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Chapter 4 The Deep Structure of Culture: Roots of Reality

Contents
Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
1) Religious similarities 2) Five Religious Orientation

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2. A comparison of world views
1) A mechanistic view 2) A dualistic view

Ⅱ. Family
1.Importance ,Functions, and Types 2. Culture and Family

Ⅲ. History
1.UnitedStates; 2.AfricanAmericans; 3.Jews; 4.Russians; 5.Chinese; 6.Japanese

The relationship between culture and reality
Huntington: “The great divisions among humankind and the dominating sources of conflict will be cultural.” Huntington: “The people of different civilizations have different views on the relations between God and man, the individual and the group, the citizen and the state, parents and children, husband and wife, as well as differing views of the relative importance of rights and responsibilities, liberty and authority, equality and hierarchy.” Delgado: “Culture produces and is reproduced by institutions of society, and we can turn to such sites to help recreate and represent the elements of culture.”

The roots of reality influnced by three parts: Culture

Roots of Reality

World View

Family

History

Why our world view, family, and cultural history hold such a prominent sway over our action?
First, the three institutions of church, family, and community carry the message that matter most to people. Second, these institutions are important because they endure. Third, the content generated by these institutions is deeply and emotionally felt. Finally, the deep structure of a culture is important because the institutions of family, church, and community give each individual his or her unique identity.

Ⅰ. World view
Hoebel and Frost defined the world view as: “the human being’s inside view of the way things are colored, shaped, and arranged according to personal cultural preconceptions.” A culture’s world view can be thought of as its core. Hoebel: “In selecting its customs for day-to-day living, even the little things, the society chooses those ways that accord with its thinking and predilections---ways that fit its basic postulates as to the nature of things and what is desirable and what is not.”

Ⅰ. World view
Olayiwola conclude that a culture’s world view even influences the social, economic, and political life of a nation. World view is a culture’s orientation toward God, humanity, nature, questions of existence, the universe and cosmos, life, death, sickness and other philosophical issues that influnence how its members perceive their world.

Pennington: “If one understands a culture’s world view and cosmology, reasonable accuracy can be attained in predicting behaviors and motivations in other dimensions.”

Ⅰ. World view
Importance of world view:
1. Knowledge of world view can even help us understand a culture’s perception of nature. 2. Another link between world views and behaviors can be seen in how a culture perceives the business arena. 3. World view, perception, and communication are bound together.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
Religion is the predominant element of culture gives us our world view. Lamb: “It is clear that religion and culture are inextricably entwined.” Nanda: “deals with the nature of life and death, the creation of the universe, the origin of society and groups within the society, the relationship of individuals and groups to one another, and the relation of humankind to nature.” Haviland: “we know of no group of people anywhere on the face of the earth who, at any time over the past 10,000 years, have been without religion.”

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
Three items of religion First, the study of religion not only offers insight into the spiritual and psychological needs of people, but it also gives us clues into the social aspects of a culture. Second, religion then, be it theology or the everyday practices of a culture, gives us insight into the members of that culture. Third, there are two criteria for us to judge which religion we should include and which we should exclude in our treatment of world view---numbers and relevance.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
1) Religious similarities
① Sacred writings “At the center of all the world’s main religious lies a body of sacred writings, revered by believers.” e.g. Bible/ Koran/Vedas ② Authority In nearly all cases, regilious orientation have an authority figure who provides guidance and counsel. e.g. God/Allah/Buddha ③ Traditional rituals Every religion has a long list of rituals that are not instinctive and therefore need to be passed on from generation to generation.
e.g. receive baptism in Christianity/ Japanese tea ceremony

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
1) Religious similarities
④ Speculation Every religion knows that all human beings seek answers to the great mysteries of life. That is, each tradition addresses questions about life, death, suffering, the origins of the universe, and countless other events. ⑤ Ethics “Religion always includes an ethic.” It is intriguing that ethical standards are nearly the same for all cultures.

receive baptism

Japanese tea ceremony

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
We need to know: First, religion is but one kind of world view, and even the person who says “There is no God” has answers to the large questions about life, death, suffering, and social relationships. Second, as Hendry says “Religion pervades many spheres which we might call secular and it cannot easily be separated from them.” Finally, it is not our intent to offer a course on world religion, but rather to isolate those aspects of world view that are most manifest in how a culture perceives issues such as life, death, social relationships, community, ethics, and other matters that affect communication.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations ① Christianity (基督教)
Founder: Jesus Sacred writing: Bible Numbers of believers: about one billion people throughout the world Dominant world view country: America Numbers of American believers: 86% of the U.S. population Christian variations: Protestant(新教), Baptist(浸信会), Methodist (卫理公会),Lutheran(路德教会), Roman Catholic(罗马天主教),etc. Characteristics: a. At the heart of Christianity is “in its founder God was made manifest in the flesh and dwelt among men.” b. Christians believe in a God who is manifest in the Trinity of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Christian world view: a. Christians believe strongly in organized worship as a means of proclaiming God’s message. b. Jesus preached a system of ethics that has endured for two thousand years. Words and phrases such as commandments, right and wrong, good and evil,morals, and ethics are central to Christianity. c. the Western concept of the importance of the individual can be linked partially to Christianity. d. much of the Western “doing” orientation can be found in the life of Jesus. e. a strong message in Christianity is courage.

Jesus of Nazareth (c. 5 BC/BCE – c. 30 AD/CE), also referred to as Jesus Christ or simply Jesus, is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christian denominations venerate him as God the Son incarnated and believe that he rose from the dead after being crucified.

The Bible (from Greek τ? βιβλ?α ta biblia "the books"), sometimes referred to as the Holy Bible, is the various collections of sacred scripture of the various branches of Judaism and Christianity. The Bible, in its various editions, is the best-selling book in history.

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There is no single Bible, and both the individual books (Biblical canon), their contents and their order vary between denominations. Mainstream Judaism divides the Tanakh into 24 books, while a minority stream of Judaism, the Samaritans, accepts only five. The 24 texts of the Hebrew Bible are divided into 39 books in Christian Old Testaments, and complete Christian Bibles range from the 66 books of the Protestant canon to the 81 books in the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. The Jewish Bible, or Tanakh, is divided into three parts: (1) the five books of the Torah ("teaching" or "law") comprise the origins of the Israelite nation, its laws and its covenant with the God of Israel; (2) the Nevi'im ("prophets") containing the historic account of ancient Israel and Judah plus works of prophecy; and (3) the Ketuvim ("writings"), poetic and philosophical works such as the Psalms and the Book of Job. The Christian Bible (sometimes known as the Holy Bible) is divided into two parts. The first is called the Old Testament, containing the (minimum) 39 books of Hebrew Scripture, and the second portion is called the New Testament, containing a set of 27 books. The first four books of the New Testament form the Canonical gospels which recount the life of Christ and are central to the Christian faith. Christian Bibles include the books of the Hebrew Bible, but arranged in a different order: Jewish Scripture ends with the people of Israel restored to Jerusalem and the temple and the Christian arrangement ends with the book of the prophet Malachi. The oldest surviving Christian Bibles are Greek manuscripts from the 4th century; the oldest complete Jewish Bible is a Greek translation, also dating to the 4th century. The oldest complete manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible (the Masoretic text) date from the Middle Ages

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations ② Judaism (犹太教)
Definition: Judaism is the oldest of the religions being practiced today and is monotheistic, worshiping one supreme being. Founder: Abraham Sacred writing: Hebrew Bible or Old Testament Numbers of believers: less than one-half of 1% of the world’s population Numbers of American believers: only 2% of the entire population Characteristics: a. Jewish faith is unique, both a culture and a religion, b. common c. importance that Jews place on learning d. the Jewish sense of justice

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Jewish world view: a. God is one b. no human ever will be divine c. human are free d. humans are the pinnacle of creation e. Jews belong to a group or nation whose goal is to serve God f. humans must be obedient to the God-given commandments in the Torah and assume personal responsibility.

Abraham (Hebrew: ?,??? ???? ? ???? Modern Avraham Tiberian ?A rāhām, Arabic: ? ? ,????????Ibrāhīm, ?Abr?ham , Greek: Aβρα?μ), whose birth name was Abram, is the eponymous father of the Abrahamic religions, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Edomites, and the Midianites, according to both the Hebrew Bible and the Qur'an. He is a descendant of Noah's son Shem. In a contemporary context, Jews are said to be able to trace their ancestry back to Abraham, the father of the Hebrew nation, through the line of his second son Isaac. It is also said that the Patriarch is the ancestor of Mohammad, through Abraham's firstborn son Ishmael.

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The Hebrew Bible (also Hebrew Scriptures, Latin Biblia Hebraica) is a term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Jewish Bible (Hebrew: ? ??"??Tanakh). It takes its name from the fact that the Jewish Bible is composed mostly in Biblical Hebrew, with a few passages in Biblical Aramaic (about half of the Book of Daniel, some parts of the Book of Ezra and a few other passages). The content, which closely corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament, does not include the deuterocanonical portions of the Roman Catholic or the Anagignoskomena portions of the Eastern Orthodox Old Testaments. The term does not imply naming, numbering or ordering of books, which varies with Biblical canon.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations ③ Islam (伊斯兰教)
Founder: Muhammad Sacred writing: Koran Numbers of believers: 900million adherents in a global population of 5 billion (by Smith) Two main forms: a. Sunni b. Shi’a Characteristics: a. Islam, which is the infinitive of the Arab verb meaning “to submit” b. much a way of life as a relationship with Allah Esler: “ an immense body of requirements and prohibitions concerning religion, personal morality, social conduct, and political behavior. Business and marital relations, criminal law, ritual practices, and much more were covered in this vast system.”

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Islamic world view: a. a feeling of dependency on God b. the fear of God’s punishment on earth as well as the hereafter c. a deep-seated respect for tradition and for the past Five Pillars of Islam:a. Repetiton of the creed b. Prayer c. Almsgiving d. Fasting e. Pilgrimage

Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullāh (Arabic: ? ;?????Transliteration: Mu?ammad; pronounced [m????mm?d]( listen ); also spelled Muhammed or Mohammed) (ca. 570/571 – June 8, 632), (Monday, 12th Rabi' al-Awwal, Year 11 A.H.) is the founder of the religion of Islam, and is considered by Muslims to be a messenger and prophet of God (Arabic: [[Allah|?]]????? Allāh), the last law-bearer in a series of Islamic prophets, and, by most Muslims, the last prophet of Islam as taught by the Qur'an. Muslims thus consider him the restorer of an uncorrupted original monotheistic faith (islām) of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets. He was also active as a diplomat, merchant, philosopher, orator, legislator, reformer, military general, and, according to Muslim belief, an agent of divine action.

The Qur’an (Arabic: ? ???????alqur’ān, literally “the recitation”) is the religious text of Islam, also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Kuran, Koran, Qur’ān, Coran or al-Qur’ān. It is widely regarded as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language. Muslims hold that the Qur’an is the verbal divine guidance and moral direction for mankind. Muslims also consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of God--the Final Testament.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations ③ Hinduism (印度教)
Founder: no a single founder Sacred writing: Vedas Number of believers: over 1 billion Characteristics: a. the most difficult of all religious orientations for the Westerner to understand b. it is a conglomeration of religious thought, values, and beliefs c. Hindus are certain that there are mental and spiritual realms of unshakable reality that guarantee eternal satisfaction once one discover them d. rituals are important for showing that God is in

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Hindu world view: a. intellect is subordinate to intuition b. dogma is subordinate to experience c. outward expression is secondary to inward realization d. the world is an illusion because nothing is permanent e. it is possible for the human to break the cycle of birth,death, and reincarnation and experience an internal state of bliss called Nirvana

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations Hinduism offer four distinct spiritual paths: a. jnana yoga(智瑜伽), the path of knowledge b. bhkti yoga(信仰瑜伽), the path of devotion

c. karma(业) , the path of work
d. rajayoga(王瑜伽) , the path of meditation

The Vedas ("knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

According to Hindu tradition, the Vedas are apauru?eya "not of human agency", are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called ?ruti ("what is heard"). The four Sa?hitās are metrical (with the exception of prose commentary interspersed in the Black Yajurveda). The term sa?hitā literally means "composition, compilation". The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations ⑤ Buddhism (佛教)
Founder: Gautama(乔达摩), Sakyamuni(释迦摩尼) Sacred writing: Pali Canon Definition: Buddhism is at once a faith, a philosophy, and a way of life attempting to help the individual come to the end of suffering by discovering the true nature of reality---its impermanence, its inherent unsatisfactoriness, and its “emptiness”. Characteristics: a. peace, enlightenment, and Nirvana do not come from God b. direct personal experience is the final test of truth c. The Buddha taught that each individual has the power to overcom suffering. d. This individual responsibility is often difficult for Westerners to understand.

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Four Noble Truth(四谛): a. the First Noble Truth is that life is dukka(苦谛), usually translated as “suffering”.
b. the Second Noble Truth concerns the origin of suffering.(集谛) c. the Third Noble Truth follows logically from the Second.(灭谛) d. the Fourth Noble Truth indicates that the way to remove suffering is by means of the Noble Eightfold Path, which forms the basic teaching of Buddha. (道谛)

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Noble Eightfold Path: (1) right view 正见
(2) right thought 正思惟 (3) right speech 正语 (4) right behavior 正业 (5) right livelihood 正命 (6) right effort 正精进 (7) right mindfulness 正念

(8) right meditation 正定

Ⅰ. World view
1. Religion as a world view
2) Five Religious Orientations
Buddhistic world view:
a. the Buddha believed that to find enlightenment within oneself, a Buddhist must lead a life that focuses on some of the following behavior. b. Buddhism stresses the impermanent nature of all things, both good and bad, which are always changing. c. karma is important because it sets the tone for ethical standards. d. as we alluded to earlier, Buddhism is directed at the individual. e. in Buddhism we see a world view more concerned with humanism and the art of living daily life than supernatural authority or even metaphysical speculation.

Siddhattha Gotama was a spiritual teacher who founded Buddhism. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (P. sammāsambuddha, S. samyaksa?buddha) of our age, "Buddha" meaning "awakened one" or "the enlightened one." The time of his birth and death are uncertain: most early 20th-century historians dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE, but more recent opinion dates his death to between 486 and 483 BCE or, according to some, between 411 and 400 BCE. By tradition, Gautama is said to have been born in the small state of Kapilavastu, in what is now Nepal, and later to have taught primarily throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Ko?ala. Gautama, also known as ?ākyamuni ("Sage of the ?ākyas"), is the primary figure in Buddhism, and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition, and first committed to writing about 400 years later.

The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the only completely surviving early Buddhist canon, and one of the first to be written down. It was composed in North India, and preserved orally until it was committed to writing during the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE, approximately four hundred and fifty four years after the death of Shākyamuni. The Pali Canon was first printed in the nineteenth century.

Ⅰ. World view
2. A comparison of world views
1) A Mechanistic View
a. The mechanistic world view shows itself in a number of ways. According to Hobbes and Bacon, Westerners have held that reasoning is humankind’s “highest faculty and achievement”.
b. The Western mechanistic world view is not found in all culture. Elgin notes that the nonmechanistic world view is “a perspective that historically has emerged in countries such as India, Tibet, Japan, China, Southeast Asia, and is exemplified by spiritual traditions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism and Zen.”

Ⅰ. World view
2. A comparison of world views
2) A dualistic view
a. East and West do not agree on dualism. Elgin notes: “Where the Western view is dualistic(viewing mind and body as separate, as well as God and humankind as separate), the Eastern view is profoundly nondualistic.” The West often perceives the world as being composed of separate pieces to be manipulated and examined. The Eastern orientation and also the one found among Native Americans ,sees the world as a unit. b. From our brief account of religion, mechanism, and dualism, it should be clear that a culture’s world view touches every aspect of life.

Chapter 4

?Ⅱ.Family

?Ⅲ.History

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Ⅱ.Family

1.Importance ,Functi ons, and Types
2. Culture and Family

⑴ Gender Roles ⑵IndividualismCollectivism ⑶Age ⑷Social Skills
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?The Chinese saying: “If you know the family, you do not need to know the individual.” ?The Japanese have a proverb: “The spirit of a three-year-old lasts a hundred years.” ?As Galvin and Brommel say, “We are born into a family, mature in a family, form new families, and leave them at our death. Family life is a universal human experience.”
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Why families are important?
? First, the family is charged with transforming a biological organism into a human being who must spend the rest of his or her life around other human beings. ? Second, although a culture’s core values and world view derive primarily from its predominant religious views and transmits them to new members of the culture. ? Finally, families are important because they supply all of us with part of our identity.

? In short, the family tell us, and others, who we are and what groups we are part of.

Types
traditionally In recent

The family of orientation (we are born into)

Live-in couples: ( hetero sexual or homosexual)
Single-parent family Blended family

The family of procreation (we take a spouse)

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Culture and Family
?As are families, so is society.
-----William Thayer

?Our definitions of human development are culturally based.
-----McGoldrick Different cultures create different families. Cultures vary in everything from “ their definition of family” to “their definition of the timing of life cycle phases and the tasks appropriate at each phase.”

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⑴ Gender Roles
?Confucianism
Confucianism made men alone the structurally relevant members of the society and relegated women to social dependence. Such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean

?The concept of that males are also considered the superior sex. Such as Mexican, India, Arab.
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Confucianism
? 儒家承认女性作为妻子、母亲在家庭中的作用,并给予应有的地位。 《孔子家语》中说:“妻也者,亲之主也;子也者,亲之后也,敢不 敬与?”但女性在家庭中是处于从属地位的。男阳女阴,各秉天赋。刚 健阴柔是儒家和谐的传统价值观。女性以德、言、容、功等规范修养 自己,不仅必要而且必须。如此才可以获得社会尊重,甚至“显亲扬 名”。《礼记· 昏义》:“是以古者妇人先嫁三月……教以妇德、妇 言、妇容、妇功。”《女论语》基于儒家这一理论核心,重点做了细 化、强化。 妇德: 立:身之法,惟务清贞。立身端正,方可为人。 (立身) 夫刚妻柔,恩爱相因。居家相待,敬重如宾。(事夫) 处家之 法,妇女须能。以和为贵,孝顺为尊。(和柔) 妇言: 男非眷属,莫 与通名。(立身) 答问殷勤,轻言细语。(学礼) 夫若发怒,不可生嗔。 退身相让,忍气低声。(事夫) 妇容: 盥漱已了,随意梳妆。(早起) 妇功: 凡为女子,须学女工。缝联补缀,百事皆通。(学作) 酒饭殷 勤,一切周至。(待客) 《女论语》将《女诫》中德、言、容、功 “四德”进行了扩展和细化,一改班氏以卑弱、曲从等女子品性划分 章节的结构形式,以女性地位与分工为篇章顺序,使其更加易懂实用。 开篇“凡为女子,先学立身。立身之法,惟务清贞。清则身正,贞则 身荣”一段,直接阐明了女子立身之要。“清贞”一词,出自《女诫》 中妇德“清闲贞静”。
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女论语
?《女论语》是唐代贞元年间宋若莘、宋若昭姐妹 所撰的一部女子训诫书籍。从孔孟“妇人从人者 也”等言论始,《女论语》更是直接承袭了《论 语》之名。 《女论语》在中国传统女训中占有重 要地位。其从内容到形式,均受到佛教较大影响, 带有较浓厚的佛教色彩。由此,不仅促进了女训 思想的拓展和实用,而且使以儒家女性道德观为 核心的女训在唐代及以后的中国社会中、下层中 得以广泛普及。

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⑵ Individualism-Collectivism
? It takes a village to raise a child ? A family raises the child
The issue is what the child is being taught and who is doing the teaching.

? E.g:
1. 2. 3.

4.

Arab: God controls them and must be listened to. United States: mainly to themselves or their parents. Massai of Africa: many people share in raising the child. All members of the tribe are responsible for the socialization process. The loyalty: Japanese; Chinese
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⑶Age
? The family is also the first institution to introduce the child to the notion of age grading, an important perceptual attribute that greatly influences the way individuals perceive youth as well as old age

e.g: Arab culture: young people are encouraged to listen to and to learn from their elders. Only from the older people who have lived in the past can one learn anything of value. In China: the chief determinant of relative power is seniority.
In Japan: indebted to the older members for their upbringing.

In U.S.A: respect for one’s elders is a major organizing principle of the Mexican-American family.

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⑷Social Skills
? One study found that: “the Mexican parents were the most punitive for aggression against other children, while the American parents stand out as particularly tolerant of aggression against other children.”

?Chinese family:
Group harmony Family togetherness Interdependence in relationships

Respect for their place in the line of generations Saving face

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?The Chinese have a proverb, that expresses both the strength and influence of the family: “ To forget one’s ancestors is to be a brook without a source, a tree without a root.” These concepts just like the deep soil rooted in our mind. It’s surely a hard work to remove the soil in which Chinese family had been planted.

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Ⅱ. History

? History is a pact between the dead, the living, and the yet unborn. -----Edmund Burke Q: The study of history needs to be part of the study of intercultural communication? History as one of the deep structure of a culture, much more than historical events and specific dates.
A culture’s formal and informal government Its sense of community Its political system Its key historical heroes Its geography Their identity, values, goals, and expectations Culturally based

History

? Our interest in the study of history is predicated on two assumptions. First, historical events help explain the character of a culture. As the historian Basile noted, “For all people, history is the source of the collective consciousness.” Second, what a culture seeks to remember and pass onto the next generation tells us about the character of that culture.

1.United states
which is unique in that the dominant culture is relatively young and was formed primarily through two progresses. ? First, those who originally arrived on the Atlantic coast brought many English values, the English system of law, and the basic organization of commerce that was prevalent during the sixteenth century. ? Second, these settlers were immediately confronted with a wave of new citizens who arrived through migration. This process can called as “melting pot”, “stew”, “mixed salad”. ? The fundamental American proposition: “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
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Factors of Americans
individualism violence

Think for oneself Judge for oneself Make one’s own decision Live one’s own life

Taking lands from Native American War of Independence Civil War World WarⅠ&Ⅱ Korean War Vietnam War Desert storm

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2. African Americans
? African Americans were also touched by the history of the United States. Africans were not willing immigrants. They and their ancestors were captured and enslaved in their own home, brought to the United States, and sold to the colonists as laborers and servants. ? They became a group robbed of much of their cultural identity: slaves were forced to adopt a new language and religion and were even assigned new names. ? In the 1960s, African Americans adopted the slogan “ Black is beautiful” and demanded that other versions of their history be made known.
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3. Jews
? The history of Judaism and the Jew is a long and complicated story, full of blood and tears. ? With all that, the Jews are still, essentially, the same stubborn, dedicated people, now and forever maybe, affirming the same three things. First, they are a people of the law as given in the holy books of Moses. Second, they are the chosen people of God, having an eternal covenant with him. Third, they are a witness that God is and will be fovermore.
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?俄罗斯人属欧罗巴人种,具有这一 人种的基本特征:浅色皮肢,柔软 的波状发,男子胡须和体毛发达, 鼻窄且高高隆起,唇薄,直颌,面 部轮廓清晰,身材中等或中等以上。 但俄罗斯人还有自己的特点:北部 俄罗斯人属欧罗巴人种中的白海波罗的海类型,身材中等,头型较 长,鼻子高突,鼻梁呈直形或凹形, 头发和眼珠色浅。南方俄罗斯人属 欧罗巴人种中的中欧类型(或称阿 尓卑斯类型),身材中等或中等以 上,头型宽短,脸宽,鼻高且大, 发色淡黄并呈波状。
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Russian history
? 俄罗斯人的祖先为东斯拉夫人罗斯部族。公元15世纪末,大公伊凡三世建立 了中央集权制国家——莫斯科大公国。1547年,伊凡四世自封为“沙皇”, 其国号称俄国。16—17世纪,伏尔加河流域、乌拉尔和西伯利亚各族先后 加入俄罗斯,使它成为一个多民族国家。17世纪中期乌克兰和俄罗斯合并为 统一的国家。1689年8月彼得一世正式亲政。经过1700—1721年的北方 战争,俄罗斯得到了通往波罗的海的出海口,使俄罗斯从内陆国变为濒海国。 17世纪它击溃了波兰和瑞典封建主的入侵。1812年俄罗斯消灭了入侵的拿 破仑军队。1825年12月贵族革命者在彼得堡举行起义(即12月党人起 义),被镇压。1861年2月俄国废除农权制。1898年成立了俄国社会民 主工党(苏联共产党前身),在它的领导下,俄国工农群众经过1905年第 一次俄国革命和1917年2月推翻罗曼诺夫王朝的资产阶级民主革命(即二 月革命),于1917年11月7日取得了十月社会主义革命的伟大胜利,建 立了世界上第一个社会主义国家。1917年11月7日(俄历10月25日)成 立了俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国。共和国成立不久,经过三年艰苦的 国内战争,粉碎了14个帝国主义国家的武装干涉和地主资本家的武装叛乱, 保卫了苏维埃政权。1922年12月30日,苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟正式 成立,俄罗斯联邦同乌克兰、白俄罗斯和外高加索联邦(包括阿塞拜疆、亚 美尼亚和格鲁吉亚)一起加入。1990年6月12日,俄罗斯联邦第一次人代 会通过《俄罗斯联邦国家主权宣言》。1991年12月21日,前苏联11个共 和国领导人在哈萨克斯坦首都阿拉木图决定,前苏联在联合国安理会的席位 由俄罗斯继承。12月25日,俄罗斯苏维埃联邦社会主义共和国最高苏维埃 决定,将国家正式名称改为“俄罗斯联邦”(简称俄罗斯)。1992年4月 16日,俄罗斯第6次人代会决定将国名改为“俄罗斯”,从而恢复了历史上 的名称;17日,最后决定使用两个同等地位的正式国名“俄罗斯联邦”和 “俄罗斯”。
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4. Russians
?The Russians have been subjected to invasion, persecution, and suffering. ?The Russian character:
follow orders accept the dictums of their leaders

?Their land covers roughly one-sixth of the globe.
The vast sweep of Russia’s steppes and forests and the sheer enormousness of their country created a people
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5. Chinese
?Each Chinese derives his or her strongest sense of identity from history.
whatever people’s qualities or quirks, whatever their circumstances or political allegiance, and whether they live in China itself or are scattered to distant lands, pride in China’s history links all members of the culture.

?Physical and cultural isolation ?Self-perception ?Notion of the Chinese clan and family being more important than the state.
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6. Japanese
? Separation: basically a series of islands----------isolation ? A strong sense:
self-identity painful self-consciousness

? Link between history and values:
First, benevolent lords took care of the people and their needs. Second, from feudalism the Japanese learned discipline and sacrifice. Finally, three other values: the lack of individualism; a sense of one’s place in society ; a way of life that “ series of obligations.”

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