)认为: For my part;From my point of view/From my perspective; Personally speaking; Personally I maintain that ……; I(firmly) hold the view that……; In my humble opinion ; I?m of the opinion that …… (In my opinion & I think) 2. 大多数人认为、知道 Many, if not mos, if not all, harbor the idea that ……;The majority of the people It’s universally/widely accepted/acknowledged that ……; It?s shared by a large number of people that ……; (Many people think that……) 3. ……越来越流行 to become increasingly popular;…… gain growing popularity; ……is increasingly appealing to; ……is catching on a increasing/growing number of people (……is more and more popular) 4. 关注……,重视…… pour attention into …… ; take …… into account; take …… into consideration; be concerned with/about; keep oneself (well)informed of; become aware of/that ……; (pay attention to/put emphasis on) 5. 据我所知,…… to the best of my knowledge; for all I know/ for what I can tell (as far as I know) 6. 做……是有好处的、有帮助的 It pays to ……; It?s rewarding to ……; It’s of great benefit to ……;
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One can reap huge fruits from …… (it?s good/helpful to……) 7. ……导致了 give rise to; ……(greatly)contribute to……;…… is a major contributor to ……; ……lead to ……; ……result in …… (……cause……) 8. 喜爱……,热衷于…… take a fancy to(介词)/have a fancy for …… have an affection for …… have a love affair with; be fond of/be keen on/be keen about …… be obsessed with …… (like……) 9. 凡事都有两面性 No garden has no weeds …… is a double-edged sword We should not be blind to the other side of …… Everything has its pluses and minuses Everything cuts both ways (every coin has two sides ) 10. 努力做某事、尽某人之力做某事 do everything in one’s power to …… take pains to do; spare no effort/ make an effort to do do one’s utmost to do……=do one’s bit to do…… go all out to do ……全力以赴做某事 (try one?s best to do) 11. …… 不尽如人意 …… has/leaves a lot to be desired …… fails to meet/satisfy one?s need/demand/requirement …… is far from satisfactory …… does?t come up to one?s expectations come up to sth 到达,赶得上 (……is undesirable) 12. ……就是个极好的例子,……恰好能说明我的观点 …… is such a prime example 最好的例子 ... is a case in point 是个恰当的例子 we can cite …… as an excellent example of …… perfectly fits/illustrates my idea/description of…… …… perfectly serve my purpose (for example,……) 13. 在某种程度上
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at some point; to some extent/degree;in a sort of way; in part 部分地; in a sense (partly) 14. …… 无法与……相提并论;……与……相差甚远 ① …… can’t hold a candle to sth…… your bad luck can't hold a candle to mine. 噢,你的坏运气跟我比是小巫见大 巫啦。 ② …… pale into insignificance when compared with …… 与...相比.... 显得无足轻重 That issue pales into insignificance beside the one we are discussing now. 那个题目比较起我们正在讨论的这一个来就 显得无足轻重了。 The current global recession pales into insignificance when compared with past wars and plagues. 现在的全球经济衰退与 过去的战争和瘟疫相比显得无足轻重。 ③ …… is not in the same class with …… …… can?t rival …… in …… rival 竞争,对手 n,v ④ there?s no comparison between …… and …… …… can never approach …… 三、结尾类: ① 得出结论…… 1. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw/come to/reach/arrive at the conclusion that …… (议论类文 章的万金油式句型,非常正规、书面,不过略微缺乏新意) 2. Thus, it can be concluded that ……/ we can find that …… 3. Needless to say/Admittedly/Obviously, ……(如果读者很难“显而见之”,但说无妨,就当读者的眼光太浅罢了! ) 4. The ample(充分的) evidence presented enables us to reasonably conclude that ……(成熟老练,中规中矩) 5. Therefore, it?s quite reasonable for me/us to assume that ……(总结完之后,来点美好的期盼,尽情地去 YY) ② 提出建议…… 如果说“如此结论”是结尾最没用的废话,那么“如此建议”应该是最有价值的废话了。换言之,这类结尾就是在高歌, 明天会更好~ Therefore/Thus, it is high time that we did ……(提建议还用个虚拟!很拽很高级! ! ! ) 2. Accordingly, I recommend that ……(some measures should be taken) (于是乎……我建议……) 3. Consequently, to solve the problem, I?d like to give my advice/suggestion that ……(都已经想着如何帮人家解决困难 了,多么实际一孩子……)

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