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高中英语语法知识习题汇总


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名词 1.accident,incident,affair,business,event 的辨析。 (1)accident“意外事件,偶发事件”,一般指(不幸的)事故,如车祸、天灾之类。 (2)incident 多指较小的事件、小插曲或人生中所碰到的虽小但留下较深印象的平凡事情,也可以指外交、 政治方面的重大事件。 (3)affair“事物,要事”,头绪

繁多的事;恋爱事件。(4)business“事情”,主要用于一些习语中,常带有厌恶 感。 (5)event 大事,发生的事情,尤指重要事情;也可指(体育运动的)比赛项目。 Lucy was badly hurt in a traffic accident last week.(浙江高考) 上个星期 Lucy 在车祸中严重受伤。 We will never forget the July 7th Incident of 1937. 我们永远不会忘记 1937 年的七七事变。 For them,playing well and winning are often life-and-death affairs. 对他们来说,好好表现并获取胜利往往是生死攸关的大事。 It's none of your business. 这不关你的事。 She can't remember events from a long time ago. 她记不起很久以前的事情。 2.quantity,quality,character,personality 的辨析。 (1)quantity 表示“数量”。 (2)quality 既可以表示事物的“品质”,还可以表示人的“品德,素质”。 (3)character 泛指性格,无所谓好坏,还可以表示“角色,文字,字母”。 (4)personality 意为“个性”。 It's often less expensive to buy goods in quantity,but you'd better exam the quality before buying them. 大量购物便宜,但是在购买之前你最好检测质量。 Hiking by oneself can be fun and good for health.It may also be good for character.(2009· 湖北高考) 独自徒步旅行可能会很有趣并且有益于健康。或许对意志的磨炼也有好处。 3.condition,situation,state,position 的辨析。 (1)condition 意为“条件,情况,状况”,其单数形式指人 或物所处的状况,这时与 state 意义相近,常可互换,但 condition 还常指由于一定原因或条件造成的状 态,如人 的健康状况、物的完好程度、设备的可用性等。复数形 式多指一般、笼统的情况。 (2)situation 指某一时间由各种情况造成的“处境,形势”。 (3)state 指人或事物所处的状态或状况,常和 condition 换用,此外,state 还常表示思想、感情、心理等状 态。(4)position 指人或事物所处的位置、地位。 From their position on the top of the TV Tower,visitors can have a better view of the city.(2009· 陕西高考) 从他们在电视塔顶的位置,游客们可以更好地看到这个城市。 School children must be taught how to deal with dangerous situations.学生们必须接受如何应付危险情况的教 育。 I've had no exercise for ages,and I'm really out of condition.我好久不运动,身体欠佳。 They were silent for a long time,in a state of painful hesitation and doubt. 他们处于一种痛苦的踌躇与疑虑状态中,长时间相对无言。 4.power,strength,force,energy 的辨析。 (1)power 主要指做事所依靠的能力、功能,也可指人或机器等事物潜在的或发挥出来的力量,还可以指职 权或政权。 (2)strength 指固有的潜力。说人时,指“力气”;说物时,指“强度”。 (3)force 主要指自然界的力量;暴力、势力以及法律、道德或感情的力量;军事力量等。 (4)energy 主要指人的精力或自然界中的能量。 It's not within my power to help you. 我是爱莫能助啊。 A washing machine is a saver of time and strength. 洗衣机省时又省力。 The UN tries to limit the use of force in conflicts.
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联合国尽力禁止在冲突中使用暴力。 You'll need to apply all your energy to this job. 你需要把全部精力投入到这项工作中去。 5.scenery,scene,view,sight 的辨析。 (1)scenery 指一个国家或地区的整体自然风景,是不可数名词。 (2)scene(戏剧中的)一场;(电影、书中的)场景;(某地方或者图画中的)景色;(事故或者罪行的)发生地 点、现场;情景,景象。 (3)view 表示视野、眼界,常指从某一固定位置见到的景色。 (4)sight 侧重指旅游观光的风光,包括城市景色或自然风光景色。也指人造景物或奇特的景色。 On the way up I was busy taking pictures since the scenery was so beautiful.(全国高考) 在上山的途中我一直忙于拍照,因为风景太漂亮了。 We climbed higher so that we might see the scenes better. 我们往更高处爬以便能更好地观看这景色。 You will get a fine view of the town from the top of the hill. 在小山顶上,你能很好地欣赏到小城的全貌。 The sunset was a very beautiful sight. 那落日真是一幅美景。 6.mark,sign,signal,symbol 的辨析。 (1)mark 标志,标记。 (2)sign 记号,标记,迹象。 (3)signal 信号。 (4)symbol 象征,符号。 By 2004,digital TV signals were being received by 55 per cent of households in Britain. 到 2004 年,英国有 55%的家庭能收到数字电视信号。 There were no signs of life on the island. 那个岛上没有生命存在的迹象。 Please make a mark where you have a question. 请在你有问题的地方做个记号。 The lion is considered the king of the forest as it is a symbol of courage and power.(上海高考) 狮子被认为林中之王,因为它是勇气和权力的象征。 1.(2010· 天津高考)James took the magazines off the little table to make ________ for the television. A.room B.area C.field D.position 解析:此题考查名词辨析。room“房间、空间”,make room for“为……腾出地方”,为词组搭配。area“地 区”;field“田野”;position“位置”。 答案:A 2.(2010· 江苏高考)The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients,so he has a very good ________. A.expectation B.reputation C.contribution D.civilization 解析:考查名词辨析。句意:这名医生治疗心脏病医术高超,而且从不收病人的礼物,所以享有良好的 “名誉”。reputation“名誉、声望”,符合句意。expectation“期望”;contribution“贡献”;civilization“文明”; 都不符合句意。 答案:B 1.(2010· 福建高考)It's ________ good feeling for people to admire the Shanghai World Expo that gives them ________ pleasure. A.不填;a B.a;不填 C.the;a D.a;the 解析:句意:上海世博会给人们带来了快乐,欣赏世博会是一种美好的感受。有些不可数名词,如 knowledge,command,feeling 等,前面有“a/an+形容词”修饰时,表示一件具体的事情。pleasure 在此意 为“愉快,快乐”,为不可数名词,故不加冠词。 答案:B 2.(2010· 北京高考)First impressions are the most
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lasting.After all,you never get ________ second chance to make ________ first impression. A.a;the B.the;the C.a;a D.the;a 解析:句意:第一印象最持久。毕竟,你不会再有机会去形成第一印象。第一空后有 second,在此表示 再一次机会,而不是表顺序,应用不定冠词;第二空中的第一印象是泛指,也不是表示顺序,又根据题 干可以判断 impression 在此处是可数名词,可数名词单数表泛指时须用不定冠词,故选择 C 项。 答案:C 1.(2010· 湖北高考)This restaurant has become popular for its wide ________ of foods that suit all tastes and pockets. A.division B.area C.range D.circle 解析:本题考查名词辨析。句意:这家餐馆很受欢迎,因为它提供各种食物,能满足各种口味和各种消 费层次。division 区分,分开,除法,部门;area 区域,面积,范围;range 一系列,(变动或浮动的)范 围,界限;circle 圆周,循环,社交圈。语境说能满足各种口味和消费层次,由此判断选 C。 答案:C 2.(2010· 湖北高考)After the earthquake,the first thing the local government did was to provide ________for the homeless families. A.accommodation B.occupation C.equipment D.furniture 解析:本题考查名词辨析。句意:地震发生之后,当地政府所做的第一件事就是为无家可归的家庭提供 住宿。accommodation 住处,停留处,膳宿;occupation 职业,占有;equipment 设备,器材,装备,配 备;furniture 家具。从语境的“地震之后”“失去家园的家庭”判断,本题选 A 表示提供“住宿”。 答案:A 4.(2011· 福建龙岩质检)The door and the windows were all closed and there was no ________ of forced entry. A.scene B.signal C.sign D.sight 解析:考查名词辨析。句意:门窗都关闭着,没有强行进入的迹象。这里 sign 表示“迹象”;scene 表示“场 景,景色”;signal 表示“信号”;sight 则表示“视野”。根据句意,选 C 项。 5.(2011· 浙江金华联考)The conference has been held to discuss the ________ of global warming on people's lives all over the world. A.importance B.effects C.protection D.attitudes 解析:考查名词辨析。effects 意思是“影响”,即讨论全球变暖对人们生活的影响。其他选项不合题意: importance“重 要性”;protection“保护”;attitudes“态度”。 答案:B 6.(2011· 浙江金华联考)If you ask why I plan to study in the United States,the only answer is that it is a(n) ________ for me. A.puzzle B.advantage C.challenge D.average 解析:考查名词辨析。challenge 意思是“挑战”,即选择在美国学习的理由是这样做具有挑战性。其他选 项不合语境:puzzle“困惑”;advantage“优点,优势”;average“平均数”。 答案:C 7.(2011· 西安质量检测)—How do you like the scenery here,Mr.Black? —Wonderful indeed.Beyond ________,I suppose. A.explanation B.introduction C.description D.instruction 解析:考查名词的用法。beyond description 的意思是“无法(用言语)表达”,即这里的景色很美,无法用言 语表达。答案:C 8.(2011· 东北三校联考) My father didn't have to say anything.I knew he was upset from his ________. A.look B.sight C.appearance D.sign
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解析:考查名词辨析。句意:我父亲无须说什么,我从他的表情就知道他很难过。此处的 look 表示“表 情”。后三项分别表示“视力,景象”“外貌”“标志,迹象”,都不符合题意。答案:A 9.(2011· 黑龙江检测)If you're looking for a ________, you can make it when it is on sale. A.price B.bargain C.cost D.bill 解析:考查名词词义辨析。on sale 表示“廉价出售”,因此与 bargain(特价商品)呼应。句意:如果你在寻找 特价商品,减价出售时你就可以买到。答案:B 10.(2011· 济南模拟)Many people in Haiti died from the earthquake because they didn't have ________ to immediate rescue. A.access B.admission C.approach D.attention 解析:考查名词辨析。句意:海地有许多人死于地震,因为他们没有得到及时的援救。have access to 可 以获得或使用(机会、权利等)。答案:A 11.(2011· 福建质检)Any help from you will be greatly appreciated.Please give me a reply at your earliest ________. A.interruption B.instruction C.consideration D.convenience 解析:考查名词辨析。at your earliest convenience 是固定表达,表示“在你方便的时候请尽早”,符合 句意。interruption“打断”;instruction“指导,指示”;consideration“考虑”。 答案:D 12.(2011· 烟台四校联考)We didn't have enough money to pay our bus fare,and in ________ we had to walk. A.consequence B.addition C.general D.purpose 解析:考查固定搭配。句意:我们没有足够的钱付车费,因此我们只能步行了。in consequence “结果,因 此”,符合题意;in addition(=besides)另外;in general 通常,大体上,一般而言;on purpose 故意地。答 案:A 13.(2011· 济南联考)The ________ to the environment has helped many animals to escape from their enemies and fit in with the surroundings. A.adaptation B.adoption C.recreation D.foundation 解析:考查名词辨析。句意:适应环境的能力使很多动物能逃脱其敌人,并且适应周围的环境。根据句 意判断选 A,表示“适应,适应性”。B 项“收养,采用”;C 项“娱乐,消遣”;D 项“建立,基础”。 答案: A 14.(2011· 苏锡常镇四市调研)If you live near the lake, ________are that you will hear birds singing to welcome the new day. A.facts B.chances C.situations D.possibilities 解析:考查名词的习惯用法。chances are that...是固定句式,意思是“可能会……”。其他几个词不符合搭 配习惯。答案:B 15.(2011· 延安质量检测)There is no ________ in going to school for the students merely to learn some facts. A.doubt B.mind C.point D.wonder 解析:考查名词辨析。固定句式 there is no point in doing sth.表示“做……是没有必要的”,其他搭配不正 确,所以选 C 项。答案:C 介词及介词短语 2.to 与情感名词连用,表示“某种行动后产生的感觉”,意
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3.past,over,across,through 的用法。

2.(2011· 青岛模拟)We should talk about the things ________ the children's understanding in a simple way. A.over B.beyond C.above D.under 解析:考查介词辨析。句意:我们应当用一种简单的方式谈论超出儿童理解能力的事物。D 项不符合句 意;above 和 over 一般描述位置;beyond“超过,非……所能及”,符合句意。答案:B 3.(2011· 济南模拟)—Going to work today,Brenda? —No.It's my day ________ today. A.out B.in C.away D.off 解析:考查介词辨析。it's my day off“今天我休息”,是常用表达。答案: D 4.(2011· 哈尔滨模拟)Ballet is not popular ________ our city because most people think it is too expensive to take the classes. A.in B.with C.among D.on 解析:考查介词。句意为“芭蕾在我们市不太流行”,in 表 示“在……地方”。此题考生易误选 B 项和 C 项,be popular with/among sb.表示“受某人欢迎”,介词后面接 人。答案: A 5.(2011· 浙江金华联考)Many of the scientists and engineers are judged ________ how great their achievements are. A.in spite of B.in charge of C.in favor of D.in terms of 解析:考查介词短语。in spite of“尽管”;in charge of“负责,管理”;in favor of“支持,赞同”;in terms of“根据,就……而言”。根据题干内容可知,D 项符合语境,即依据他们所取得的成就来评定。答案: D 6.(2011· 九江模拟)After the quarrel,I tried all my best to clear up the misunderstanding between us,but all my efforts seemed ________. A.in trouble B.in case C.in time D.in vain 解析:考查介词短语。根据语境可知此处表示“我所有的努力都白费了”,故用 in vain“徒劳无益,枉费心 机”。in trouble 有麻烦,处于困境;in case 以防万一;in time 及时。
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答案: D 7.(2011· 南昌模拟)I'm sure that________qualification, ability and experience,you are suited to the position. A.on account of B.in terms of C.on the basis of D.in the light of 解析:考查介词短语辨析。句意:我确信就学历、能力和经验而言,你适合这个职位。in terms of 就…… 而言,从……方面来说。答案: B 8.(2011· 开封调研)Parents are advised to keep pressure ________ their children and give them some encouragement before an exam. A.off B.over C.from D.to 解析:考查介词辨析。本句所要表达的意思是让孩子摆脱压力,此处 off 表示“离开、去除”。over“在…… 上面 ”,from 表示“从……”,to“向,对着”,都不符合语境。答案:A 9.(2011· 南通一模)People in Los Angels have no idea of distance on the map,so they measure distance________ time not miles. A.by way of B.by means of C.for lack of D.on account of 解析:本题考查短语。by way of 经由,当作;by means of 依靠,通过;for lack of 因缺乏……,因缺 少……;on account of 由于,因为。根据句意“是通过时间而不是里来计算距离”,故选 B。答案:B 10.(2011· 长沙二模)Being exposed for a long time ________ strong sunlight might seriously damage your skin. A.in B.under C.to D.over 解析:考查介词的固定搭配。be exposed to sth.为固定搭配,意思是“暴露于……,遭受……”。去掉干扰 成分 for a long time 即可迅速找出答案。答案: C 11.(2011· 苏锡常镇四市调研)I can tell you nothing else about the new film ________ what you've already known. A.rather than B.as well as C.in spite of D.apart from 解析:考查短语辨析。apart from 意思是“除了……”。句意:关于那部新电影,除了你已经知道的情况 外,我没有什么可以告诉你的了。rather than“而不是”;as well as“和……一样,也”;in spite of“尽管”。 答案:D 12.(2011· 东北三省四市联考)Putting the worries out of her mind,Mary turned her efforts ________ the evening meal. A.to B.beyond C.off D.inside 解析:考查介词。turn to 是固定搭配,表示“(把注意力等)转向……”。答案:A 13.(2011· 山东潍坊质量检测)It was a good concert—I enjoyed the last song ________. A.in particular B.in general C.in common D.in total 解析:句意:那是一场很好的音乐会。我尤其喜欢最后的那首歌。in particular“尤其是,特别是”,符合句 意。答案:A 14.(2011· 陕西质检)Please keep me informed ________ the change of your address as soon as possible. A.of B.for C.with D.by 解析:考查固定搭配中的介词。inform sb.of sth.为固定结构,意为“通知某人某事”,keep sb.informed of sth.也是一个固定结构,意为“使某人知晓某事”。句意:请尽快让我知道你地址的变动。答案: A 15.(2011· 绵阳模拟)Mum told me she had something important to talk with me ________dinner.
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A.in B.on C.beyond D.over 解析: over 表示“在……期间”。句意:妈妈告诉我吃饭时她有重要的事要和我谈一谈。答案: D 冠词 不定冠词 a/an 的用法 1.不定冠词 a(n)表示“某一个”,相当于 some,译为“一个”。 —Could you tell me the way to the Johnsons,please? 请告诉我去约翰逊家怎么走? —Sorry,we don't have a Johnson here in the village. 对不起,这个村庄里没有一个叫约翰逊的人。 2.不定冠词 a(n)用于抽象名词前,意为“一种……的 人或事”。 Many people agree that a knowledge of English is a must in international trade today.许多人都持相同的看法, 在 当前国际贸易交往中,英语知识是必备的。 3.不定冠词 a(n)用于有形容词修饰的一日三餐前。 The walk is expected to last all day,so bring a packed lunch.这段路程预计要走一整天,所以带一份盒装午 饭。 4.不定冠词 a(n)用于有形容词修饰的季节、日期前。 We had a very cold winter last year. 去年我们度过了一个寒冷的冬天。 5.“a/an+序数词”不表示排序,表“又一、再一”。 In order to find a better job,he decided to study a second foreign language.(2009· 四川高考) 为了找到一个更好的工作,他决定再学习一门外语。 6.不定冠词 a(n)用于形容词最高级前无比较含义,表示程 度,意为“很,非常”。 He is a most wise man.他是一位非常英明的人。 7.用于固定搭配中,如:as a matter of fact,in a hurry, in a word,have a (an)...knowledge of,have a (an)...understanding of,a waste of,a variety of,quite a few,in a way,all of a sudden,live a(an)+adj.+life 等。 All of a sudden,she burst into tears.她突然哭起来。 It is a waste of money to buy that expensive car. 买那么贵的小汽车是浪费金钱。 He made quite a few mistakes,which made his parents very angry.他犯了许多错误,这使他父母很生气。 定冠词 the 的用法 1. 用在世界上独一无二的人或物、自然现象、表示方位 或表示发明物等的名词前。 The earth moves around the sun.地球围绕太阳转。 Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 1876 年贝尔发明了电话。 [注意] 有些物体虽然也是独一无二的,但习惯上却不用冠词。 space 太空 nature 自然 man 人类 2.用在序数词和形容词最高级前面。 Yang Liwei is the first man who has been into space in China.在中国杨利伟是第一个登上太空的人。 3.用在乐器名词前,特别是西洋乐器。 My brother is playing the piano while my sister is chatting on the Internet. 我哥哥在弹钢琴,而我妹妹在网上聊天 4.用在表示计量的名词前,如 by the hour,by the day, by the dozen,by the yard 等,但是如表示单位的名词为不可数名词,之前不用冠词,如 by weight/height 等。 Surprisingly,in that bookstore,books are sold by the dozen.真想不到,在那个书店里书按打卖。 Cleaning women in big cities usually get paid by the hour. 在大城市里,清洁工一般按小时计算薪水。
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5.用在表示某世纪、年代、时期或朝代的名词前。 It is not rare in the 1990s that people in their fifties went to university for further education.在二十世纪九十年代 五十多岁的人上大学进修不罕见了。 6.用在上文已出现过或说话双方都熟悉的事物前,表 示特指意义。 —Did you enjoy yourself yesterday? 你昨天玩得开心吗? —Yes,as you know,the party went on in a pleasant atmosphere. 是的,正如你所知,晚会是在愉快的气氛中进行的。 3.(2011· 青岛二模)________ World Expo is regarded as the Olympic Games of the economy,science and technology,________ expert said. A.A;an B.The;an C.The;a D.A;the 解析:第一空特指“世博会”,故用定冠词 the;第二空泛指“一个专家”,expert 又是以元音音素开头,故 用 an。答案: B 零冠词的用法 1.连系动词 turn 后作表语的单数可数名词不用冠词,但名 词前若有形容词作定语时,则通常加冠词。 Lu Xun was a doctor before he turned writer/became a writer.鲁迅成为作家前是医生。 2.as/though 引导的让步状语从句中,如果作表语的名词 置于句首,习惯上单数名词前不用冠词。 Child as/though she is,she plays the violin perfectly. 尽管是个孩子,但她小提琴拉得很好。 3.在某些独立主格结构,如“单数名词+介词短语”中, 名词前不用冠词。 He rushed into the classroom,book in hand. 他冲进教室,手里拿着一本书。 4.no 与 such 连用时应放在 such 之前,such 后的名词不用 冠词。 No such thing has ever happened in this village. 村子里从未发生过这种事。 5.一个兼多种身份的情况,只在第一个名词前使用冠词, 其他名词前不再使用冠词,如 a clerk and writer(职员 兼作家)。 6.称呼语及表示独一无二的头衔、职务的名词作宾语补 足语及同位语时,不加冠词,常用名词有 king,president,chairman,monitor,head 等。 We made Tom monitor of our class. 我们选汤姆当我们班的班长。 7.在某些固定词组、习惯用法中,不用冠词。 in spite of 尽管 in need of 需要 in charge of 负责,管理 in search of 寻找 in place of 代替 in advance 预先 in public 当众,公开 out of breath 上气不接下气 out of sight 看不见 out of work 失业 out of control 失控 at home and abrood 在国内外
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Everyone was too afraid to go in because the fire was out of control,so I went in.大家都害怕不敢进去,因为 火势已失去了控制,所以我进去了。 He ran fast and was soon out of sight. 他跑得很快,一会儿就不见了。 3.(2011· 宝鸡教学质检)During the camp trip, children were fascinated by ________ wonders of ________ nature. A.不填;不填 B.不填;the C.the;不填 D.the;the 解析:考查冠词。第一空处指在宿营中看到的那些大自然的奇观,应该用定冠词表特指;第二空不用冠 词,因为抽象名词 nature, society,space 等前常不带任何冠词。答案:C 1.(2011· 浙江金华联考)To tell ________ truth,his coming is really ________ big surprise to most people present at the party. A.不填;a B.the;不填 C.the;a D.不填;不填 解析:考查冠词。第一空处是固定短语,to tell the truth 意为“说实话”;第二空后的 surprise 是可数名词, 意为“意想不到的事,令人惊讶的事”,故前面用不定冠词。 答案: C 2.(2011· 河北保定调研)The United Nations set ________ deadline for that country to accept ______ peace plan. A.the;the B.the;a C.a;the D.a;a 解析:考查冠词。set a deadline“确定一个最终期限”,从句意可知,这个和平计划是联合国和那个国家都 知道的,是特指,因此第二个空用冠词 the。答案: C 3.(2011· 北京东城区期末)Because ______ unemployment is very high at present, it's not easy for a fresh graduate to find ________ satisfying job as he wishes. A.the;不填 B.不填;a C.an;a D.an;the 解析:考查冠词。unemployment 是抽象名词,前面不用冠词。job 是可数名词,用不定冠词泛指“一份令 人满意的工作”。 答案: B 4.(2011· 西安质量检测)I think people must have found it quite ________ delight when colour TV was first broadcast in ________1920s. A.不填;the B.a;不填 C.a;the D.不填;不填 解析:考查冠词的用法。第一空处考查抽象名词具体化时其前冠词的用法,此处 a delight 表示具体的概 念,意为“高兴的人(事)”;第二空处考查的是固定用法,表示“几十年代”要用定冠词,如 in the 1920s。所 以这里选 C 项。答案: C 5.(2011· 西安质量检测)As we all know,it is really ________ convenience to have ________ hospital in a community. A.the;a B.不填;a C.a;a D.不填;the 解析:考查冠词。句意:众所周知,在一个社区里有一所医院确实是一件很方便的事情。convenience 表 示抽象概念“方便”时为不可数名词,表示“令人方便的事物”时为可数名词,根据句意可知第一空填 a;医 院为可数名词,此处表泛指,故第二空也填 a。答案: C 6.(2011· 重庆诊断性考试)—Have you seen ________ umbrella I put here this morning? —Is it ________ black one?It is in the corner of our office. A.the;a B.an;a C.the;the D.an;the 解析:考查冠词。第一空后由于有定语从句修饰,表示特指,故用 the;泛指“一把”黑色的伞,故第二空 处用 a。答案: A 7.(2011· 赣州模拟)—Haven't you met each other at ________ party? —Yes,but I can't remember whether it is ________ Christmas when we were in college. A.a;the B.the;a
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C.a;a D.a;不填 解析:考查冠词。从句意看,第一空处的 party 表示没有具体所指的“聚会”。问句句意“你们以前没有在聚 会上见过面吗?”故 party 前加 a;节假日名词前一般不加冠词,但语境表示“我们读大学时的一个圣诞节 聚会”,因此第二个空处用不定冠词。 答案: C 8.(2011· 南昌调研)I wonder what it feels to be one of ________ really rich.The Browns already have two Rolls Royce and now they are buying ________ third. A.the;a B.the;the C.不填;a D.不填;the 解析:考查冠词。第一空填定冠词 the,the rich“富人”;第二空填不定冠词 a,a third 在这里表示拥有两辆 汽车后再买一辆。答案:A 9.(2011· 山东潍坊质检)—Why do you eat all the vegetables but leave ________ meat untouched? —I'm on ________ diet. A.a;the B.the;不填 C.不填;a D.the;a 解析:be on a diet 表示“在节食”,此处 meat 应是双方都知道的,故选 D。 答案:D 10.(2011· 皖南八校联考)As soon as ________ concert film This Is It was released on October 28th,it became ________ great success in all big cinemas across the planet. A.a;the B.the;a C.the;不填 D.a;a 解析:考查冠词。根据语境可知,第一空特指 This Is It 这部影片,因此用定冠词 the;success 当“成功的 人或事”讲时,是可数名词,因此前面加不定冠词。 答案: B 11.(2011· 青岛一模)I was told that ________ 10∶15 flight would take us to Shanghai in time to reach ________ Fudan University. A.the;不填 B.the;a C.a;the D.不填;the 解析:句意:我被告知 10∶15 的航班将把我们送达上海,以便及时到达复旦大学。根据句意可知第一空 表特指,故用定冠词;第二空后 Fudan University 是以纯专有名词 Fudan 开头的,要用零冠词。答案:A 12.(2011· 郑州测试)The students were studying in ________ classroom when,all of ________ sudden,the lights went out. A.不填;不填 B.a;the C.the;a D.the;不填 解析:句意:那些学生正在教室学习,这时灯突然灭了。根据题干中的 the students 可知学生是特指的, 由此可推知教室也应是特指的,故第一空用定冠词;all of a sudden 为固定习语,相当于 suddenly。由此 可见答案为 C 项。答案:C 13.(2011· 景德镇二模)My mother asked me to repeat________phone number________second time so that she could write it down. A.the;a B.a;the C.an;a D.the;the 解析:句意:我母亲让我再次重复那个电话号码以便她能记下。根据句意可知,第一空后的 phone number 表特指,故用定冠词;“a+序数词+名词”表示“又一、再一”之意,而“the+序数词+名词”表示次 序。综上所述,本题答案为 A 项。答案:A 14.(2011· 济南模拟)Having ________ nomeat day would be a good way of encouraging ________ lowcarbon lifestyle. A.a;the B.a;a C.the;the D.the;a 解析:考查冠词的用法。第一空用不定冠词修饰 nomeat day 表示“不吃肉的一天”;第二空表示“一种低碳 的生活方式”,表示泛指,所以这里选 B 项。答案: B
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15.(2011· 济南模拟)Play,often seen as ________ activity for kids,is still important in ________ development of teenagers. A.the;the B.an;the C.an;不填 D.the;不填 解析:考查冠词。句意:玩耍通常被认为是孩子们的一项活动,对青少年的发展还是很重要的。an activity 一项活动,表泛指;in the development of 在……的发展(过程中),表特指。答案: B 代词 2.(2011· 青岛模拟)I would appreciate ________,to be frank,if goods could be delivered as soon as possible. A.you B.this C.it D.myself 解析:考查代词。此处 it 作形式宾语,代替后面的“if goods could be delivered as soon as possible”。to be frank 为插入语。答案: C 3.(2011· 济南模拟)When________comes to saving energy,big changes start with small steps,like turning off the lights. A.that B.this C.it D.one 解析:考查代词用法。when it comes to(doing)sth.是固定结构,表示“当涉及某事(做某事)时”。句意:当提 到节能的时候,大变化从细微的行动开始,比如随手关灯。 答案: C It/one/that 的区别 it,that,one 这三个词是最容易混淆的。做题时要从它们最基本的用法入手: (1)it 意为“它”,特指前面提到过的同一个人或者物。(2)that 意为“那个”,指代那类人或事物,既可以指代 前面出现过的不可数名词,也可以指代单数可数名词,指代单数可数名词时相当于 the one。 (3)one 意为“一个”,指代前面出现过的那类事物中的“一个”。 —There is still a copy of the book in the library.Will you go and borrow it? 图书馆还有一本这样的书。你去把它借来好吗? —No,I'd rather buy one in the bookstore. 不,我宁愿到书店里买一本。 The English spoken in the United States is only slightly different from that spoken in England. 在美国所说的英语与英国所说的英语仅有稍微差别。 No one/nobody/none/nothing 的区别 1.no one,nobody 表示“没有人,谁也不”,只指人,作主 语时,后跟动词单数形式,常可用来回答 who 引导的问句。 —Who can answer the question? 谁能回答这个问题? —No one./Nobody.没人。 Charles was alone at home,with no one looking after him.(2009· 全国卷Ⅱ) 查尔斯独自一人在家,没有人照顾他。 2.none“没人,没有任何东西”,既可指人,也可指物。 none 后可接 of 短语,常用来回答 how many/much 引导 的问句。 —How many of you have seen the film? 你们中有多少人看过这部电影? —None(of us).一个也没有。 —Wow!You've got so many clothes. 哇!你衣服真多啊! —But none of them are in fashion now.(2009· 上海高考) 但是没有一件跟上潮流。 3.nothing 意为“没有东西”,一般回答 what 引导的问句。 —What's in the cave?洞里有什么? —Nothing.没什么。
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(2011· 东城区质检)They all wanted to stop working because they were very tired,but ________ of them would say so. A.any B.some C.none D.neither 解析:本题考查代词。句意:他们都想停止工作,因为他们太累了,但是又没有人愿意说出来。根据 all 可知他们指三者或三者以上,表示三者及三者以上的全部否定应该用 none。答案:C Another/the other/other/others/any other 的区别 1.another 指“任何一个”“再一……”“另一……”, 作代词或形容词,用于三者或三者以上。 I felt so bad all day yesterday that I decided this morning I couldn't face another day like that.(2009· 山东高考) 昨天一整天我感觉很糟糕,所以今天早晨我决定不能像 那样面对另一天了。 Please give me another ten minutes. 请再给我十分钟。 2.the other 可单独使用,特指两个人或物中的“另一个”; 也可修饰名词表示“另外的……”。 One was happy but the other was disappointed. 一个感到开心,另一个却感到失望。 No agreement was reached in the discussion as neither side would give way to the other. 因为双方都不愿意屈服,所以讨论中没有达成一致。 3.other 不能单独使用,通常修饰名词,表示泛指意义。 There are other ways to do this experiment. 做这个实验还可以用别的方法。 4.others 一般单独使用,表示泛指意义,意为“其他的人 或事物”,常与 some 一起出现;特指“其他的全部人或事物”时用 the others。 Some people like to stay at home on Sunday,but others like to go to the cinema. 星期天,一些人喜欢呆在家里,另一些人则喜欢去看电影。 3.(2011· 潍坊模拟)This young man is very clever; he may be ________ Edison. A.the one B.the other C.another D.one 解析:考查代词。句意:这个年轻人很聪明,他可能成为另一个爱迪生。another 另一个,这里是一种对 比,强调这个年轻人的聪明。答案: C All/ both/either/neither/none 的区别 1.all 表示“(三者或三者以上)都”,指人或所有的物,看作 复数;指抽象的概念,作“一切”讲,看单数。 I don't like all of the three books.Only one in particular has attracted my attention. 这三本书我并非都喜欢,只有一本书吸引了我。 2.both 表示“(两者)都”。 Both of them like popular songs. 他们两人都喜欢流行歌曲。 3.either 表示“(两者中)任何一者”。 There are shops on either side of the street. 街道的每一边都有一些商店。 4.neither 表示“(两者)都不”。 Because Henry and Mark had to work,neither of them came yesterday. 因为 Henry 和 Mark 要工作,所以昨天两人都没来。 5.none 作可数名词用时,指三者或三者以上,作主语时 谓语动词用单数或复数均可,作不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数,在句中作主语或宾语,不作定语。 They were all very tired,but none of them would stop to take a rest. 他们都非常累,但是没有一个想停下来休息。 3.(2011· 西城区模拟)Both of the sofas they ordered online
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arrived,but ________ fit through the doorway. A.none B.nor C.neither D.either 解析:代词辨析。由 both 可以看出范围为两个,所以应该排除 A 和 B;由连词 but 可知应该用 neither。 句意:他们在网上订购的两个沙发到货了,但是没有一个能从门口进去的。答案: C one,ones,the one,the ones,that,those 的区别 1.one 用来替代前面出现的泛指的单数名词,相当于“a/an +单数名词”。 Mr.Zhang gave me a very valuable present,one(=a present) that I had never seen. 张先生给了我一个非常珍贵的礼物,一个我从来没见过 的(礼物)。 2.ones 用来替代前面出现的泛指的复数名词。 Mr.Zhang gave me many valuable presents,ones(=many presents) that I had never seen. 张先生给了我很多珍贵的礼物,这些(礼物)是我从来没见过的。 3.the one 用来替代前面的特指的单数名词,有时可用 that 替代(尤其是在有后置定语的情况下)。 The book on the desk is better than that/the one(=the book) under the desk. 桌子上那本书比桌子底下那本书好。 4.the ones 用来替代前面的特指的复数名词,有时可用 those 替代(尤其是在有后置定语的情况下)。 The books on the desk are better than those/the ones(=the books) under the desk. 桌子上那些书比桌子底下那些书好。 5.that 用来替代前面出现的特指的单数名词或特指的不可 数名词,相当于“the+单数可数名词/不可数名词”。 Few pleasures can equal that(=the pleasure) of a cool drink on a hot day. 没有什么快乐能比得上炎热天气里一份冷饮带来的快乐。 1.(2011· 长沙二模)The previous lecture focused on the reading problems in new words,while this lecture will turn to ________ in complex sentence structures. A.that B.one C.those D.ones 解析:考查代词用法。这里指代的是上文提到的“problems”,因其为复数形式,所以要用 those。答案: C 2.(2011· 东北三校一模)I would rather buy a house in the countryside than ________ in the city. A.it B.one C.this D.that 解析:考查代词的用法。句中的 one 代指 a house,表示 泛指。答案: B 3.(2011· 济南模拟)His advertisement income this year is about $ 36 million,over three times ________ of last year. A.that B.what C.those D.ones 解析:考查代词。句意:他今年的广告收入为 3600 万美元,是去年的三倍多。income 是不可数名词,故 用 that 代指。答案: A 4.(2011· 保定调研)—Are these questions easy to answer? —Yes.________ of them is a piece of cake for you. A.All B.Any C.None D.Neither 解析:考查代词。本题可采用排除法。根据 Yes 可判断应为肯定,表示问题很容易回答,因此排除 C、D 两项;从答语中的 is 判断可将 all 排除。答案: B 5.(2011· 南昌联考)—Can I help you? —I'd like to buy a present for my father's birthday, ______ at a proper price, but of great value. A.which B.that
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C.one D.any one 解析:考查代词。本空后面接的不是完整的句子,因此不能用连接词引导非限制性定语从句,而是用代 词作前面 a present 的同位语,表示泛指的“一份礼物”,用 one。 答案: C 6.(2011· 长春调研)Gradually, you will realize that the things that matter are ________ that can't be bought with money. A.these B.those C.ones D.some 解析:考查代词。因该代词被 that 从句限定,因此使用 those,相当于 the ones。 答案: B 7.(2011· 东城区期末)You can take ________half of the cake; they're exactly the same. A.both B.either C.any D.each 解析:考查代词。句意:你可以拿蛋糕的任意半块,它们是完全一样的。据此可知应用 either 表示“两者 中的任意一个”,所以选 B 项。答案: B 8.(2011· 西安质量检测)—May I ask for leave tomorrow? —No,you can't.________applying for the scholarship must be present. A.Someone B.Anyone C.One D.No one 解析:考查人称代词的用法。anyone 表示“任何人”,即任何申请奖学金的人都必须到场。答案: B 9.(2011· 西安质量检测)Neither side would give in to ________. As a result, the peace talk broke down with no agreement reached. A.other B.another C.the other D.the others& 解析:考查代词的用法。根据 neither 可知,这里说的是两方,因此选 the other,即双方互不相让。答 案: C 10.(2011· 海淀区期末)—Is he leaving tomorrow? —No. He'll continue to stay here for ________ four or five days. A.another B.other C.the other D.every other 解析:考查不定代词的用法。因为此处“范围不确定”,所以用 another,another four or five days 表示“另外 四五天”。答句句意:不,他将在这里再待四五天。 答案: A 11.(2011· 许昌调研)Because they hadn't booked a room in advance, there were ________ left when they arrived at the hotel. A.none B.no one C.nobody D.nothing 解析:考查代词。句意:因为他们没有提前预订房间,所以当他们到达旅馆时,没有剩余的房间了。 none 指代前边出现的名词时,相当于 no 加那个名词,此题中 none 相当于 no rooms。B 项是单数,与 “were”不一致。答案:A 12.(2011· 东北三校联合模拟)—Which of these two books will you take? —I'll take ________ in case the journey is boring. A.either B.both C.all D.neither 解析:考查代词。根据 these two books 排除选项 C;再根据 in case the journey is boring 判断说话者要把两 本书都带上。答案:C 13.(2011· 哈尔滨模拟 )He paid 30% of the price for the house,and promised to pay ________ by the end of the month. A.those B.the others
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C.the rest D.the other 解析:考查指代。句意说“承诺剩下的在月底支付”,the rest 表示“剩下的”,常用来指代前面提到的名 词,选 C 项。答案: C 14.(2011· 陕西宝鸡质检)How can I help ________ if people don't read the instructions? A.that B.it C.what D.them 解析:考查代词。句意:如果人们不看说明,我有什么办法呢?此处 it 用于谈论某种情况。答案: B 15.(2011· 景德镇模拟)From Mum's love, patience and understanding, I have learned what a huge responsibility ________ is to raise a child. A.it B.that C.this D.one 解析:考查代词。此处的 it 充当形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式短语 to raise a child。答案: A 2.(2011· 胜利油田模拟)It is still believed that ________ graduate from ________ wellknown university is more likely to find a job. A.a;a B.a;the C.the;a D.the;the 解析:句意:人们相信从一所著名大学毕业的毕业生更好找工作。两空都表泛指,所以都用 a 表示“任何 一个”。 答案: A 形容词和副词 1.cannot 与 enough 连用,表示“再……也不为过”。 注意:enough 的此种用法还可用“cannot(never 等否定 词)...too...”表达。 —Mary,look,what did I find? —Oh,my lost key?I can't thank you much enough. (=I can't thank you too much.) ——玛丽,你看,我找到什么了? ——噢,我丢失的钥匙?太感谢你了。 —I was riding along the street and all of a sudden,a car cut in and knocked me down. 我正沿着大街骑车,突然一辆汽车横插过来,把我撞倒了。 —You can never be too careful in the street. 在大街上,你再小心也不为过。 2.形容词作状语。 形容词作状语表示伴随或结果,并不表达动作的方式。 After a long journey,the three of them got back home,hungry and tired.(2008· 北京高考) 经过长时间旅行后,他们三个回到了家,又饿又累。 He lay in bed,wide awake.他躺在床上醒着。 3.形容词一般放在被修饰词的名词前面作定语,但要注 意形容词放在被修饰词后面的情况。 (1)形容词如:alive,afraid,awake,alone,asleep, worth 等作定语时,常放于被修饰词的后面。 The baby still asleep might be awake very soon. 仍在睡着的那婴儿可能很快会醒的。 (2)形容词在修饰 somebody,something,anybody, anything,nobody,nothing 等不定代词时,需要置 于其后。 —Is there anything wrong,Bob?You look sad. 鲍勃,有什么不对吗?你看上去闷闷不乐的。 —Oh,nothing much.In fact,I was just thinking of my friends.噢,没什么,其实我在想念我的朋友。 (3)形容词后面有介词短语时,必须放在名词后面。 He is a student worthy of praise.
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他是个值得赞扬的学生。 (4)形容词后面有动词不定式时,必须放在名词后面。 Isn't it a problem difficult to solve? 这难道不是一个很难解决的问题吗? 4.多个形容词作定语的情况。 形容词的排序口诀巧记:县(限)官行(形)令(龄)宴(颜) 国材。 All the first three good little young Chinese student writers are all fond of English.前三位中国的年轻而又优秀 的小学生作家都很喜欢英语。 3.(2011· 合肥检测)—Jack is really a brave guy. —So he is.And we can't admire his courage ________. A.too much B.a lot C.very much D.a little 解析:考查固定结构。从句意看,答话人也认为 Jack 是个勇敢的男孩,用 can't...too much 表示“再……也 不为过”。答句句意:他的确是。我们非常欣赏他的勇气。答案: A 形容词和副词比较级的用法 1.“as+形容词/副词的原级+as”与“not as/so+形容词/副 词的原级+as”表示同级比较,即两个或两部分人或物 在性质上或程度上相同(不同)。 The work is not as difficult as you imagine. 这本书不是你想象的那么难。 He didn't come back as/so early as he was expected. 他并没有像预料得来那么早。 2.“as+形容词+(a/an)+名词+as”表示同级比较,注 意中间的形容词和名词并列时各自所在的位置。 It is generally believed that teaching is as much an art as it is a science. 一般认为教学如同科学一样是一门艺术。 3.表示两者之间的比较用比较级,其结构是:A+谓 语+形容词或副词的比较级+than+B。 Some experts think that language learning is much easier for children as their tongues are more flexible. 一些专家认为语言学习对于孩子来说容易得多,因为他们的语言灵活。 4.表示三者以上的比较要用最高级,其句型结构是: 主语+谓语+最高级+表示范围的状语(in the class/in the country 等)。 Speaking of all the songs he has written,I think this is probably his bestknown one. 谈到他谱写的所有歌曲,我认为这有可能是他最著名的一首歌曲。 5.注意比较等级结构的修饰语:修饰原级的词有 very, so,too,quite,rather,fairly,pretty,this,that 等;修饰比较级的词有 a little,a bit,slightly,any, much,a lot,a great deal,far,by far,rather,even,still,yet 等,还有倍数词、基数词、分数、百 分数等。修饰最高级的词有序数词,by far,much,almost,nearly 等。 After two years' research,we now have a far better understanding of the disease. 研究两年之后,现在我们对这种疾病有更好的理解。 The bridge being built now is by far the longest across the Yellow River. 目前正在建的那座桥是横跨黄河之上的桥当中最长的桥。 I'd like to buy the second most expensive camera. 我想买仅次于最贵的照相机。 6.比较等级和冠词:一般来说,比较级前不用冠词, 形容词的最高级前要加定冠词,但副词的最高级前通常不用冠词。但是若表示“两者中较……的”时或者是 “越……就越……(the+比较级...the+比较级...)”这一句型时,则用定冠词。 The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you'll make.你越仔细,犯的错误就越少。 The taller of the two boys is my brother. 那两个男孩中高点的是我弟弟。 7.比较级与否定词连用表示最高级的含义。 Your story is perfect;I've never heard a better one before. 你的故事太完美了,我从来没有听到比这好听的故事。
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—Are you satisfied with what he said at the meeting? 你对他会议上说的满意吗? —No.It couldn't have been worse. 不,不能再差了。 There is no greater love than that of a man who lays down his life for his friends. 为朋友而放弃生命的人的爱是最伟大的爱。 2.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)I was sleepy.I decided to make myself some ________ coffee so I could work ________. A.weak;better B.strong;well C.strong;better D.weak;well 解析:根据句意,第一空用 strong coffee,浓咖啡才能提神;第二空表示比较,意为“比现在工作得更 好”,故用 well 的比较级。答案: C 倍数表达法 表示倍数的句型: (1)A is+倍数+比较级+than+B (2)A is+倍数+as+原级+as+B (3)A is+倍数+the+名词(size,length,height 等)+of+B (4)A is+倍数+that+of+B (5)A is+倍数+what 引导的名词性从句 This building is three times higher than that one. =This building is three times as high as that one. =This building is three times the height of that one. 这个建筑物是那个建筑物的 3 倍高。 The output of this year is 3 times that of 2008. =The output of this year is 3 times what it was in 2008. 今年的产量是 2008 年的三倍。 After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced twice as many cars in 2008 as the year before. 自从新技术被引进以后,这家工厂 2008 年生产的小汽车是上一年的两倍。 My uncle's house in the downtown area is much smaller than ours,but it is twice as expensive.(2009· 四川高考) 我叔叔在闹市区的房子比我们的小的多,但却是我们房子两倍的价钱。 2.(2011· 日照模拟)You'd better go there by train.The train ticket is ________ the airplane ticket. A.as cheap three times as B.as three times cheap as C.three times cheaper than D.cheaper three times than 解析:考查倍数表达法。表达倍数时应把表示倍数的词放在比较级的最前面,由此可判断 C 项正确,此 处是“倍数词+比较级+than”结构。答案:C 3.(2011· 南昌调研)—What does the UFO look like? —The wings of it are ________ of its body. A.more than the length twice B.twice more than the length C.more than twice the length D.more twice than the length 解析:考查倍数表达法。此处是“倍数词+the length/size/weight...+of+比较对象”结构,答语的意思是“它 的翅膀是自身长度的两倍多”。 答案:C 1.(2011· 济南模拟)On snowy days,you have to drive very________to avoid traffic accidents. A.cautiously B.neatly C.smoothly D.properly 解析:考查副词辨析。句意:在下雪天,你必须谨慎驾车以避免交通事故。cautiously 谨慎地;neatly 整 洁地;smoothly 平滑地;properly 适当地。答案: A 2.(2011· 哈尔滨模拟)She gave me a ________ watch as the birthday present.
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A.nice Swiss little B.nice little Swiss C.little nice Swiss D.Swiss nice little 解析:句意:她给我一只漂亮的、小巧的瑞士手表作为生日礼物。多个形容词修饰名词时,其排列顺序 口诀巧记为:县(限)官行(形)令(龄)宴(颜)国材。答案: B 3.(2011· 浙江金华联考)Boris has brains.In fact,I doubt whether anyone in the class has ________ IQ. A.a high B.a higher C.the higher D.the highest 解析:考查形容词比较级的用法。根据题干内容可知,这里是将 Boris 的智商与班级里其他同学的智商进 行比较,因此应该用比较级,排除 A、D 两项;另外,这里表泛指,因此用不定冠词,故 B 项正确。 答 案: B 4.(2011· 陕西宝鸡质检)—Jim,are you ________ this Saturday? —Oh,sorry.I need to go to the bookshop ________ the bank on Saturday. A.convenient;and B.convenient;as well as C.available;with D.available;as well as 解析:convenient 的主语不能为人,常用于 it is convenient for/to sb.结构,先排除 A、B 两项。根据答语 “既要去书店又要去银行”可知,第二空要用 as well as。答案: D 5.(2011· 南昌模拟)He enjoys a cup of coffee sometimes,but ________ he drinks tea. A.most B.almost C.nearly D.mostly 解析:句意:他有时喜欢喝杯咖啡,但是他通常喝茶。mostly“大多数地,主要地”,符合题意。most 作 “大多数的”讲时,是形容词;almost“几乎,将近”;nearly“几乎”。 答案: D 6.(2011· 南昌模拟)—Are you happy with this library? —Not a little.We can't have ________. A.a worse one B.a nicer one C.such a worse one D.such a nicer one 解析:解题的关键是对 not a little 的理解,其意为“许多,很”。答语表示对图书馆非常满意,故 B 项正 确,此处是形容词的比较级与否定词连用表示最高级含义。答案: B 7.(2011· 郑州调研)The weather is awful. If it gets ________, we can go out and have a basketball game with Class 2. A.good B.well C.better D.best 解析:考查形容词的比较级和最高级。此处是把假想中的天气与现在的天气进行比较,表示“如果天气变 好”,所以用比较级形式。答案: C 8.(2011· 石家庄质检)It is said that sandstorms will become more ________ as a result of global warming. A.frequent B.normal C.formal D.rare 解析:考查形容词词义辨析。句意:据说由于全球变暖,沙尘暴将变得更加频繁。frequent“频繁的,经常 的”;normal“正常的”;formal“正式的”;rare“罕见的”。 答案: A 9.(2011· 苏州模拟)—Do you think that the 16th Asian Games were a success? —Yes,________!It couldn't be________. A.relatively;better B.approximately;worse C.absolutely;better D.fortunately;worse 解析:本题考查副词和形容词在语境中的运用。relatively 相对地;approximately 大约;absolutely 当然 是,绝对是;fortunately 幸运地。根据语境知,第十六届亚运会绝对是一个成功的盛会,再好不过了,故 C 项正确。答案: C 10.(2011· 济南模拟)Of the two cameras,I would prefer ________ one,which is very easy for me to carry. A.a smaller B.the smallest
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C.a small D.the smaller 解析:考查形容词比较级。由 of the two cameras 可知,总共有两台相机,其中“小的那台”,应该用比较 级 smaller,同时又是“确指”的概念,所以用 the smaller,选 D 项。答案: D 11.(2011· 青岛二模)Thinking that her daughter was doing homework,the mother left the room, ________. A.quickly and gentle B.quick and gentle C.quickly and gently D.quick and gently 解析:quick and gentle 是形容词短语在句中作伴随状语,往往用逗号隔开。答案:B 12.(2011· 湘潭模拟)—Do you like the place of interest? —On the contrary,it's the ________ place that I want to visit. A.worst B.last C.best D.latest 解析:考查形容词辨析。根据答语中的 on the contrary 可知,答话者对这个地方不满意。B 项的 last 表示 “最不可能的”,即那是“我”最不想参观的地方。答案:B 13.(2011· 杭州检测)Though many extra planes and trains are used to carry passengers,traffic tools are still ________ needed during the “May Day” holidays. A.eagerly B.badly C.equally D.slightly 解析:考查副词。句意:尽管增加了许多航班和火车班次以便运送旅客,但是在五一假期里交通工具还 很急需。eagerly“热切地”;badly“很,非常”;equally“平等地”;slightly“略微,稍微”。只有 B 项符合句 意。答案: B 14.(2011· 福州模拟)When you study the local map, you'll find this town is ________. A.twice the size of that one B.twice as a large town as that C.twice as larger as that one D.twice as larger a town as that 解析:句意:当你研究当地的地图时,你会发现这座城镇是那个的两倍大。此处 A 项的倍数表达方式 为:A is+倍数+the+名词(如 size/length)+of B;B 项中不定冠词位置错误;C、D 项中 as 后应用形容词 原级。答案: A 15.(2011· 青岛二模)My grandfather is as ________ as a young man and hates sitting around doing nothing all day. A.enthusiastic B.energetic C.talkative D.sensitive 解析:依据后半句 hates sitting around doing nothing all day 可知这里表示“精力充沛的”,故选 B 项。 enthusiastic 热情的;talkative 健谈的;sensitive 敏感的。答案: B 动词和动词短语 1.share,spare 的辨析。 (1)share vt. & vi.分享,分担 (2)spare vt. 匀出,抽出 I will ask for leave to call on you tomorrow if you can spare me the time. 如果你能抽出时间的话,明天我请假去拜访你。 Let Harry play with your toys as well,Clare—you must learn to share. Clare,让 Harry 与你一起玩玩具,你必须学会分享。 2.adapt,adjust 的辨析。 (1)adapt vt.适应,adapt oneself to 适应于 (2)adjust vt.适应,调整,adjust oneself to 适应于 It is difficult for me to adapt/adjust myself to the new environment.我很难适应新环境。 In my opinion,you'd better adjust the plan. 依我看来,你最好调整计划。
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3.fit,suit,match 的辨析。 (1)fit 表示“适合,合身”,指大小、型号的适合,引申为 “吻合、协调”。 I have gained weight,so my clothes do not fit. 我体重增加了,衣服都不合身了。 (2)suit 作“适合”解,指合乎需要、口味、条件、地位 等。常强调颜色、款式等适合某人。 That color doesn't suit your complexion. 这颜色不适合你的肤色。 If we meet at 9 a.m.,would that suit you? 我们 9 点见面,你方便吗? (3)match 表示“在(品质、颜色、设计等方面)与……相配”。 Her shoes match her dress;they look very well together. (天津高考) 她的鞋子与衣服搭配得很好,看上去很相配。 4.hurt,wound,injure,harm 的辨析。 (1)hurt 表示“肉体或情感上的痛苦,强调疼痛感”。 Many people were hurt when a bus and a truck collided. 一辆公共汽车和一辆卡车相撞,许多人受了伤。 (2)wound 表示“由于剑、刀、枪等造成身体上较严重的外伤, 特别是在战争中受伤”。 The soldier was wounded in the arm. 这个士兵的胳膊受伤了。 (3)injure 表示“意外事故或偶发事件造成的伤害”。 There were two people injured in the car accident. 有两个人在车祸中受了伤。 (4)harm 表示“引起疼痛、痛苦或损失,其对象可以是自己, 也可以是其他人或物”。 Our dog won't harm you. 我们的狗不会伤害你的。 Getting up early won't harm you! 早起对你没有坏处!

5.agree with,agree on,agree to 的辨析。 ? ?①表示“同意某人的看法”, ? 常说: agree with sb./what sb.says I quite agree with his idea/opinion/what he said. ? (1)agree with 我十分赞同他的想法 /意见 /他说的话。 This climate doesn't agree with me. ?②表示“适合,合适” 这里的气候不适合我。 ? ③表示“一致,协调” ?me/my The food doesn't agree with stomach.
这种食物我不宜吃。 (2)agree to 表示“同意(某人的建议、安排、计划)”。 常可说:agree to a plan/an arrangement/a proposal/a decision The majority agreed to his plan/suggestion. 大多数人同意他的计划/建议。 (3)agree on/upon 表示“对……取得一致意见”。 They finally agreed on the contract. 他们最后就合同达成了协议。 We have agreed on how to solve the problem. 我们就如何解决这一问题达成了共识。 1.break 短语。
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break away from 脱离 break down 坏掉;出故障;垮掉 break into 闯入,破门而入 break out (战争)爆发 break in 破门而入 break off 打断;中断 break through 逾越,突破;冲破 break up 打碎;(物理)分解;分开;结束;制止 2.call 短语。 call for 需要;邀请 call on/at 号召;访问 call in 召集;召来 call up 召唤,召集;打电话 call off 取消 3.come 短语。 come about 发生 come across 偶遇 come to 共计,达到;苏醒 come true 变为现实 come up 走上前,被提出 come up with 提出 come into being 形成 come into use 投入使用 4.get 短语。 get about 四处走动;传开 get across 传达 get away 逃脱,设法离开 get down 下来;记下 get in 收割;到达 get off 出发;下班 get together 聚会 get through 接通;通过 get down to 开始认真干 get over 克服 get along/on with 进展;相处 5.give 短语。 give up 放弃 give in 屈服 give out 用尽;分发 give away 泄露;赠送;颁发 give off 发出 give back 归还;使恢复 6.go 短语。 go against 违背;对……不利 go ahead 开始,进展,进行 go after/for 追逐,追求 go without 勉强维持;凑合 go in for 爱好;参加;从事 go through 通过;经历 go over 复习;仔细审查 go by 过去,经过 7.hold 短语。 hold back 隐瞒;控制(情感) hold out 维持;抵抗;硬撑 hold up 使……耽搁 hold on 坚持;别挂(电话) hold together 团结一致 hold on to 保留,抓住不放 8.make 短语。 make up for 补偿,弥补 make out 辨认出 make fun of 取笑 make up one's mind 下定决心 make sense 有道理(意义),讲得通 make good/full use of...充分利用…… make up 编造;组成,构成;补齐,凑足 9.put 短语。 put aside 把……放在一边 put away 把……收好 put down 扑灭,平息 put forward 提出 put off 延期;推诿 put out 扑灭;生产 put up 挂起,张贴;搭起;为某人提供食宿 put up with 忍受,容忍 10.turn 短语。 turn down 拒绝;调低 turn in 上交 turn out 结果是,证明是 turn over 移交,交给 turn up 出现;调高 turn off 关掉 turn on 打开 turn away 走开 turn to 求助于;翻到
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2.(2011· 皖南十校联考)Many rich Americans have long________ money to charities,rather than to their children. A.given up B.given off C.given out D.given away 解析:句意:许多美国的富人很早就开始把钱捐给慈善机构,而不是给他们的子女。give away 捐赠; give up 放弃;give off 发出,放出;give out 用完,分发。答案: D 1.动词和 about 构成的短语。 think about 思考 care about 关心,对……有兴趣 bring about 引起,使发生 come about 发生 hear about 听说 worry about 为……担心 2.动词和 away 构成的短语。 throw away 扔掉 clear away 清除掉,消散 die away 逐渐消失,减弱 wash away 冲走 take away 拿走,使消失 put away 收拾起来,存起来 3.动词和 down 构成的短语。 break down 坏了,垮了,分解 turn down 调小,拒绝 cut down 削减,砍倒 slow down 慢下来 put down 记下,写下,镇压 tear down 拆毁,拆除 4.动词和 for 构成的短语。 wait for 等候 stand for 代表,表示 long for 渴望 care for 关心,喜欢 search for 查找 look for 寻找 call for 需要,要求 hunt for 寻找 apply for 申请 seek for 寻找 5.动词和 in 构成的短语。 give in 让步 hand in 上交 bring in 引进,赚得,挣 drop in 拜访 result in 导致 succeed in 在……获得成功 join in 参加 6.动词和 of 构成的短语。 think of 想到 dream of 梦到 consist of 由……组成 approve of 赞成 die of 死于 hear of 听说 complain of 抱怨 7.动词和 on 构成的短语。
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depend on 依靠 rely on 依靠 insist on 坚持 carry on 继续,进行 keep/go on 继续 spend...on 在……上花(钱) put on 穿上,戴上,上演 feed on 以……为生 8.动词和 out 构成的短语。 break out 爆发 point out 指出 bring out 阐明,使表现出 carry out 执行,进行 turn out 结果是,生产,培养 work out 算出,想出办法 find out 查出,弄明白 try out 试用,试验 look out 当心,提防 9.动词和 over 构成的短语。 think over 仔细考虑 go over 审阅,检查,研究 look over 翻阅,检查 get over 克服 take over 接管,接替 10.动词和 up 构成的短语。 give up 放弃,停止,中止 build up 建立 set up 架起,建立 put up 搭起,安装,住宿,张贴 pick up 拾起,学会,收听到 bring up 抚养,呕吐,提出 tear up 撕碎 stay up 熬夜 eat up 吃完 make up 构成,组成 cut up 切碎 hold up 耽搁,使停顿 1.(2011· 浙江金华联考)—These days I can only sleep four or five hours each night as I'm too busy with my research work. —If you keep going on like that,you are sure to________sooner or later. A.break down B.get down C.calm down D.put down 解析:考查动词词组辨析。break down 表示“身体垮掉,精神崩溃等”;get down 表示“着手做”;calm down 表示 “使平静,镇静”;put down 表示“写下,镇压”。根据句 意,这里选 A 项。答案: A 2.(2010· 泉州模拟)Due to the organizers' careful preparation,the art exhibition has ______ quite well. A.set out B.turned out C.carried out D.worked out 解析:句意:由于组织者的缜密准备,此次艺术展览很成功。work out 有……结果,做运动,解决,算 出,制定出;set out 动身,起程,开始;turn out 制造,生产,结果是;carry out 实行,执行。答案: D 3.(2011· 绵阳质检)Don't ________ more work than you can do or you will break down.
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A.take on B.take off C.take over D.take in 解析:考查动词词组辨析。take on 表示“承担”,符合句意。take off 表示“起飞,脱掉”;take over 表示 “接 管”;take in 则表示“吸收,欺骗”。 答案: A 4.(2011· 山东济宁质检)Faced with such a hard financial problem,Jack tried to stand on his own two feet rather than ________ his parents. A.turn on B.turn to C.turn over D.turn off 解析:句意:面对经济困难,杰克靠自己而不是向父母求助。turn to 向某人寻求帮助;turn on 打开,使 高兴,兴奋;turn off 关上电视、收音机、自来水等,扫某人兴致;turn over 打翻。答案: B 5.(2011· 南昌调研)He took pity on the people in the flooded areas and ________ his clothes and quilts to them. A.gave away B.gave off C.sent out D.threw away 解析:考查动词词组辨析。give away“赠送,泄露”;give off“发出,放出”;send out“发出,分发,散 发”;throw away“扔掉”。句意:他同情灾区人民,所以把他的衣服和被子捐给了他们。根据句意,这里 应该用 give away。答案: A 6.(2011· 南昌调研)I've visited a lot of different places and stayed in lots of different hotels, but none of them ________ this one. A.makes B.beats C.compares D.matches 解析:考查动词词义辨析。句意:我去过许多不同的地方,也住过很多不同的宾馆,但是没有一家比得 上这家。match 表示“比得上”,符合句意。compare 与……作比较。答案: D 7.(2011· 山东潍坊质检)—Did you reach the top of the mountain? —Yes.Even I myself didn't believe I could ________ it. A.work B.climb C.make D.get 解析:考查固定用语。make it 表示“成功做某事”,这里表示“甚至我自己都不相信我能成功(登顶)”。所以 选 C 项。答案: C 8.(2011· 山东潍坊质量监测)Faced with a problem,you have to ________ it first,and then try to find a solution. A.resemble B.substitute C.concentrate D.analyze 解析:考查动词辨析。句意:面对问题,你必须先分析,然后尽力找出解决办法。resemble 看起来像; substitute 代替;concentrate 集中(注意力);analyze 分析。故选 D。 9.(2011· 皖南八校联考)—How much did the guy ________ you for the repair of your 3G mobile phone? —I don't remember,but it was quite a lot. A.cost B.spend C.charge D.take 解析:考查动词辨析。charge 在此作动词用,是“收费”的意思。charge sb.some money for sth.“因……向某 人收费”。 答案: C 10.(2011· 福州六校联考)Even if the treatment ______,there's still no magic pill for patients in latestage AIDS. A.does B.uses C.works D.effects 解析:考查动词辨析。work“起作用,生效”,符合句意。句意:尽管治疗起作用了,对于晚期的艾滋病 患者来说还是没有什么特效药。答案: C 11.(2011· 佳木斯检测)I didn't like the soap opera at first, but when I started watching one,I immediately became ________ it.
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A.accustomed to B.addicted to C.opposed to D.allergic to 解析:考查动词词组辨析。句意:我起初不喜欢肥皂剧,但看了一个后我马上就上瘾了。这里用 become addicted to 表示“对……上瘾/入迷”;become accustomed to“习惯于……”;become opposed to“反对……”; become allergic to“对……过敏”。根据句意选 B 项。 答案:B 12.(2011· 海南五校联考)—Have you been ________? —Yeah.As a matter of fact,I've been going to the gym for half a year now. A.carrying out B.turning out C.making out D.working out 解析:考查动词短语。句意:“你一直健身吗?”“是的,事实上,我去健身房已有半年了。”work out 有 “(定期)锻炼,健身”的意思,符合题意。carry out“实施,执行”;turn out“出席,在场”;make out“辨认 出”。 答案: D 13.(2011· 济南模拟)Thanks to the success of the business, we can ________ a flat this year. A.make B.devote C.remove D.afford 解析:考查动词辨析。句意:由于生意很好,今年我们能买得起房子了。afford“买得起,负担得起”。 答 案: D 14.(2011· 淄博模拟)The headmaster will ________ a speech to the visiting foreign guests this afternoon. A.deliver B.address C.announce D.declare 解析:句意:今天下午校长将要对来访的外宾发表讲话。deliver 发表,deliver a speech 发表演讲。address sb.对某人讲话,对某人发表演说;announce 宣布,通告;declare 宣告,声明。 答案: A 15.(2011· 南京模拟)The idea of travelling abroad really ________ a lot of Chinese people.That's why every year witnesses more people applying for passports. A.takes to B.caters to C.attends to D.appeals to 解析:本题考查动词短语。根据题中的后一句可知,出国旅游吸引了很多中国人,因此选择 appeal to(吸 引)。cater to 迎合,满足某人的要求;attend to 开始喜欢。答案: D 非谓语动词 过去分词作状语 1.过去分词作状语,修饰谓语动词,进一步说明谓语动 词的动作或状态,即动作发生时的背景或状况;其逻 辑主语通常就是句子的主语,且主语是过去分词动作 的承受者,过去分词与主语之间存在动宾关系。 Given the right kind of training,these teenage soccer players may one day grow into international stars.(2009· 江 西高考)(这里 give 与句子的主语 these teenage soccer players 之间存在动宾关系) 给予正确的训练,这些青少年足球运动员有一天会成为国际明星。 Bitten twice,the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog.(2009· 北京高考) 由于被咬了两次,邮递员拒绝给我们送信,除非我们把狗拴起来。 Reminded not to miss the flight at 15∶20,the manager set out for the airport in a hurry.(2009· 福建高考) 被提醒不要错过下午 15∶20 的航班,经理匆忙出发去机场了。 2.某些动词的过去分词已经形容词化,且往往用于一些系 表结构中,此时这些过去分词既不表示被动,也不表示完成,而表示一种状态,这样的词有:lost(迷路 的),seate(坐),hidden(躲),stationed (驻扎),lost/absorbed in(沉溺于),dressed in(穿着),tired of(感到厌倦) 等,不管它们作什么成分都不用其 ing 形式。 Absorbed in his book,he didn't notice me enter the room.专心于读书,他没注意到我进入房间。 Dressed in red,she looks more beautiful.
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穿着红色的衣服,她看上去更漂亮了。 2.(2011· 杭州教学检测)________by a greater demand for green products,the food company has set higher standards to ensure the quality. A.Driven B.Being driven C.To drive D.Having driven 3.(2011· 济宁检测)If ________in wet sand,the vegetables can remain fresh for a long time. A.being buried B.having buried C.buried D.burying 解析:句意:蔬菜埋在潮湿的沙子里能保鲜很长时间。逻辑主语 the vegetables 与 bury 存在逻辑上的被动 关系,故排除表主动的 B、D 两项;being buried 表被动,进行;buried 表被动,完成。根据句意可知 bury 的动作不可能与 remain 同时发生,故选 C。答案: C 现在分词作状语 1.现在分词作状语时其逻辑主语往往是句子的主语,这时 该动词与句子的主语之间往往存在主动关系。 As the light turned green,I stood for a moment,not moving,and asked myself what I was going to do.当灯 变绿色时,我站了一会儿,不动,并且自问自己要做什么。 They entered the theatre,talking and laughing. 他们说笑着进了剧院。 2.现在分词有: 一般式、被动式、完成式和完成被动式四种形式,每一种形式的否定式都是直接在前面加 not 构成。一般 式(doing)表示主动的一般性的动作或者正在进行的动作;被动式(being done)表示正在进行的被动的动 作;完成式(having done)表示发生在谓语动作之前的主动的动作;完成被动式(having been done)表示发生 在谓语动作之前的被动的动作。 Not having received a reply,he decided to write again. 没有得到答复,他决定再写信去。 The old man,having worked abroad for twenty years,came back to his motherland. (work 与句子的主语 the old man 之间存在主谓关系,而且 work 这一动作发生在谓语动作之前) 在国外工作了二十年后,这位老人回到了祖国。 She is afraid of being taken to the public. 她怕被带到公众面前。 3.有一些固定结构,如:generally speaking,according to,judging from/by 等,无论主语是什么都用这种形式作状语。 Generally speaking,children like playing in the fields. 一般来说,孩子们喜欢在田野里玩。 Judging from what he said,he must be an honest man. 从他说的话来判断,他一定是一位诚实的人。 4.一些考生在做题过程中不知道应该选择现在分词还是过 去分词作状语。现在教大家一个行之有效的方法: 作状语时,是用现在分词形式还是用过去分词形式,取 决于该动词与句子主语之间的关系。如果是意义上的主 动关系,一般用动词 ing 形式;如果是意义上的动宾关 系,则一般用过去分词。请看下面的例子,并细心体 会。注意:句子的主语改变了,分词的形式也要相应地 发生变化。 Seen from the top of the hill,the park looks even more beautiful.从山顶上看,这个公园显得更加美丽。(see 与主语 the park 之间存在动宾关系) Seeing from the top of the hill,we find the park even more beautiful.从山顶上看,我们发现这个公园显得更 加美丽。(see 与主语 we 之间存在主动关系) 不定式作状语 不定式作状语时相当于一个状语从句,不定式作状语时往往用来作目的状语、结果状语或原因状语。 1.不定式用来作目的状语:作目的状语时,不定式的
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逻辑主语通常也是全句的主语,这里往往译作“为了,想要”。 To be a winner,you need to give all you have and try your best.(2009· 辽宁高考) 要想成为赢家,你要付出所有并竭尽全力。 To complete the project in time,the staff were working at weekends.(2009· 天津高考) 为了及时完成这项工程,全体员工周末加班。 2.不定式用于:so...as to...;such...as to;enough to...; too...to;only to 等结构中往往用来作结果状语。 Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle? 你能不能行行好,借给我你的自行车? He's such a fool as to think that his idle chatter can influence others. 他如此愚蠢以至于认为他的闲扯能影响别人。 He hurried to the booking office only to be told all the tickets had been sold out. 他匆忙去了售票处,结果被告知所有的票已经卖完了。 (“only+to do”表示出乎意料的结果,tell 和主语 he 之间存在动宾关系,因而应用不定式的被动结构) [注意] 不定式和现在分词作结果状语的区别:不定式作结果状语往往表示意想不到的或不愿看到的结 果,而现在分词作结果状语则表示自然而然的结果。 His parents died,leaving him an orphan. 他的父母去世了,使他成为孤儿。 3.不定式与形容词连用时,大多表示原因,用来作原因 状语。这些形容词主要有:happy,kind,surprised,frightened,angry,shocked,glad,delighted, disappointed 等。 I'm very glad to hear the news. 听到这个消息我非常高兴。 非谓语动词作定语 1.现在分词(短语)作定语与所修饰的名词之间存在着逻 辑上的主谓关系,表示该动作的主动和进行。 She went on board the train leaving for Shanghai. =She went on board the train,which was leaving for Shanghai. 她坐上了去上海的火车。 There are two roads before us:one leading to the beach,the other to the park. =There are two roads before us:one which leads to the beach,the other to the park. 在我们面前有两条路:一条通向沙滩,另一条通向公园 2.过去分词(短语)作定语与它所修饰的名词在逻辑上有被 动关系,表示该动作的被动或完成。 The developed countries also need help from any other country in the world. 发达国家也需要世界上其他国家的帮助。 “Things lost never come again!”I couldn't help talking to myself. “失去的东西再也不会回来!”我情不自禁地自言自语。 For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit grown on his own farm.(2009· 北京高考) 早饭他只喝自己农场种植的新鲜水果榨出来的果汁。 3.动词不定式作定语多表示将来动作。 We are invited to a party to be held in our club next Friday.(2009· 山东高考) 我们被邀请参加下周五在我们俱乐部举行的聚会。 非谓语动词作宾补 1.过去分词作宾语补足语: 过去分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语往往就是其逻 辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在动宾关系。 I'll have my house painted tomorrow. 明天我会让人把我的房子粉刷一下。 When I opened the door,I found the ground covered by fallen leaves.当我打开门时,我发现地面被落叶所覆 盖。 To learn English well,we should find opportunities to hear English spoken as much as we can.(江苏高考) 为了把英语学好,我们应当尽可能抓住一切机会去听别人讲英语。 2.现在分词作宾语补足语:
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现在分词作宾语补足语时,句中的宾语往往就是其逻辑主语,该动词与宾语之间存在主动关系。现在分 词作宾语补足语强调正在进行中的主动动作,即动作过程的一部分。可以带有这种复合宾语的动词有 see,watch,hear,observe,feel,find,have,keep 等。 He saw a boy getting on the bus. 他看见一个男孩正在上公交车。(强调动作在进行) They use computers to keep the traffic running smoothly.(2009· 全国卷Ⅱ) 他们使用电脑使交通畅通无阻。 3.have,get 表示“使、让、叫”,后接三种形式作宾补。 (1)have sth.done=get sth.done 使/让某事由别人去做(叫/让某 人做某事);使某人/某物遭受…… I'll have/get my bike repaired tomorrow. 我明天得(请人)修一下我的自行车。 Mr.Smith had his house broken into while he was away on holiday. 史密斯先生在度假期间,他家的房子被别人破门而入。

[注意] I won't have you speaking to your dad like that. 我不允许你和你父亲那样讲话。

?have sb./sth.doing使/让某人/物持续地做某事 ? ing形式表主动和进行? (2)??v.?get sb./sth.doing使某人/物开始行动起来 ?sb.doing 若用于否定句中,其中 have 有“容忍”之意。 have The captain got the soldiers moving towards the front 休息了片刻之后, 上尉让士兵们开始朝前线行进起来。

? ?have sb.do sth. (3)? after a short rest. 使/让/叫某人去做某事 ?get sb.to do sth. ?

Mother had me year go , to the shop and 3.(2011· 东城区模拟 )Every Tom remembers to buy some salt. have some flowers ________ to her mother on her birthday. 妈妈让我去商店买些食盐。 A.send B.sent C.sending D.being sent 解析:本题考查非谓语动词。have something done 表示某事被做。所以选择 B 项。 4.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)It's wonderful to hike with Dad and I have felt ________ with him. A.to protected B.protected C. protecting D. to be ptrotected 解析:本题考查非谓语动词。根据语境知“我”应该是被保护,排除选项 A 和 C;和父亲一起的徒步旅行 已经结束,排除选项 D。 非谓语动词作宾语 1.常接动名词作宾语的动词(短语)。 advise(建议),admit(承认),appreciate(感激),avoid( 避免),can't help (禁不住),consider(考虑),delay(推 迟),enjoy(欣赏),escape(逃脱),finish(完成), imagine(想象),keep (on) (继续),mind(介意), practice(练习),suggest(建议),miss(错过),feel like( 意欲),devote...to(把……献给),get used to(习惯于), look forward to(期望),object to(反对),set about(开 始),put off(推迟)等。 The doctor advised taking more exercise. 医生建议多锻炼。 I suggested doing it in a different way.
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我建议用不同的方法做这件事。 2.常接不定式作宾语的动词。 afford(负担得起),agree(同意),decide(决定),determine(决定),expect(期望),hope(希望),manage(设 法),refuse(拒绝),want(想),wish(希望),offer(提供),pretend(假装),promise(许诺),choose(选择), fail(失败),long(渴望)等。 3.可用动名词,也可用不定式作宾语,但意义区别不大 的动词。 begin(开始),continue(继续),like(喜欢),love(喜爱),prefer(宁愿),start(开始),hate(讨厌)等。

4.可用动名词,也可用不定式作宾语,但意义 区别明显的动词。
?to do sth.忘记去做某事?未做? ? forget? ? ?doing sth.忘记做过某事?已做? ? ?to do sth.对即将做的事表示遗憾?未做? regret? ?doing sth.对做过的事表示后悔?已做? ?

? ?to do sth.记着去做某事?未做? remember? ? ?doing sth.记着做了某事?已做? ? ?to do sth.打算做某事 ? ? ?doing sth.意味着做某事

mean

? ?to do sth.尽力去做某事 try? ? ?doing sth.试着做某事 ? ?to do sth.继续做另一件事 go on? ? ?doing sth.继续做原来做的事

5.动词 want,need,require 意为“需要”时,后面跟动名 词主动式或动词不定式的被动式作宾语区别不大。 The flowers need/want/require watering/to be watered. 这些花需要浇水。 6.在动词 allow,advise,forbid,permit 后面直接跟动 名词作宾语,如果有名词或代词作宾语,则应构成“allow/advise/forbid/permit+名词/代词+动词不定式(作 宾语补足语)”。 We don't allow smoking here.我们不允许在这里吸烟。 We don't allow anyone to smoke here. 我们不允许有人在这里吸烟。 非谓语动词作表语 1.当现在分词和过去分词作表语时,它们大多数是已经 形容词化的现在分词或过去分词,而且大多数是与心 理状态有联系的词。 现在分词通常表示“某事/物令人感到……”,而过去分词则表示某人的感受,意为“感到……的”。这样的 词常见的有:interesting“有趣的”,interested“感兴趣的”;exciting“令人兴奋的”,excited“感到兴奋的”; disappointing“令人失望的”,disappointed“感到失望的”等。这类现在分词作表语时,一般是物作主语;而 过去分词作表语时,则一般是人作主语。 The story sounds interesting.那个故事听起来有趣。 She is interested in the story.她对那个故事感兴趣。
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2.动词不定式作表语时往往表示暂时性的动作。 My job is to clean the house three times a week. 我的工作是每星期打扫三次房子。 非谓语动词在独立主格中的应用 分词的逻辑主语必须是主句的主语,当分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语与主句的主语一致,但有时它也可 以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语,这时的句子结构称为独立主格结构。 1.独立主格结构的基本形式。 (1)名词/主格代词+现在分词 名词/主格代词与现在分词之间为逻辑上的主谓关系。 The girl staring at him(=As the girl stared at him),he didn't know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 (2)名词/主格代词+过去分词 名词/主格代词与过去分词之间为逻辑上的动宾关系。 The problems solved(=As the problems were solved),the quality has been improved. 随着问题的解决,质量已经提高了。 (3)名词/主格代词+不定式 名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系,且强调的是一次具体性的将来的动作。 He is going to make a model plane,some old parts to help. 借助于一些旧零件,他要做一个飞机模型。 2.非谓语动词在 with 复合结构中的用法。 在“with+宾语+补语”这一独立主格结构中,宾语和宾补的关系如果是主动关系,则宾补该用 ving 分词; 若宾语和补语之间的关系是动宾关系,则宾补该用 ved 分词;若宾补所表示的动作有将来的意味,则宾补 该用不定式形式。 (1)with+宾语+ving 分词 With so many people looking at her,she felt nervous. 这么多人看着她,她感到很紧张。 (2)with+宾语+ved 分词 With their work finished,they went home. 工作完成后,他们就回家了。 (3)with+宾语+不定式 With so much work to do,I can't go swimming with you. 因为有很多工作要做,我不能和你一起去游泳了。 2.(2011· 南通一模)With so many orphans ________, the charity organization calls for more donations. A.to look after B.being looked after C.to be looked after D.looked after 解析:本题考查 with 短语作伴随状语的用法。句意:有如此多的孤儿需要照顾,该慈善机构呼吁更多捐 款。用动词不定式的主动来表示被动意义。故选 A。 1.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)Blamed for breaking my promise,I felt my face ________ hot,and hung my head in shame. A.to grow B.to be growing C.grown D.grow 解析:句意:我因未能信守诺言而受到责备,我的脸感到发烫,于是羞愧地低下了头。feel sb./sth. do sh. 用不带 to 的动词不定式作宾补。答案: D 2.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)You can hardly imagine the efforts I have made ________ the goal. A.to achieve B.of achieving C.to of achieving D.to have achieved 解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:你简直无法想象我为了实现目标所付出的努力。动词不定式作目的状 语,故 A 项正确。 3.(2011· 苏州一模)After suffering a heart attack, Michael Jackson was pronounced dead,________ a tragic end to the world's most popular entertainer. A.marking B.to mark
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C.marked D.having marked 解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:迈克尔· 杰克逊在心脏病突发后死去,这标志着世界上最受欢迎的艺人的 悲惨结局。ving 在此作结果状语。答案: A 4.(2011· 苏州一模)For English teachers ________ a more effective role in teaching,they must make every effort to raise students' crosscultural awareness. A.to play B.playing C.having played D.play 解析:考查非谓语动词。句意:对英语教师而言,为了在教学中起到更有效的作用,他们必须努力提高 学生的跨文化意识。动词不定式作目的状语。 选 A。 5.(2011· 东北三校联考)Cao Cao's tomb is reported ________ in Anyang,which attracts nationwide attention. A.being found B.to be found C.having been found D.to have been found 解析:考查特殊句式。句意:据报道,安阳发现了曹操墓,引起了全国(民众)的关注。前半句是“it's reported that Cao Cao's tomb has been found in Anyang”的另外一种表达方式,表示该动作已经发生,所以用 不定式的完成形式。选 D。 6.(2011· 鸡西检测)The musical Butterfly ________ next week is a love story. A.produced B.being produced C.to be produced D.having been produced 解析:考查非谓语动词。非谓语动词题目的解题核心在于找出非谓语动词相对应的逻辑主语,然后判断 该逻辑主语与此非谓语动词之间的关系。此处逻辑主语是 the musical Butterfly,与 produce 之间构成逻辑 上的动宾关系,同时从后面 next week 可知,动作还未发生,故用不定式的被动语态,选 C 项。 7.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)________ in the leg made it impossible for me to walk as fast as usual. A.Being injured B.To be injured C.Having injured D.Injured 解析:考查非谓语动词。此处缺少主语,而现在分词和过去分词不能作主语,排除 C 项和 D 项;B 项不 定式表示未发生的动作,与语境不符。据此选 A 项,用动名词短语作主语。 8.(2011· 陕西宝鸡检测)Some groups still have difficulties ________ access ________ social services. A.gain;in B.gaining;to C.to gain;to D.gaining;of 解析:考查非谓语动词和介词搭配。句意:一些群体仍然很难得到享受社会服务的权利。have difficulty/trouble(in) doing sth.“干某事有困难”和 access to sth.“(使用或见到……的)机会、权利”都是固定用 法。 选 B。 9.(2011· 南通一模)The county,________ in the north of Shanxi,has a history of more than 1,400 years. A.located B.to be located C.being located D.locating 解析:考查过去分词作定语。此处应用过去分词短语作定语,修饰 the county,故选 A。 10.(2011· 南通二模)Knowing office rules—whether ______ or not—is critical,especially for young job seekers. A.written B.writing C.being written D.having been written 解析:考查非谓语动词。所填词作定语,其逻辑主语就是被修饰词 rules,非谓语动词与被修饰词是被动 关系且其动作已经完成,故用过去分词,选 A。 11.(2011· 南通二模)________ along with host families,I believe,language travel students are likely to get enough language practice. A.Stay B.Having stayed C.Staying D.To stay
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解析:考查非谓语动词。所填词作伴随状语,逻辑主语是 language travel students,所填词与逻辑主语之 间是主动关系,且其动作与谓语动词动作同时进行,用 ving 的一般式,选 C。 12.(2011· 长沙二模)When the telephone rang,I happened ________ in the kitchen,but when I came over to get it,it rang off. A.to cook B.to have cooked C.to be cooking D.having cooked 解析:考查非谓语动词的用法。happen to do 为固定用法,由前面的时间状语可以看出动作正在进行,所 以要用进行时态。 13.(2011· 长沙二模)________the advantages against the disadvantages,I decided to take up the job as a clerk in the bank. A.To weigh B.Weighing C.Weighed D.Having weighed 解析:考查非谓语动词的时态。从动作的先后来看,weigh 发生在 decide 之前,所以要用现在分词的完成 式。 选 D。 14.(2011· 海淀区模拟)________ a written permission,he had to write another letter to the president of the university. A.Not giving B.Not having been given C.Having not given D.Having not been given 解析:考查非谓语动词。此处是非谓语动词作状语。逻辑主语是句子的主语,非谓语动词与逻辑主语之 间是被动关系,且其动作在谓语动词动作之前已经发生,故用过去分词或现在分词的完成被动式,选 B。 15.(2011· 海淀区模拟)It was reported that 115 miners ______ in the flooded mine for eight days were pulled out alive at last. A.trapped B.being trapped C.were trapped D.had trapped 解析:考查非谓语动词。所填词作后置定语,逻辑主语是 miners,而非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间是被动 关系,故用过去分词,选 A。 时态和语态 1.(2011· 郑州模拟)No one ________enter this building without the permission of the security guard. A.is to B.are to C.is going to D.will 解析:句意:没有保安的许可,任何人不能进入这栋楼。题中 be to do 表示一种命令或要求,C、D 选项 没有这种用法;no one 作主语,be 动词用 is。 选 A。 2.(2011· 南通二模)Mental disorders ________ a major public health problem in China. A.will become B.are becoming C.became D.had become 解析:句意:精神紊乱正逐渐成为中国主要的一个公众健康问题。短暂性动词 become 的现在进行时表示 逐渐变化的过程。will do 表示将来势必要发生的动作;became 表示已成为事实,与情况不符;had become 是过去完成时。 选 B。 3.(2011· 济南模拟)Jacques knew that it was impossible to contact Pierre immediately,and time ________. A.had run out B.was running out C.had been run out D.was being run out 解析:句意:杰克斯知道,他是不可能立即与皮埃尔联系上的,而且此刻所剩的时间已不多。语境表明 用过去时;run out 为非及物动词短语,不能用于被动语态,如果选项 D 后面加上介词 of 也对。 选 B。 4.(2010· 南通一模)Oliver got________ by the police and ________ to court. A.caught;was taken B.catch;take C.caught;take D.be caught;was taken
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解析:句意:奥利弗被警察抓住送到了法庭上。“get+过去分词”表示被动,get 相当于助动词 be,故第一 空用 caught;Oliver 与 take 之间是被动的关系,故用被动语态的形式,故第二空用 was taken。 选 A。 5.(2011· 苏州检测)His method should be popularized; it ________ practical. A.proves B.is proved C.has proved D.was proved 解析:句意:他的方法应该会受欢迎的,因为它被证明是实用的。prove“证明是”,作系动词用,后接形 容词,用主动形式表示被动含义。 选 A。 2.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)—I called you many times yesterday morning,but I couldn't get through. —Oh.My brother ________ on the phone all the time! A.was talking B.has been talking C.has talked D.talked 解析:考查动词的时态。从句意“我兄弟当时一直都占着电话机呢”可知,这是对过去某个特定时间正在进 行的动作的表述,所以用过去进行时,选 A 项。 3.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)—The movie “2012” will be on at 8 p.m..What about picking you up at 7 p.m.? —All right,I will have come back from work by then,and I ________ you at home. A.will wait for B.will be waiting for C.have been waiting for D.am waiting for 解析:考查动词的时态。从语境知,“我在家等你”动作发生在将来,排除 C 项和 D 项。时间是下班后至 七点间,表示将来某段时间内正在进行的动作,用将来进行时,所以选 B 项。 4.(2011· 陕西宝鸡检测)Unfortunately,when I got to her flat,she ________,so we had only a moment for a few words. A.just left B.had just left C.has just left D.was just leaving 解析:考查时态。从后半句的“所以我们仅用一会儿时间说了几句话”可知,当说话人到达那位女士的公寓 时,她正要离开,应该用过去进行时表示过去马上要发生的动作。选 D。 5.(2011· 陕西宝鸡检测)Mary,I should tell you it is the third time that you ________ your homework. A.forgot to do B.forgot doing C.have forgotten to do D.had forgotten doing 解析:考查时态和非谓语动词。“it is (was) the+序数词+time+that 从句”,表示“是某人第几次做某事”, 在此句型中,若前面为 it is,则 that 从句用现在完成时,若前面为 it was,则 that 从句用过去完成时;而 forget to do sth.表示忘了去做某事,forget doing sth.表示忘了已做过某事。根据语境可知此题应选 C。 6.(2011· 长沙二模)Recently Peter________ to do his homework,and instead insists on wasting his time playing computer games,which extremely annoys his father. A.had been refusing B.has been refusing C.was refusing D.refused 解析:考查动词时态。由时间状语 recently(近来)可知应用完成时,排除 C、D 两项;根据后面句子的时 态可知,应选 B。 7.(2011· 长沙二模)This new method of teaching________ for the time being in our school.It will be carried out all over the city. A.is experimenting B.is experimented C.is being experimented D.has been experimented 解析:考查动词的时态和语态。由后面的“It will be carried out all over the city.”可以看出实验正在进行,所 以要用被动语态的进行时态。 选 C。 8.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)—Do you know when Peter ______May? —Perhaps it will be five months before they ________. A.will marry with;get married B.marries;get married C.will marry;get married D.marries;will get married
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解析:get married 结婚(强调动作);marry 意为“和……结婚”时是及物动词,marry sb.表示“嫁娶某人”,排 除选项 A;根据语境知他们将要结婚,第一空要用一般将来时,所以 C 项正确。 9.(2011· 南通模拟)It is freezing cold.When people go outside,their hands ________ cold and numb. A.are being felt B.feel C.are felt D.were felt 解析:句意:天太冷了,人们到室外时,手就会感到冰冷麻木。感官动词用作系动词时,用主动语态表 示被动意义,故选 B。 10.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)He said hello to me,but before I could finally think of his name he ________ among the crowd. A.has disappeared B.would disappear C.disappeared D.had disappeared 解析:句意:他跟我打了个招呼,但是我还没有想起他的名字,他就已经消失在人群中了。disappear 发 生在过去动作 could think 之前,表示过去的过去,用过去完成时。选 D。 11.(2011· 苏州一模)—Are you going to further your studies after graduation? —Well,I ________ yet.I might make some other choices. A.didn't decide B.haven't decided C.don't decide D.hadn't decided 解析:本题考查动词时态。从答语“也许还有别的打算”可知,目前还没有做出决定,故用现在完成时。 选 B。 12.(2011· 南通一模)Welcome to the Science Museum, everyone!This stone axe ________ in South Africa and experts can't be exactly sure about its use. A.had been found B.was found C.has been found D.would be found 解析:本题考查动词时态。根据句意,石斧是在南非发现的,是过去的动作,石斧是被发现的,故用一 般过去时的被动语态。 选 B。 13.(2011· 南通二模)—Where have you been all day? —I ________ some former classmates and I couldn't get back until it was dark. A.have met B.met C.would meet D.had met 解析:考查动词时态。应答句是陈述过去的一个事实,用一般过去时,选 B。 14.(2011· 合肥检测)—I called you last night,but nobody answered. —Oh,I usually ______ off my cellphone by 8∶00 p.m.. A.switched B.have switched C.switch D.had switched 解析:考查时态。题干中有副词 usually,叙述答话人的生活习惯,因此这里用一般现在时。答句句意: 噢,我通常在晚上 8 点关机。 选 C。 15.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)I have been on a diet for months and next time you see me,I ________ five pounds. A.will have lost B.will lose C.have lost D.am losing 解析:考查动词时态。句意:我已经减肥好几个月了,等下次再见我时,我就会轻五磅。根据语境可知 句子要用将来完成时,说明将来完成的结果。故 A 项正确。 情态动词 1.can 和 could 的用法。 (1)表示惊讶,常用在否定句和疑问句中。 How could you do such a silly thing? 你怎么能做那样的蠢事呢? (2)cannot...too/enough 表示“无论……也不过分; 越……越好”。
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You can't be too careful while driving. 开车时越小心越好。 2.may 和 might 的用法。 (1)may 和 might 表示“许可”,“可能性”,“祝愿”等意义。 ①在给予别人许可时,常用 can,但有时也用 may。一般不用 might。 —May I play basketball this afternoon? 今天下午我可以打篮球吗? —No,you may not.不,不行。 ②“may/might as well+动词原形”意为“最好,倒不如”。 For environmental reasons,we may as well take these waste products and have them recycled. 因为环境原因,我们最好把这些废弃产品收起来并回收利用。 (2)may 作“可以”讲时,其疑问句的否定回答常用 “mustn't/can't”表示“禁止”;must 作“必须”讲时,其疑问句的否定回答用“needn't”,表示“不必”。 —May I use your car?我可以用你的车吗? —No,you mustn't.不,不可以。(委婉的拒绝可用:Sorry,but I am using it now.或 You'd better not.等) —Must I work out the problem tonight? 我今晚必须解决这个问题吗? —No,you needn't.不,你不必。 3.must 的用法。 (1)表示禁止(用于否定句)。 “You mustn't smoke in the bedroom,”Rose said to her husband and pushed him out of the room. Rose 对她的丈夫说:“你决不能在卧室里吸烟”,并把他推出了卧室。 (2)表示“偏执”,“固执”。 —Could I have a word with you,Mum?(浙江高考) 妈妈,我能和你谈谈吗? —Oh dear,if you must. 好吧,亲爱的,如果你偏要谈的话。 Must you make so much noise? 你非得弄出这么大的声吗? 4.shall 的用法。 (1)用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方 的意见和向对方请示。 Shall we begin our class?我们可以开始上课吗? Shall the driver wait outside?司机在外边等着可以吗? (2)用于第二、第三人称陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的 命令、警告、允诺或威胁。 I promised he shall get a present for his birthday. 我许诺给他一件生日礼物。 You shall not get my support if you do such a thing. 假如你做那种事,我就不支持你。 5.will 和 would 的用法。 作情态动词的 will,would 与作助动词的 will,would 的各种形式相同。 (1) 表示自愿做或主动提出做什么,如意志、愿望或决心 等。would 用于过去的情况。 John promised his doctor he would not smoke,and he has never smoked ever since.(北京高考) 约翰答应他的医生不再吸烟了,自从那时起他就再也不吸烟了。 I have told him again and again to stop smoking,but he will not listen. 我已再三告诉他戒烟,但是他就是不听。 (2)will 可以表示一种习惯性的动作,有“总是”或“总要” 之意。 Every morning he will have a walk along this river. 每天早晨,他总是沿着小河散步。 (3)would 可以表示过去的习惯性动作,比 used to 正式, 但没有“现已无此习惯”的含义。
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Last year our English teacher would sometimes tell us stories in English after class. 去年我们的英语老师常常课后给我们讲英语故事。 情态动词表示“推测”的用法 表示对目前或将来情况的推测往往用“情态动词+动词原形”这种结构。 1.can 用于肯定句中有时可以用来表示推测,意为“有时 会”;用于疑问句中可以表示推测,意为“可能”,有时表示一种惊讶的语气;用于否定句中也可以表示推 测,can't 意为“不可能”,语气很强烈。 It is usually warm in my hometown in March,but it can be rather cold sometimes.(福建高考) 我的家乡在三月份通常很暖和,但有时候也会相当冷。 Mr.Bush is on time for everything.How can it be that he was late for the meeting? 布什先生做什么事情都很准时,他怎么可能开会迟到呢? He can't be in the classroom,for the light has been turned off. 他一定不在教室里,因为灯已关了。 2.may 用于肯定句中可以用来表示推测,意为“可能”; 用于否定句中也可以表示推测,may not 意为“可能不”,表示一种不太确定的语气。may 在疑问句中一般 不表示推测。 Some people who don't like to talk much are not necessarily shy;they may just be quiet people.(2009· 安徽高考) 言语不多的人未必就是害羞。他们或许就是安静的人。 3.must 表示推测时只能用于肯定句中,意为“一定,必定 ”,表示十分肯定的语气(在疑问句中或否定句中要用 can)。 He must be ill.He looks so pale. 他准是病了,他的脸色苍白。 —It's the office!So you must know eating is not allowed here.(2009· 湖南高考) 这是办公室!所以你一定知道这里不许吃东西。 —Oh,sorry.噢,对不起。 4.should 用来表示推测时意为“应该”,即含有“按道理 来说应当如此”的意思。 There shouldn't be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced a lot in the driving school. 因为你在驾校训练了那么多,通过路考应该没什么困难 5.表示对现在正在发生的事情进行推测要用“情态动词+ be+现在分词”这种结构。 My mother must be watering the flowers in the garden now. 现在我母亲一定正在花园里浇花。 The students may be climbing the mountain at the moment.此刻学生们有可能正在爬山。 2.(2011· 合肥检测)It ________ be really cold in November in Hefei though we usually have warm and sunny days. A.should B.will C.must D.can 解析:考查情态动词。can 可表示常有的行为和情况,意为“有时会,时而可能”。句意:尽管合肥十一月 的时候常常很暖和,但有时候可能会很冷。根据句意选 D 项。 3.(2011· 陕西宝鸡检测二)—Why hasn't Jack come back yet?________anything have happened to him? —I'm not sure,but I guess something ________. A.May;must have B.Can;may have C.Must;may D.Should;might have 解析:考查情态动词。在一般疑问句或特殊疑问句中表推测时常用 can 或 could,推测发生过的事情时情 态动词后要接完成式,选 B。 情态动词+have+过去分词的用法 表示对过去发生的情况或存在的状态的推测、责怪、后悔、遗憾等常用“情态动词+have+过去分词”这种 结构。 1.can/could have done 表示“本来可以做,而实际上未做 ”或者“过去可能”,疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为表示怀疑或不肯定,其中 can't have done 多用 于语气强烈的否定,意为“不可能做过”。
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She can't have left school,for her bike is still here.(天津高考) 她一定没离开学校,因为她的自行车还在这儿。 The accident could have been avoided. 这场事故本来是可以避免的。 2.may/might have done 表示对过去行为的推测,意为“ 可能做过”。might 所表示的可能性比较弱,语气较委婉。此外 might have done 可表示“本可能做而实际上 未做”。 Sorry,I'm late.I might have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. 对不起,我迟到了。我可能把闹钟关掉后又睡着了。 3.must have done 表示对过去行为的推测,意为“一定, 想必”,语气十分肯定。 He must have completed his work;otherwise,he wouldn't be enjoying himself by the seaside.他一定是已经完 成工作了,否则他不会在海边玩得那么高兴了。 4.should have done 表示过去本来应该做某事而实际上 却没有做;shouldn't have done 表示过去本来不应该做某事而实际上却做了。这一用法往往含有责备的意 味。 I'm not feeling well in the stomach.I shouldn't have eaten so much fried chicken just now. 我现在觉得肚子疼,我刚才真不应该吃那么多的炸鸡的 5.ought to have done 表示过去本来应该做某事而实际上 却没有做;ought not to have done 表示过去本来不应该做某事而实际上却做了。这一用法与 should 相同, 也往往含有责备的意味。 You ought to have come to the party yesterday,but why didn't you come? 昨天你本来应该参加聚会的,可是你为什么不来? 6.needn't have done 表示本来不必做某事而实际上却做了。 —Catherine,I have cleaned the room for you. Catherine,我已替你打扫了房间。 —Thanks.You needn't have done it.I could manage it myself.谢谢。你本来不必做,我自己可以做的。 2.(2011· 长沙一模)“The interest ________ be divided into five parts,according to the agreement made by both sides,”declared the judge. A.may B.should C.must D.shall 解析:句意:律师宣布,根据双方达成的协议,利息应该被分成了五个部分。shall 在此表示协议、法 律、规定等要求中的义务,故选 D。 3.(2011· 皖南八校联考)—Could I use your computer while you are out? —Of course you ________. A.could B.should C.must D.can 解析:句意:“你不在时我能用一下你的电脑吗?”“当然可以。”以 could 开头的问句征求对方意见时,回 答用 can 表示许可。 选 D。 4.(2011· 东北三校联考)—It's hard to believe that Jack ________ have fought with the policeman. —Yes.If one ________ ask for trouble,it can't be helped. A.would;will B.must;may C.should;must D.need;dare 解析:考查情态动词。句意:“难以置信,杰克竟然与警察打了一架。”“是的。如果一个人非要找麻烦, 那就实在没法子了。”句中 should 表示“竟然”,must 表示“硬要,非要”。 选 C。 5.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)“Attention,please.Whoever can answer one of my questions ________ receive a prize,”the teacher said in class. A.might B.shall C.should D.would

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解析:考查情态动词。shall 用于第二和第三人称时,可以表示警告、命令、允诺、威胁等语气;might 表 示可能性很小;should 表示“应该(义务性)”;would 表示意志(意愿性)。由此我们不难判断这里选 B 项表 示允诺。 选 B。 6.(2011· 南通二模)—Will it take me long to get to the Sunshine Hotel? —No,it ________ take you long.It's not the rush hour now. A.shouldn't B.shan't C.mustn't D.needn't 解析:考查情态动词。根据答句的后一分句可知所填词意思是:不应该,选 A。 7.(2011· 海淀区模拟)—I had thought he would be nervous in this speech competition,but he turned out to be calm. —He ________ quite enough preparation for it. A.should do B.must do C.should have done D.must have done 解析:考查情态动词。所填部分表示对过去发生的动作进行肯定性猜测,有事实依据,所以可能性最 大,故用情态动词 must,选 D。 8.(2011· 潍坊质检)Her English composition is much too perfect.She ________ it herself,I bet. A.might have written B.can't have written C.can't write D.must have written 解析:考查情态动词。句意:她的英语作文太完美了,我打赌一定不是她写的。因为 write 是过去的动 作,表示对过去事情的否定推测用 can't+have done。故选 B 项。 9.(2011· 皖南八校联考)—When shall we meet your cousin at the station? —His plane took off 2 hours ago,and it ________ reach at 5 p.m.. A.should B.could C.must D.can 解析:考查情态动词的用法。should 的意思是“应该会,可能”,在这里表示对将来的推测。 选 A。 10.(2011· 井冈山模拟)Just as we were sitting down to have dinner,the telephone ________ ring. A.must B.could C.might D.need 解析:考查情态动词。此处的 must 表示“偏偏”。句意:我们刚坐下来吃饭,电话偏偏响了起来。 选 A。 11.(2011· 合肥模拟)—I wonder why Susan looks worried today. —I'm not sure,but she ________ a small accident driving here. A.could have B.might have C.might have had D.must have had 解析:考查情态动词表推测。答句句意:我不确定,但是,她开车来时或许出了小事故。既然是 I'm not sure“不确信”,应该用 might 来表示推测,后面给出的状语是 driving here 开车来时,所以用 might have had。 选 C。 12.(2011· 河北保定调研)—I rang you yesterday afternoon.A man answered,but I didn't recognize the voice. —Oh,it ______ my uncle.He was in my room then. A.must have been B.should have been C.must be D.should be 解析:考查情态动词的用法。句意:“昨天下午我给你打电话了。是一个男的接的,但是我没有听出他是 谁。”“哦,那一定是我叔叔。他那个时候在我的房间里。”根据题意可知选 A,表示对过去事情的肯定推 测。 13.(2011· 潍坊质检)When we worked in the same firm several years ago,we ________ often go to the cinema together.
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A.would B.will C.shall D.could 解析:考查情态动词。句意:当几年前我们在同一家公司工作时,我们常常一起去电影院。would 在这里 表示“(过去)常常”。 选 A。 14.(2011· 南通一模)He chose to teach in a western province,though he ________ in the city for a better life. A.could stay B.would stay C.could have stayed D.had stayed 解析:本题考查虚拟语气。句意:他选择到中国的西部去教书,尽管他本可以在大城市过更好的生活。 对过去的虚拟用 could+have done 的形式。 选 C。 15.(2011· 青岛模拟)—Everyone in my class passed the exam. —Oh,really?It ________ difficult. A.can't have been B.needn't have been C.must be D.mightn't be 解析:考查情态动词。对过去进行推测,表示“一定不”应使用 can't have done。句意:“我们班上每个人都 通过了考试。”“哦,真的吗?那题目一定不难。” 选 A。 虚拟语气 使用虚拟语气要注意以下几点: 1.当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生 的时间不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句”,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出相应的调整。 If you had followed my advice just now,you would be better now. 如果你刚才听了我的建议,你现在就好多了。 If you had studied hard before,you would be a college student now. 如果你以前好好学习的话,你现在早就是大学生了。 2.if 省略句。 if 引导的条件句中可省略 if,把 were,had,should 提到句首,变为倒装句式。 If I were at school again,I would study harder. →Were I at school again,I would study harder. 如果我还有上学的机会,我会更加努力地学习。 If you had come earlier,you would catch the bus. →Had you come earlier,you would catch the bus. 如果你来得早些,你就能赶上公共汽车。 If it should rain tomorrow,we would not go climbing. →Should it rain tomorrow,we would not go climbing. 如果明天下雨的话,我们就不去登山了。 3.用介词短语代替条件状语从句。常用的介词有 with, without,but for。 What would you do with a million dollars(=if you had a million dollars)? 如果你有 100 万美元,你会做什么? Without your help,we couldn't have finished the work ahead of time. =But for your help,...=If it had not been for your help,... =Had it not been for your help,... 没有你的帮助,我们不可能提前完成这项工作。 4.在含蓄条件句中,有时为了表达的需要,在虚拟语 气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句,而是通过其他手段来代替条件句。常见的有 otherwise,or,but 等。 I was ill that day.Otherwise,I would have taken part in the sports meeting.(副词) 我那天病了。否则,我就参加运动会了。 He telephoned to inform me of your birthday,or I would have known nothing about it.(连词) 他打电话通知了我你的生日,否则,我对此一点都不知道。 2.(2011· 福州模拟)We're still at the airport.If it weren't for the delayed flight,we________the concert right now.
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A.can be enjoying B.must have enjoyed C.would be enjoying D.should have enjoyed 解析:考查虚拟语气。if 条件句中的虚拟要注意:对现在状况的虚拟,条件句中用“一般过去时态,be 动 词用 were”,而主句用“should/would/could/might+do”,同时根据 right now 可知,此处是对正在进行的状 态的虚拟,故选 C 项。 3.(2011· 厦门质检)—Thank you for reminding me of the time,or I ________ late yesterday. —Don't mention it. A.should be B.would be C.will have been D.would have been 解析:考查虚拟语气。从语境可知说话人是在谈论昨天的事,因此要使用 would+have done。第一句句 意:谢谢你提醒我时间,不然昨天我就迟到了。 虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用 1.用于宾语从句中。 (1)wish 后面所跟宾语从句中的虚拟语气。 表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish+主语+动词过去式或 were 表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish+主语+had+过去分词 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish+主语+would/could+动词原形 I wish (that) I were a bird and could fly freely in the sky. 我希望我是只小鸟能在天空自由飞翔。 How I wish I had listened to my parents' advice! 我多么希望听了父母的建议! How I wish it weren't raining now. 我多希望现在没下雨啊。 (2)用于表示建议、愿望、命令等词后的宾语从句中,常 见的动词有:demand,order,require,insist,suggest,propose,advise 等。宾语从句中的虚拟语气结构 为“should+动词原形”,should 可以省略。 He suggested that we (should) start off early the next day.他建议我们第二天早点出发。

(3)在 would rather 后的宾语从句中,也用虚拟语气,其结 构为:
?过去时 ? would rather sb.+? ? ?过去完成时?从句动作先发生?

2.用于主语从句中。 it is desired/suggested/proposed/recommended/ 我宁愿他们没听到那个消息。 necessary/important/strange/natural/a pity/essential I从句,从句中的谓语动词用 would rather you hadn't told him the news yet. +that “should +动词原形 ”,should 可以省略。 It is suggested that the meeting (should) be put off till next week. 我宁愿你没把消息告诉他。 人们建议会议推迟到下周。 It is strange that he(should) have acted toward his parents like that.(act 在主句谓语动词 be 之前发生,所 以要用“should have acted”) 真奇怪他竟然那样对他父母。 3.用于表语从句和同位语从句中。 在 suggestion,proposal,order,plan,idea,request,advice 等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中要 用虚拟语气,其构成是“should+动词原形”,should 可以省略。 My idea is that we(should) think it over before accepting it. 我的意见是在接受之前要反复考虑。 We all agreed to his suggestion that we (should) go to Dalian for sightseeing. 我们都同意他让我们去大连旅游的建议。 2.(2011· 潍坊质检)The order came that the medical
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supplies ________ to Beijing for the H1N1 flu soon. A.would be sent B.should send C.be sent D.must be sent 解析:考查虚拟语气。当表示愿望、请求、建议、命令等意义的动词(如 order,suggest,command 等)后面接从句时,从句用虚拟语气,从句谓语用 should+do,should 可以省略。故选 C。 特殊句型中的虚拟语气 1.it is (high/about) time (that)...句型中的虚拟语气。 在句型“it is (high/about) time(that)...”后面也可跟虚拟 语气,从句中常用过去式。有时也用“should+动词原形”, 意为“该是……的时候了”。 It is time(that) we went home. 我们该回家了。 2.if only 引导的感叹句中的虚拟语气。 在“if only”引导的感叹句中,要求用虚拟语气,表示愿望。用过去时或“would/could/might+动词原 形”表示与现在或将来事实相反的愿望;用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反的愿望。 If only I had not been ill last week! 要是上周我没病该多好啊! 3.as if 从句中的虚拟语气。 as if 从句中,看语境是否与事实相反而选择是否使用虚拟语气。 It looks as if it's going to rain. 天看上去似乎要下雨。 The kid talks as if he were a grownup. 这孩子说起话来像个成年人似的。 (2011· 合肥质检)—Sorry,Daddy.I am not getting on well with my studies. —Well.________ you hadn't wasted so much time playing online games. A.As if B.Even if C.If only D.Only if 解析:考查虚拟语气。句意:“爸爸,对不起,我的学习情况不太好。”“哦,要是你不把那么多的时 间浪费在网络游戏上就好了。”if only(但愿)接虚拟语气,表示对过去情况的假设。as if“好像”,even if“即使”,only if“只有”,都是状语从句的连词,不符合句意。 选 C。 1.(2011· 西城区模拟)If transport costs ________ into consideration at the beginning,the factory would have been built far from its present place. A.will be taken B.were taken C.had been taken D.were being taken 解析:考查虚拟语气的用法。从主句的“would have been built”来看,这是对过去情况的虚拟,所以从 句要用过去完成时。 选 C. 2.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)—I didn't attend the lecture yesterday. —I ________,either,if my mother hadn't reminded me. A.wouldn't B.wouldn't have C.didn't D.hadn't 2.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)—I didn't attend the lecture yesterday. —I ________,either,if my mother hadn't reminded me. A.wouldn't B.wouldn't have C.didn't D.hadn't 解析:考查虚拟语气。由从句 if my mother hadn't reminded me 知,此处是对过去状况的虚拟,主句 应该用 should/would/could/might+have done 结构,选项中只有 B 项合适(I wouldn't have 是 I wouldn't have attended the lecture 的省略)。 选 B。 3.(2011· 长沙二模)If he ________ that he ______to work there then,everything would be OK now. A.insisted;be sent B.insisted;was sent C.had insisted;be sent D.had insisted;was sent

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解析:考查动词时态和虚拟语气的用法。当 insist 表示“坚持要求”时,其后的宾语从句要用虚拟语 气,从句的谓语动词用(should)do,由此可以排除 B、D 两项;另外,从句表示对过去已经发生的事 情的虚拟,谓语动词要用 had done 的形式,因此 C 项正确。 4.(2011· 南通二模)—How much of the foreign expert's speech have you understood? —Next to nothing.I wish I________harder at English. A.worked B.had worked C.would work D.were working 解析:句意:“这位外国专家的讲话你听懂了多少?”“几乎没听懂。我多希望原来能更努力地学习英 语呀。 ”wish 后的宾语从句是与过去事实相反的虚拟语气,故其谓语动词要用过去完成时形式。 选 B。 5.(2011· 海淀区二模)If we had taken such effective measures much earlier,the river ________ so seriously now. A.is not polluted B.would not be polluted C.had not been polluted D.would not have been polluted 解析:考查虚拟语气的用法。这是一个错综虚拟条件句,条件句是对过去情况的虚拟,而主句则是 对现在情况的虚拟,由此可知 B 项正确。 6.(2011· 杭州检测)—Why are you so late? —I got stuck in the traffic jam,or I ________ earlier. A.arrived B.had arrived C.would arrive D.would have arrived 解析:考查虚拟语气。从语境可知“要不是因为遇到交通堵塞,我可能早就到了”,可见说话人是在 谈论过去的情况。would have done 表示与过去事实相反的虚拟,故选 D。 7.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)________ anyone call,please tell him I'm not free. A.Must B.Can C.May D.Should 解析:句意:如果有人给我打电话,就告诉他我很忙。第一个分句是省略了 if 的虚拟条件句,补充 完整为:If anyone should call,please tell him I'm not free.,当 if 省略时,句子要倒装,故 D 项正确。 8.(2011· 苏州一模)—Did you hear Tom was criticized for his spelling mistakes in his English composition? —Yes,but a more careful person________ so many mistakes. A.wouldn't make B.needn't have made C.shouldn't make D.wouldn't have made 解析:本题考查虚拟语气。联系语境可推知,如果 Tom 能更细心点就不会犯如此多的错误。虚拟条 件句与过去事实相反,因此主句谓语动词用 wouldn't have made。选项 B 意为“过去本不必做(却做了) 某事”。 9.(2011· 龙岩检测)My mother stared at me as if she ______ me before. A.didn't see B.hasn't seen C.hadn't seen D.doesn't see 解析:句意:母亲看着我,好像以前没见过我似的。根据主句的时态判断,as if 后的状语从句中描 述的是与过去事实相反的假设,故用过去完成时。 选 C。 10.(2011· 长春调研)It is required that the students ______ mobile phones in their school,so seldom ________ them using one. A.don't use;will you see B.not use;will you see C.mustn't use;will you see D.not use;you will see

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解析:考查虚拟语气和倒装语序。英语中表示命令、建议或要求的动词或名词后面的从句中通常使 用“should+动词原形”形式的虚拟语气,should 可以省略。seldom 是否定副词,位于句首时,句子要 用部分倒装。 选 B。 11.(2011· 福州检测)The boy insisted ________ to watch the football match to be held next month in Beijing. A.on taking B.to be taken C.that he would be taken D.that he be taken 解析:考查虚拟语气。根据题意可知 insist 在这里表示“执意,坚持”的意思,因此空格处应该使用 that he(should) be taken。 选 D。 12.(2011· 海淀区期末)Frankly,I'd rather you ________ anything about it for the time being.The boss is very angry. A.don't do B.hadn't done C.didn't do D.haven't done 解析:句意:说实话我宁愿你现在什么都不做,老板现在很生气。would rather 后的宾语从句中要用 虚拟语气,用一般过去时表示与现在或将来事实相反,用过去完成时表示与过去事实相反。根据语 境,此处表示与现在事实相反,故用一般过去时。 选 C。 13.(2011· 南通二模)Without the help of the local guide, we ________ our destination ahead of time. A.had not reached B.will not reach C.cannot have reached D.could not have reached 解析:句意:要不是当地向导的帮助,我们不可能提前到达目的地。此题是 without 引导的含蓄条件 句,表示与过去事实相反时,主句中的谓语动词用“would/could/might/should+have done”的形式。 选 D。 14.(2011· 海淀区模拟)I suggested to my mother that she ________ a drawing club after her retirement from teaching. A.join B.joins C.joined D.would join 解析:考查虚拟语气。主句谓语动词是 suggest,其后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,即从句谓语动词用 “should+动词原形”形式,should 可以省略,故选 A。 15.(2011· 海淀区模拟)—Shall we take the 10∶30 train? —No.If we took that train,we ________ too late. A.arrive B.arrived C.will arrive D.would arrive 解析:考查虚拟语气。根据条件状语从句的谓语动词可知此处是表示与现在事实相反的虚拟语气, 主句谓语动词应用 would/should/could/might+动词原形,选 D。 数词与主谓一致 2.(2011· 海淀区模拟)More than five ________ doctors and rescuers had got to Yushu County by that time. A.thousand B.thousands C.thousand of D.thousands of 解析:考查数词。hundred,thousand,million 等数词前用数词来修饰时,用单数,且修饰名词时后 不跟介词 of,故选 A。 3.(2011· 苏锡调研)________ of the people on the Net ________ China's economy is among the strongest in the world. A.Fourfifth;believes B.Fourfifth;believe C.Fourfifths;believe D.Fourfifths;believes 解析:考查分数表达和主谓一致。4/5→fourfifths。题干主语是(网络上)4/5 的人,是复数,故这里谓 语动词用 believe。 选 C。 主谓一致 1.就近一致原则。 (1)由 or,either...or...,neither...nor...,not only...but also... 等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常与最近的主语在单复数上保持一致。
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Either you or one of your students is to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow.(2009· 湖南高考) 要么是你或者你的一名学生应该出席明天的会议。 Are neither you nor I fit for the work? 你和我都不适合这份工作吗? [注意] “with/along with/together with/including/but/except/like/as well as/no more than/besides/rather than +名词”置于主语后,谓语动词一般仍与前面的名词在单复数上保持一致。 Henry,rather than Jane and John,is responsible for the loss. 损失的责任应由亨利而不是由简和约翰来承担。 (2)由 there,here 引起的主语不止一个时,谓语通常和最 邻近的主语保持一致。 There is a pencil and two pens in the pencilbox. 文具盒内有一支铅笔和两支钢笔。 2.意义一致原则。 (1)谓语动词用单数的情况 ①由连词 and 连接的并列成分指的是同一概念,兼具身份或匹配出现。 The worker and writer is from Wuhan. 那个工人兼作家来自武汉。 ②“no/each/every/many a+单数名词+and+no/each/every/many a+单数名词”作主语。 Every man and every woman has a good reason to be proud of the work done by their fathers. 每一个人都很有理由为他们的父亲所从事的职业感到骄傲。 ③非谓语动词、名词性从句作主语。 Persuading him to join us seems really hard. 劝他加入我们看起来确实难。 To go to bed early and to rise early is a good habit. 早睡早起是一个好的习惯。 Whatever was left was taken away. 无论剩下了什么都被拿走了。 [注意] what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词一般用单数形式,若从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数形 式,则谓语动词用复数形式。 What they need are books. 他们需要的是书。 (2)谓语动词用复数的情况 ①由 and 连接的两个并列成分表示两个不同的概念。 Both bread and butter are sold out. 面包和黄油都卖完了。 ②people,police,cattle 等有生命的集体名词作主语。 People read for pleasure during their spare time. 人们闲暇之余的阅读是为了消遣。 3.(2011· 厦门质检)Either the ways or the time ________ yet,but you may ask the headmaster for some information. A.isn't decided B.hasn't decided C.aren't decided D.haven't decided 解析:考查语态与主谓一致。本句的主语由 either...or...连接,谓语动词应该与 or 后面的名词保持一 致,使用单数;根据语境可知,应该使用被动语态。 选 A。 1.(2011· 陕西宝鸡质检)I was ________ with my son about his carelessness,which ________ the main cause of his failure in maths. A.annoyed;were B.amazed;was C.amazed;were D.annoyed;was 解析:考查形容词和主谓一致。句意:我对儿子的粗心很生气,这是他数学不及格的主要原因。关 系代词 which 指代先行词 carelessness,谓语动词应该用单数,先排除 A 和 C 项;annoyed 表示“生气 的”,符合句意。 选 D。 2.(2011· 成都模拟)The city government is planning to build a factory to deal with the industry waste,but when and where to build it________. A.haven't been decided B.aren't decided
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C.hadn't been decided D.hasn't been decided 解析:考查时态、语态及主谓一致。句意:市政府正计划修建一个处理工业废物的工厂,但是何时 何地修建还没有确定。句意表明谓语用现在完成时的被动语态。不定式短语作主语时谓语动词用单 数。选 D。 3.(2011· 郑州质量检测)Buying clothes ________ a hard job because the clothes a person likes ________ not very often fit him or her. A.are;do B.is;does C.are;does D.is;do 解析:考查主谓一致。主句是动名词短语作主语,谓语动词要用单数形式 is;从句的主语是复数名 词 clothes,因此用 do。故选 D。 4.(2011· 兰州模拟)The exercises are extremely difficult, but half of the class ________ them ahead of time. A.has already finished B.will finish C.have already finished D.finishes 解析:考查时态及主谓一致。语意表明谓语用现在完成时;class,family,army,government, group,team,staff,committee,nation,company 等集合名词作主语强调整体时,谓语动词用单数形 式,如果强调个体,则用复数形式。句中强调个体,所以用复数。 选 C。 5.(2011· 海淀区模拟)Hawking became worldfamous in________. A.his thirties in the 1970's B.the thirties in his 1970 C.his thirties in 1970's D.the thirties during the 1970 解析:考查数词的用法。in one's thirties 意为“在某人三十多岁”时,in/during the 1970's 意为“在 20 世 纪 70 年代”。 选 A。 6.(2011· 河北保定调研)More than one high official ______ by the police since the mayor was shot dead. A.has been questioned B.have been questioned C.was questioned D.were questioned 解析:考查主谓一致和时态。“more than one+单数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式,又由 since 引导的从句的时态可知,主句时态应为现在完成时。故选 A。 7.(2011· 南昌调研)The construction of the two new railway lines ________ by now. A.has been completed B.have been completed C.has completed D.have completed 解析:句子的主语是“The construction”,谓语动词应该用单数形式,且由句意可知,此处应用被动语 态,故选 A。 8.(2011· 浙江金华联考)Nowadays,a large number of women,especially those who come from the countryside,________ in the clothing industry. A.is working B.works C.work D.worked 解析:句子的主语是“a large number of women”,谓语动词应用复数形式。其中“especially those who come from the countryside”是插入成分,作 women 的同位语。故选 C。 9.(2011· 唐山模拟)________your brother or you to blame for the broken TV set? A.Be B.Are C.Is D.Were 解析:考查主谓一致的就近原则。离谓语动词最近的是“your brother”,故谓语动词应该用单数形 式。 选 C。 10.(2011· 江南五校联考)To play table tennis and to go swimming ________ good for character training. A.is B.are C.was D.were
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解析:此处是两个动词不定式短语作主语,表示的不是同一个概念,谓语动词要用复数形式,且句 中没有明显的表示过去的时间状语,故要用一般现在时。 选 B。 11.(2011· 南京模拟)What a pity!All his property, the books,the pictures and the house,________ consumed by the big fire. A.were B.was C.had been D.have been 解析:本题考查主谓一致和时态。本句的主语是 all his property,property 表示财产,是不可数名 词,因此谓语动词用单数形式。句中的 the books,the pictures and the house 是同位语,对 property 进 行补充说明。事情发生在说话之前,故用一般过去时。 选 B。 12.(2011· 海淀模拟)—Have you heard that Jones,along with her parents,________ to Hainan for the winter vacation? —Really?No wonder I haven't seen her these days. A.has been B.have been C.has gone D.have gone 解析:考查主谓一致。句子的主语是 Jones,是单数,所以所填词用单数形式;根据应答句意思可知 所填词意思是“去了”,故用 has gone,选 C。 13.(2011· 河北保定调研)Not the teacher but the students ________ looking forward to seeing the film. A.is B.are C.am D.be 解析:句意:不是老师而是学生们期盼着看那场电影。not...but...连接并列主语时,谓语动词的形式 应就近一致,故选 B。 14.(2011· 浙江金华联考)Up till now,the population of the town ________ to more than twice what it used to be,making it the largest town in that country. A.has grown B.have grown C.grows D.are growing 解析:句意:到目前为止,这个小镇的人口已增加到以前的两倍多,这使它成为该县人口最多的城 镇。population 表示“人口数”,作主语时,谓语动词要用单数形式;由 up till now 判断用现在完成 时,故选 A。 15.(2011· 南昌调研)As is known to all,the number of college students ________ growing fast with the economic development in the past years. A.is B.are C.has been D.have been 解析:句意:众所周知,在过去的几年中,随着经济的发展,大学生的数量增长很快。“the number of+复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;由时间状语 in the past years 判断用现在完成进行 时。 选 C。 定语从句 关系词的选择 关系词的选择主要依据先行词在从句中所作的成分,先行词在从句中作主语、定语、宾语时,选择 关系代词(who,whom,that,which,whose);先行词在从句中作状语时,应选择关系副词(where, when,why)。 (1)that、which 代替的先行词是表示物的名词或代词,在 从句中可作主语、宾语等;which 还可以引导非限制性定语从句,代替主句的内容,that 则不能。 Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others,which,of course,made the others envy him. 海伦对最小的儿子比对其他的儿子好得多,这一点当然让他们很嫉妒。 (2)who,whom,that 这些词代替的先行词是表示人的名 词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等。 Women who drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those who don't.(who 在从句中作主语) 每天喝两杯多咖啡的妇女患有心脏病的机会比不喝咖啡的妇女高。 He is the man whom/that I am waiting for. 他就是我正在等待的那个人。(whom/that 在从句中作宾语)
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(3)关系副词 when,where,why 的先行词是表示时间、地 点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。具体用法如下:when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语; where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语;why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 The reason why I don't trust him is that he often tells lies.我不信任他的原因是他常常撒谎。 [注意] 先行词是时间名词或地点名词时,如果在从句中不作状语,则不能用 when 或 where 引导定 语从句,而要用 which/that。 I still remember the day which/that we spent together in the city. 我仍然记得我们一起在那座城市度过的那一天。(这里 which/that 指代 the day,作 spent 的宾语)。 2.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)—Where did you find Tom? —It was in the house ________I used to live. A.that B.which C.where D.what 解析:本题考查定语从句。由语境知答语是个强调句的省略句,补充完整为:It was in the house where I used to live that I found Tom.。被强调部分是地点状语 in the house,后接定语从句,live 是不 及物动词,不需要宾语,where 在定语从句中作地点状语。故 C 项正确。 3.(2011· 石家庄二检)After years abroad,he returned to his hometown,________he spent his childhood. A.which B.when C.that D.where 解析:考查定语从句关系词的用法。where 引导非限制性定语从句,并在从句中充当地点状语,先行 词是 hometown。 选 D。 Whose 和 of whom, of which 引导的定语从句 whose 是一个表示所属关系的词,在定语从句中作定语,相当于 my,his,her,its,their 等,修饰人 或物。of which 可以代替 whose 指物,词序一般是:the+名词+of which 或 of which+the+名词。of whom 可以代替 whose 指人,词序是:the+名词+of whom。 This is the scientist whose name is known all over the country.=This is the scientist the name of whom is known all over the country. 这就是那位全国知名的科学家。 The classroom,whose door is broken,will soon be repaired.=The classroom,the door of which is broken,will soon be repaired. 门破了的那间教室很快就会被维修。 Many children,whose parents are away working in big cities,are taken good care of in the village.(2009· 安徽高考) 很多孩子在这个村里都得到了很好的照顾,他们的父母远在大城市里打工。 3.(2011· 福建联考)The Gate of Fortune,from ________top visitors can enjoy a wonderful sea view,will attract lots of tourists. A.which B.whose C.where D.its 解析:考查定语从句。top 和先行词 the Gate of Fortune 存在从属关系,因此应该使用 whose,whose top 也可以表示为 the top of which 或 of which the top。 选 B。 “介词+which/whom”中介词的选择 1.与定语从句中的动词构成搭配。 The man (who/whom/that)I talked about at the meeting is from Beijing University.=The man about whom I talked at the meeting is from Beijing University. 在会议中我与之谈话的那个人是从北京大学来的。 In the dark street,there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. 在漆黑的大街上没有一个人能为她提供帮助。 [注意] 有些固定短语中的介词不能拆开移到关系代词前。 This is the person(who/whom/that)you are looking for. 这就是你找的那个人。 2.与定语从句所修饰的先行词构成搭配。 He built a telescope,through which he could study the skies. 他架起一架望远镜,通过它他可以研究天空。
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He came to a farm,on which he finally settled. 他来到一个农场,最终在那里定居下来了。 2.(2011· 长沙一模)We have gathered nearly 100,000 quilts,________ up to half have gone to the floodhit areas. A.with which B.in which C.for which D.of which 解析:句意:我们已经收集了十万床被子,它们当中的半数已经被送往洪灾地区了。which 指代先行 词 nearly 100,000 quilts,带入定语从句为:up to half of them(=the 100,000 quilts)have gone to the floodhit areas。 选 D。3.(2011· 金华十校联考)American women usually identify their best friend as someone ________ they can talk frequently. A.who B.about which C.as D.with whom 解析:考查定语从句。with whom 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 someone,talk 与 with 构成固定搭配, 表示“与……交谈”。 选 D。 As 和 which 在引导定语从句时的区别 as 与 which 都可以代指主句中的一部分或整个句子的内容,有时可以互换。 He married her,as(which) was natural. 很自然地,他和她结婚了。 但在下列情况下一般只能用 as。 (1)as 引导定语从句可以放在句首,而 which 则不能。 As we know,more than seventy percent of the earth is covered with water. 正如我们所知,地球表面的 70%以上由水覆盖。 (2)as 可表示“正如,正像”,而 which 无此意。 此时,as 从句中常有 know,expect,happen,point out,plan,suggest 等单词或短语。 He came back home late,as we expected. 正如我们所料,他回家晚了。 As is pointed out,this is a grammar problem. 正如所指出的,这是个语法问题。 People generally agree that American English differs from British English a bit,as is said above. 正如上面所说,大部分人都同意美式英语与英式英语有点不同。 (3)当先行词被 the same,such 修饰时,定语从句需用 as 引导。 I bought the same book as you have. 我买了一本跟你的一样的书。 This is such an easy question as every one can work out. =This is such an easy question that every one can work it out. 这是这么一个简单的问题,每个人都能解决。 He'll marry as pretty a girl as he can find. 他将与他能发现的最漂亮的女孩结婚。 [注意] 当先行词被 the same 修饰时,that 也可引导定语从句,但意义有所不同。 the same...as(指同样或同类的),the same...that(指同一个) This is the same watch as I lost. 这块表与我丢的那块一样。 This is the same watch that I lost. 这就是我丢的那块表。 2.(2011· 烟台检测)Mount Wuyi is such an attractive place of interest ________ everyone likes to visit. A.that B.as C.which D.what 解析:as everyone likes to visit 是定语从句,修饰先行词 place,as 在从句中作 visit 的宾语,此句是 “such...as...”结构。如果理解为结果状语从句而选择 A 项,需要在题干中 visit 后加上 it。故选 B。 3.(2011· 南京第三次模拟)Our teacher urges us to form a good habit of learning,________we think will benefit us in the long term. A.what B.that C.which D.who
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解析:本题考查定语从句。本题属于非限制性定语从句,从句意可知关系代词指代 a good habit of learning,在从句中作主语,因此选择 which。 选 C。 定语从句的几个难点 1.“介词+where”引导的定语从句。 有时我们可以见到“介词+where”引导的定语从句,此时要和“介词+which”引导的定语从句从意思上 加以区别。 His head soon appeared out of the window,from where he saw nothing but trees. 他的头很快从窗口探了出来,从那里除了树木他什么也看不到。(from where 相当于 from out of the window,而不是 from the window) China is the birth place of kites,from where kite flying spread to Japan,Korea,Thailand and India. 中国是风筝的故乡,从这里放风筝传到了日本、朝鲜、泰国和印度。 2.分隔式定语从句。 定语从句有时不直接紧靠着先行词,中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。 There is an expression in his eyes that I can't understand. 我不能理解他眼中表达的东西。 The days are gone forever when the Chinese people were looked down upon. 中国人民被轻视的日子一去不复返了。 3.抽象地点类先行词后的定语从句。 当先行词为 stage,situation,point,case 等词且关系词在从句中作状语,这时用 where 引导定语从 句。 They have reached the point where they have to separate with each other. 他们已经到了必须分手的地步。 I can think of many cases where students obviously know a lot of English words and expressions but can't write a good essay. 我能想出许多这样的场合,很显然学生知道许多英语词汇但是却写不出一篇好文章。 2.(2011· 重庆模拟)He is confident,________,in my opinion,is most important in society. A.how B.that C.what D.which 解析:考查定语从句。此处是 which 引导的非限制性定语从句,which 代指主句的内容,在从句中充 当主语。句中的 in my opinion 是插入语。 选 D。 3.(2011· 福建龙岩检测)Remember that there is still one point ________ we must make clear at the conference tomorrow. A.where B.why C.when D.that 解析:考查定语从句。解定语从句题的关键是:在主句中找出先行词,该句的先行词是 one point, 然后把先行词“代入”从句中,判断其在从句中的“地位”和“作用”,这里先行词在从句中作 make 的宾 语,所以用关系代词 that/which 引导定语从句并在从句中作宾语,据此选 D 项。 选 D。 5.(2011· 南通模拟)According to the report,as many as 50 percent of patients do not take medicine ________ directed,________has drawn doctors' attention. A.when;it B.as;what C.that;and D.as;which 解析:句意:据报道多达 50%的病人不按照规定吃药,这引起了医生的注意。________directed 是 as it is directed 的省略形式,as 表示“像……一样”;后半句是非限制性定语从句,which 代指前面整句话 的内容,在从句中作主语。选 D。 6.(2011· 南通二模)I can hardly remember any occasions ________ I get caught in a traffic jam in our town. A.which B.that C.where D.when 解析:考查定语从句。先行词是 occasions,关系词在从句中作状语,指时间,故选 D。 7.(2011· 哈尔滨检测)To my great surprise,yesterday, he asked me a few questions ________ there were no answers. A.to which B.about which C.in which D.on which
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解析:句意:昨天,让我感到非常惊讶的是,他问了我一些根本没有答案的问题。“介词+关系代 词”引导定语从句,其中的介词在本题中由 answer 与 to 搭配而定,故引导词用 to which。 选 A。 8.(2011· 苏州一模)Children are easily exposed to the Internet culture ________ violence increases to such a degree that parents don't allow them to go online. A.which B.whose C.where D.that 解析:本题考查定语从句。由语境知,孩子们很容易受网络文化的影响,而网络中充满了暴力以至 于家长不允许他们上网了。定语从句中句子成分完整,故用 where 作地点状语。 选 C。 9.(2011· 海淀区模拟)When I got to New York,I had to attend a school for students ________ first language was not English. A.who B.which C.whose D.where 解析:考查定语从句。先行词是 students,关系词在从句中作定语,选 C。 10.(2011· 济南模拟)She's in a hopeless situation, ________ we will keep a very close eye on. A.where B.when C.which D.that 解析:考查定语从句。在此,定语从句的先行词是 a hopeless situation,把先行词“代入”从句中,判 断其在从句中的“地位”和“作用”,此处关系词在从句中作 on 的宾语,同时这里又是非限制性定语从 句,所以应该用关系代词 which,选 C 项。 11.(2011· 济南模拟)The time is drawing near________food raised in space will directly benefit human beings. A.where B.when C.whether D.why 解析:考查定语从句。句意:在太空种植的食物直接使地球上的人类受益的时刻快要来了。when 引 导的定语从句修饰先行词 the time。 选 B。 12.(2011· 烟台四校联考)It wasn't such a good present ________ my cousin had promised me. A.that B.as C.which D.what 解析:考查定语从句。句意:这不是我表兄曾经答应给我买的那样好的礼物。先行词前面有 such, 因此选择 as。 选 B。 13.(2011· 合肥检测)After graduation I'd like to find a job ________ I can use what I have learnt at school. A.whose B.which C.where D.that 解析:考查定语从句。where 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 job,且 where 在从句中作状语,表示地 点。 选 C。 14.(2011· 南京二模)I admire my English teacher.I can remember very few occasions ________ she stopped working because of ill health. A.that B.when C.where D.which 解析:考查定语从句。根据句意“我记得她很少因生病而停止工作”可知,定语从句引导词在从句中 作状语,故用 when。 选 B。15.(2011· 东北三校一模)There are 51 students in Class Three,________failed in the test. A.all of which B.all of them C.none of whom D.none of them 解析:考查定语从句。后半句是非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 students,应用 whom 引导。因为前 后两句之间没有并列连词,所以 B、D 两项不正确。 选 C。 名词性从句

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