BY Dong Xingmin
? 语法填空是2014年新课标卷高考英语科新 推出的一种题型，这种题型能全面检测学 生在英语词汇、语法，甚至是句法上的运 用能力，能更科学地反映学生的英语综合 水平。本题型分两种情况：一种为已给单 词提示，一种为不给单词提示。
2、语法填空命题特点是什么 ? 共10个小题 10 1.5 15 10 200 1？ 每题1.5分 满分15分 须在10分钟内完成
语 法 占 关 键
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1、名词； 2、代词； 3、数词； 4、介词和介词短语； 5、连词； 6、形容词； 7、副词； 8、冠词； 9、动词； 10、时态； 11、被动语态； 12、非谓语动词； ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 13、构词法； 14、句子种类； 15、句子成分； 16、简单句基本句型； 17、主谓一致； 18、并列复合句； 19、主从复合句； 20、间接引语； 21、省略； 22、倒装； 23、强调； 24、虚拟语气。
1、阅读/理解语篇的能力; 2、分析句子结构的能力; 3、熟练运用语法的能力。
语法填空题—解题方向 重在基础语法和句子结构分析： 1. 从语法角度去考虑，填的是语法词， 包括功能词和词形变换两个方面。不 限定一个词。 2. 句子方面，要学会正确分析句子的结 构，如主谓宾等；还要会区分主从句 的层次。 3. 特别是动词的成分，是否谓语动词。
动词 非谓语动词：-ing，-ed，to do 3-4空 名词：单复数 （有提示词）形容词/副词：比较级、最高级 词性转换
连词（并列句）：and, but, or… 引导词（从句）：who, that, what… 6-7空 代词：they, him, our, themselves… （无提示词）介词：in, on, to, for… 冠词： a/an, the 连接性副词：however, therefore…
1. Now I’ll give you some tips on how to make honest friends with others. One way is being ________ because honesty is very important if you want to get along well with those around you. 2. Soon after David left college, one of his uncles, children of his own died who was rich and had no ________ and left David a lot of money, so he decided to set up his own company. 3. To their surprise, the stolen car had been returned and there was a note in it that said: “I apologize for taking your car. My wife was having hospital as a baby and I had to send her to the ________ soon as possible. Please forget the inconvenience.
Put what the sentence needs into the blank ? What’s the function of the blank in this sentence?
speaking (1) The number of people[________ (speak) Chinese] continues to rise.
(2) Some 134,000 Chinese students went to study abroad, and[120,000 of them ] were self-funded students(自 _________ 费生).
(1) … As soon as a child begins school, he enters a world of examinations_________ [ that/ which will decide his future of job. ] 定语从句 (2) My face turned red on hearing ________ what my mother said. ]
If (3) [________ we are satisfied with only a few rules we have memorized,] we will not really learn the language.
2. 并列句----并列连词（and, but, or, so, while然 而, when这时，etc）
*Without proper planning, tourism can cause problems….If tourism creates too much traffic, the inhabitants will become annoyed and unhappy. so They begin to dislike tourists, ________ they treat them impolitely.
3. 动词（谓语、非谓语） ---- using the verbs given
? Analyze the sentence to find out whether you need the Finite Verb(谓语动词) or Non-finite Verb(非谓语动词)
(1) The city has already had homes, stores, and offices ________ (build) on the Mediterranean Sea built (2) A very strong wind blew into my room. My valuable notes, lying on my desk in the room, ________ flew (fly) high into the air.
谓语 非谓语 非谓语 谓语
① 时态 (1) 谓语动词 ② 语态 ③ 主谓一致 A. I was certain that she would like it because I had been told (tell) by my classmates that she _____________ loved hot food.
B. I had to leave work to take him to the hospital broken (break) his arm. because he had ________ C. He was one of the students[who were invited (invite) to the meeting.] ___________ 定语从句
① ~ing (2) 非谓语动词 ② ~ed ③ to do writing A. We must practise speaking and ________ (write) the language whenever you can. B. We must also consider the reaction of the receiving person ________ (receive) the gift. 定语 C. With the problem _______ (solve), I was solved proud of my achievement.
to memorize D. …and it is important ___________ (memorize) some basic grammar rules.
(1) Firstly, we must understand the language it when we hear ______ spoken.
(2) …they can never do anything quite right, themselves as unfit or then they will regard __________ unable persons. his right hand (3) The little boy pulled ______ out of the pocket and studied a number of coins in it.
5. adv. －however, therefore, instead, also, still, too, either, besides, otherwise…
* I’ve never been to China and thereforeI don’t know much _________ about it.
6. art.－a, an, the
a new word, (1) When you meet ______
look it up in your dictionary. Your
dictionary is your most useful book.
(2)… But my mood quickly changed the when I saw ______ first question.
7. Prepsitions (1)First, they fail to find suitable words to express themselves due to a limited vocabulary…The third reason is that not enough attention is to paid_____listening. (2) There is no easy way to success in language learning. _______
8. Comparative,Superlative degrees (1) I have spent most of my career as a travelling salesman. There is nothing lonelier than eating meals in a coffee shop…. ______ (2) The words you know are called your vocabulary. You should try to make your bigger (big). Read as many vocabulary _______ books as we can.
1. … ________ was only after I heard she became sick It that I learned she couldn’t eat that food!
I learned she couldn’t eat that food only after I heard she became sick.
that 2. I was so careless ________ I had forgotten all about that.
1. Mr Chen has taught me English since Junior 1, and to show my _____________ (appreciate) I decided to get appreciation her a present.
3. They can see plays, films, operas and shows of every kind, not to mention the latest _________ (excite) exciting football match.
4. I must know how to care for others and try not to _____________ (understand) them. misunderstand
5. In the small towns of the United States in the ___________ (nineteen) century, the general store was nineteenth where everyone bought the things he couldn ’t make or grow at home. 序数词
Steps: 1. Look through the whole passage to get a general idea. 2. Deal with the simple ones first, such as those fixed patterns or the ones giving certain words. 3. When coming across difficult ones, just leave till the end. 4. Check what you have filled in the blanks and deal with the blanks you missed just now.
1. 根据语法知识进行填充 2. 根据逻辑关系进行填充 3. 根据语篇标志进行填充 语篇是指比单个句子长的语言单位（句群、 段落、篇章等）。语篇间往往有标明内在联 系的词，我们称这些词为“语篇标志词”。 如表示结构层次的有first, second, third, finally等；表示逻辑关系的有thus， therefore，so等；表示转折关系或变换话题 的有however, but, by the way等。“语篇 标志词”对迅速理清文章的脉络，弄清上下 文关系很有帮助。
4.根据固定词组进行填充 熟练掌握一些常见的词组，如as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate…on…, devote…to…, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind等，对解题很有帮助。 5. 根据句型搭配进行填,就是根据一些常用的句 型搭配，如so/such…that…, it is…(for sb.) to do sth., There is no doubt that…, there is no sense in doing sth.等来解题。
6. 根据词汇知识进行填充 指根据某些词语在用法上的特殊搭配来解 题。如下列各类动词必须牢记：只能接动 词的-ing形式作宾语的动词，只能接to do 作宾语的动词，接to do作补语的动词，接 do作补语的动词，接doing或done作补语 的动词，对句式搭配要求较为特别的词语， 等等。 7. 根据生活常识进行填充
? 专题练习1 ? In the past a gentleman would offer his seat __(1)__ a lady on a crowded bus. But now, he will probably look out of the window or hide behind his newspaper, __(2)__(leave) the lady standing __(3)__ someone else gets off. You can’t entirely blame men for this change in manners. __(4)__(go) are the days when women could be referred to the weak. A whole generation has grown up demanding __(5)__(equal) with men in jobs, in education and in social life. Hold a door for some women __(6)__ you are likely to get __(7)__ angry lecture on treating women __(8)__ weaklings. Take a girl out for a meal and she’ll probably insist on paying __(9)__ share of the bill. All these, according to some sociologists, will change men’s attitude towards women and the conventional active politeness is perhaps slowly being __(10)__(replace) by true consideration for the needs and feeling of women, so that men can see women as equal human beings.
1. to 2. leaving 3. until 4. Gone 5. equality 6. and 7. an 8. as 9. her 10. replaced
课堂小结：Ways to improve: 1. focus on main grammar points while reading “聚焦”语言点 ?阅读过程中，将注意力放到语言点上，“捕捉”文 章中出现的各种语言点、对不理解的语法、句型进行必 要的分析。 2. basic grammar knowledge 掌握基础语法知识 ? The more difficult, the better？－No. 要牢牢掌握最常用的语法要点，达到运用自如。 3. words and phrases 单词、短语的积累 ?对于单词，不仅要背诵其意义和拼写，还好掌握基本 的词形变换。
In China today the public holiday __(1)__ (last) for three days, but the Spring Festival is __(2)__ oldest and most important festival in China, so __(3)__ (tradition), the festival continues __(4)__ the 15th day of the lunar month __(5)__ the Lantern Festival is held. Everywhere is decorated __(6)__ a variety of different-sized lanterns and there is music and dancing in the streets. One special feature is the dragon dance, where a huge dragon head and body, __(7)__ (support) by a team of dancers, weaves __(8)__ way around the streets __(9)__ (collect) money from houses on its route. Once again food plays its part and Yuanxiao is served. This is a sweet dumpling made from glutinous rice flour that is either boiled or __(10)__ (fry).
1. lasts 2. the 3. traditionally 4. until 5. when 6. with 7. supported 8. its 9. collecting 10. fried
We may be very __(1)__ (please) with the rapid progress we have made in every field of study, but we have almost done nothing to improve our present __(2)__ (exam) systems which focus __(3)__ testing the students’ memory instead of their __(4)__ (able). As soon as a child begins school, he enters a world of examination __(5)__ will decide his future or job. In fact a good examination system should encourage students to think for themselves, but the examination now does anything but that. It forces the students to remember __(6)__ is taught to get high marks. Thus the students who come out first in the examination often may not be the __(7)__ (good) in their studies. In addition, such __(8)__ examination system often drives teachers to cram（填鸭式教学）all the time and forces them to train students what to do with the __(9)__ (come) examination. There must be a better way to test a student’s true ability as __(10)__ as their knowledge.
1. pleased 2. examination 3. on 4. ability 5, that/which 6. what 7. best 8. an 9. coming 10, well
Some 160 years ago, young men and women streamed into New York, Philadelphia, Boston – the United States’ equivalent（对等物）of China’s Shanghai, Guangzhou and Beijing. All of these young people __(1)__ searching for work, for riches, for fame. Few found any of that. The rest joined the masses __(2)__ (work) hard at low-level jobs trying to support __(3)__ and their families. Horace Greeley, __(4)__ editor of a well-known newspaper, gave sound advice to those seeking work. ―Do not lounge in the cities! There is room and health in the country. Go west…‖ In the mid-19th century, __(5)__ Greeley issued his call to go west, America was on the brink（边缘）of developing its __(6)__ (west) regiions – much __(7)__ China is today. Out west, the unemployed could find jobs. __(8)__ was needed then in America is what is needed now in China’s western expanses（发展）: men and women __(9)__ (determine) to make something of themselves, men and women with skills any __(10)__ (develop) nation must have to survive and prosper（ 繁荣）.
1. were 2. working 3. themselves 4. an 5. when 6. western 7. as 8. What 9. determined 10. developing