Wedding Ever since ancient times, there has been a saying that the three most delightful moments in one's life come with success in the imperial examination, marriage and the birth of a s
on. From the Qin (221 BC – 206 BC) to Qing (1644 – 1911) Dynasties, the feudal system dominated over two thousands years. During this period, the importance of getting married was far more than that a person found his better half. For the male side, it determined the prosperity and even the future fame of their family; while for the female side, it meant that parents lost the chance of seeing their daughter for a long time. Thus to choose an ideal partner was vital for both the individual and the family. In feudal society, a marriage would be decided not by a young couple's love, but by their parents' desires. Only after a matchmaker's introduction and when parents considered the two family conditions were similar and could be matched, would the marriage procedures go forward. Conditions that should be taken into consideration included wealth and social status. If a boy's family was well-off or an official family, his parents would never permit him to marry a girl from a poor family. Essential to the marriage process were the commonly recognized 'three Letters and six etiquettes'. The three letters were the betrothal letter, the gift letter with a gifts list and the wedding letter used on the day the bridegroom met his bride at her home. Six etiquettes then led to the final wedding ceremony. Proposing: when a boy's parents intended to make a match, they would invite a matchmaker to propose with them at the girl's home. It was the custom that the first time matchmaker went as a guest they could not be served tea in order not to 'lighten the marriage'. If the proposal was successful, however, the matchmaker (usually a woman) would be rewarded with profuse gifts and feasts to show the two families' gratitude. Many unmarried young people could not see and were unfamiliar with each other till their wedding day. Birthday Matching: after knowing the girl's full name and birthday, they would ask a fortune teller to predict whether that could match their son's and whether there would be a happy marriage. The Chinese zodiac would be surely taken into consideration. Presenting Betrothal Gifts: if the match was predicted to be auspicious, the matchmaker would take gifts to the girl's parents and tell them that the process could continue. Presenting Wedding Gifts: This was the grandest etiquette of the whole process of engagement. Prolific gifts were presented again to the girl's family, symbolizing respect and kindness towards the girl’s family as well as the capability of providing a good life for the girl. Selecting the Wedding Date: the boy's family asked the fortune-teller to choose a date according to the astrological book when it would be proper and propitious to hold the wedding ceremony. Wedding Ceremony: the wedding ceremony began with the groom and his party meeting the bride in her home. Before this day the bride's dowry would have been sent to the boy's house. The dowry represented her social status and wealth, and would be displayed at the boy's house. The most common dowries included scissors like two butterflies never separating, rulers indicating acres of fields, and vases for peace and wealth. Before the meeting party's arrival, the bride would be helped by a respectable old woman to tie up her hair with colorful cotton threads. She would wear a red skirt as Chinese believed red foreshadowed delight. When the party arrived, the bride, covered by a red head-kerchief, must cry with her mother to show her reluctance to leave home. She would be led or carried by her elder brother to the sedan. In the meeting party the bridegroom would meet a series of difficulties intentionally set in his path. Only after coping with these could he pass to see his wife-to-be. On the arrival of the sedan at the wedding place, there would be music and firecrackers. The bride would be led along the red carpet in a festive atmosphere. The bridegroom, also in a red gown, would kowtow three times to
worship the heaven, parents and spouse. Then the new couple would go to their bridal chamber and guests would be treated to a feast. Wine should be poured to the brim of a cup but must not spill over. On the night of the wedding day, there was a custom in some places for relatives or friends to banter the newlyweds. Though this seemed a little noisy, both of them dropped shyness and got familiar with each other. On the third day of the marriage, the new couple would go back to the bride's parents' home. They would be received with also a dinner party including relatives. Of course, marriage customs differed by region, but these were the most common. They have been maintained for thousands of years, but in recent years (especially after the founding of modern China), people have tended to discard some of the details and advocate simplified marriage procedures and wedding ceremonies THE COMPARISON AND STUDY OF THE CHINESE AND WESTERN CULTURAL CUSTOMS——NUPTIAL （中西方文化风俗比较研究----婚礼 ） Western wedding is a romantic type, the whole wedding from start to finish to the full of romantic. The bride's [braid] dress is generally white, the groom [gru:m] 新郎 is black dress so that the whole wedding was the solemn ['s? l?m] 隆重 seriousness ['si?ri?snis]严肃. Marriage to the church [t? ?:t? ] 教堂 to the whole wedding ceremony ['serim?ni]仪式、典礼 is the most important link. First, as the wedding march [mɑ:t? ] 进行曲 rhythm['ri? ?m]律动、 节奏, the bride pull her father's hands go before the groom by her father she personally ['p?:s?n?li] delivered [di'liv?] 递给 the hands of the groom. pastor ['pɑ:st?]牧师 will ask the bride and groom on the other side to make a lifetime commitment [k?'mitm?nt]交托、委付, this is the climax ['klaim?ks]高潮 of the whole wedding. then they will be priests [pri:st] and the blessing ['blesi?] of everyone, exchanged marriage rings and kiss each other. The bride spent the hands of the ball were not ordinary['? :dnri]平凡普通 furnishings['f?:ni? i?]装备、服饰. At the end of the wedding, the bride would throw the female guests arrived at the scene [si:n]场面, who received curd, who is a married person, which makes the entire ceremony be heard laughing in the end. 西方的婚礼是属于浪漫型的,整个婚礼从 开始到结束到充满了浪漫气息。 新娘的礼服一般为白色,新郎是黑色的礼服,使整个婚礼显的庄重严肃.到教堂去 举行结婚仪式是整个婚礼最重要的环节.首先,随着婚礼进行曲的节奏,新娘挽她的父亲的手走到新郎面前,由她 的父亲将她亲手交到新郎手中.牧师会要求新郎新娘对对方作出一辈子的承诺,这也是整个婚礼的高潮.然后他 们会在牧师和众人的祝福下,交换结婚戒指并亲吻对方。而新娘手中的花球也不是一般的装饰用品.在婚礼结束 时,新娘就会抛给到场的女宾客,如果谁接到花球,谁就是下一个结婚的人,这就使整个婚礼在欢声笑语中结束了。 China is different from the wedding on the West, the entire [in'tai?] wedding's main colours are red, this is also the representative [repri'zent?tiv]典型的 of the traditional [tr?'di? ?n?l]传统的 Chinese festivity colours. This change will enable [in'eibl ]赋予 the wedding jubilation [,d? u:bil'ei? ?n]喜庆. In the traditional wedding, the bride wearing red Luoyi 罗衣 general, wearing Fengguan 凤冠, still above a red scarf[sk? :f]. While the groom wearing red long gown mandarin ['m?nd?rin] 官吏 jacket, wearing a red cap along. Palanquin [p?l?nki:n?] bride rode in th red, the e groom on horseback in front, with matchmaking ['m?t? ,meik?]媒人 and Yingqing teams to the groom's house in Baitang. Parents sitting on the two sides appear, and appear next married bride and groom. Entire wedding presided over by the master of ceremonies ['serim?ni]仪式, in his command , a bride and groom Baitiande, Xiabai GAO Tang, and then a husband and wife Baidoa, into the bridal chamber.Noisy wedding is the climax of wedding, the bride and groom first to wait for the wedding, the groom and guests on the outstanding hospitality [,h? spi't?liti]好客、殷勤, Jiuzufanbao, in a lot of the groom greeted [gri:t]招呼 came to the wedding. everybody started Noisy wedding, the bride and groom all stirred up 激起了 trouble in the next game?? do all this in a whole wedding laughter ended. 中国的婚礼就不 同于西方,整个婚礼的主色调是红色,这也是中国的传统的代表喜气的颜色。 这也就使婚礼变的喜气洋洋.在传统 婚礼中,新娘一般穿着红色罗衣,头戴凤冠,上面还有一块红色丝巾.而新郎就穿着红色的长衫马褂,头戴红色大沿 帽。 新娘乘着大红花轿在后,新郎骑着马在前,随着红娘和迎亲队伍到新郎家中拜堂.双方家长坐在上堂,而新郎新
娘在下堂成婚.整个婚礼由司仪主持,在他的指挥下,新郎新娘一拜天地,下拜高堂,然后夫妻对拜,送入洞房.闹洞 房是婚礼的高潮,新娘先回洞房等待新郎,而新郎就在外招待客人,酒足饭饱后,新郎在一大堆人的簇拥下来到洞 房.众人就开始闹洞房了,新郎新娘在大家的起哄下做各种游戏??这样整个婚礼就在一片笑声中结束了。 By studying the differences between Chinese and Western wedding, I understand their characteristics [,k?rikt?'ristik]特征: Western wedding is pure romantic, and China is happy wedding; Western wedding is feeling valued, and China values the ceremony ['serim?ni]. In the West because of their different customs, have also formed their own characteristics wedding customs. Though, have different customs, but no matter where the wedding was all full of blessings and laughter. 通过研究中西方婚礼的差异,我了解了他们各自的特点:西方的婚礼是纯洁浪漫的,而中国的婚礼 是喜气洋洋的;西方的婚礼看重的是感觉,而中国看重的是仪式。 中西方由于他们的风俗习惯不同,也就形成了有 各自特点的婚礼风俗.虽然有着不同的习俗,但是无论是哪里的婚礼都充满了祝福和笑 Chinese wedding is mainly folk and traditional meaning activity content more, relatives and friends in various folk together under the "program", such as DingQin meal, do HuiMen etc various quilt, folk activities; Western wedding is key in church testimony by father, many friends and relatives gather for a party just, a Chinese wedding activities projects, relative or comparative contracted. You can follow the idea to do the corresponding deduce. 中国婚礼主要 是民间传统意义的活动内容，亲戚和朋友在一起的各种民间在“程序” ，如 dingqin 饭，做 huimen 等各种棉被， 民间活动；西方的婚礼是在教堂的关键证词的父亲，许多亲戚朋友聚为一方，中国婚礼活动项目相对或比较简 约。你可以遵循的理念做相应的推导 Western wedding is a romantic type, the whole wedding from start to finish to the full of romantic. The bride's dress is generally white, the groom is black dress so that the whole wedding was the solemn seriousness. Marriage to the church to the whole wedding ceremony is the most important link. First, as the wedding march rhythm, the bride pull her father's hands go before the groom by her father she personally delivered the hands of the groom. pastor will ask the bride and groom on the other side to make a lifetime commitment, this is the climax of the whole wedding. then they will be priests and the blessing of everyone, exchanged marriage rings and kiss each other. The bride spent the hands of the ball were not ordinary furnishings. At the end of the wedding, the bride would throw the female guests arrived at the scene, who received curd, who is a married person, which makes the entire ceremony be heard laughing in the end. China is different from the wedding on the West, the entire wedding's main colours are red, this is also the representative of the traditional Chinese festivity colours. This change will enable the wedding jubilation. In the traditional wedding, the bride wearing red Luoyi general, wearing Fengguan, still above a red scarf. While the groom wearing red long gown mandarin jacket, wearing a red cap along. Palanquin bride rode in the red, the groom on horseback in front, with matchmaking and Yingqing teams to the groom's house in Baitang. Parents sitting on the two sides appear, and appear next married bride and groom. Entire wedding presided over by the master of ceremonies, in his command , a bride and groom Baitiande, Xiabai GAO Tang, and then a husband and wife Baidoa, into the bridal chamber.Noisy wedding is the climax of wedding, the bride and groom first to wait for the wedding, the groom and guests on the outstanding hospitality, Jiujufanbao, in a lot of the groom greeted came to the wedding. everybody started Noisy wedding, the bride and groom all stirred up trouble in the next game…… do all this in a whole wedding laughter ended. By studying the differences between Chinese and Western wedding, I understand their characteristics: Western wedding is pure romantic, and China is happy wedding; Western wedding is feeling valued, and China values the ceremony. In the West because of their different customs, have also formed their own characteristics wedding customs. Though, have different customs, but no matter where the wedding was all full of blessings and laughter. 关于婚礼的英语词汇 在英语中，tie the knot 就是结婚的意思，例如：Some couples fly off Las Vegas to tie the knot. （一些情侣专程飞 到拉斯维加斯结婚。 ）此外，结婚还可以用 marry; get married; wed 来表示。
arry 是结婚的意思，可是要注意的是，“我要结婚”不能说成 I will marry. “结婚”老外不单讲 marry，而说 get married. 因为单讲 marry 是表示嫁或娶的意思，是一个及物动词，必须要宾语。例如“我要娶她”就是 I will marry her. 。那么“结了婚”就可以说 We were married 或是 We got married. 这二种都很常用。 结婚还可以说 get hitched. 例如 Let's get hitched.（我们结婚吧。 ）另外，可以说 make a big commitment，原 意“作一个重大的承诺”， 婚姻不就是一个重大的承诺吗？所以你可以说 I've decided to make a big commitment to him. 意思就是“我决定要嫁给他了。” 婚礼前通常来宾会将礼金即喜钱 （gift of money to the couple） 送给新郎新娘， 而婚礼仪式 （wedding ceremony） 中最重要的部分则是交换结婚戒指（a wedding band） ，仪式结束后便开始婚宴（Wedding dinner, a wedding reception） 。 现在中国有越来越多的年青人趋向于西方式的婚礼。 教堂婚礼的重头戏就是由牧师带领两位新人作结婚誓言 （wedding vows） 通常是这样的一段话：I， Ross， take thee Rachel to be my wedded wife， to have and to hold ， from this day forward， for better or for worse， for richer or for poorer， in sickness and in health， to love and to cherish， till death do us part. （我 Ross，愿娶你 Rachel，成为我的太太，从今以后，不论是好是坏，富有还 是贫穷，悲伤还是快乐，我会好好爱你，珍惜你，直到死亡将我们分开。 注：thee 是古英文，也就是 you 的 ） 意思。 其它相关词汇： wedding reception trousseau usher vows say one's vows wedding day bride bridegroom or groom
officiator pastor bestman bridesmaid honeymoon wedding dress/gown wedding march
高考英语阅读理解专项训练——习俗类 (1) CARDIFF, Wales Poets, singers and musicians from across the globe gathered in Wales to celebrate the tradition(传统) of storytelling. “It might seem strange that people still want to listen in age of watching television, but this is an unusual art form whose time has come again,” said David Ambrose, director of Beyond the Border, an international storytelling festival(节) in Wales. “Some of the tales, like those the Inuit from Canada, are thousands years old. So our storytellers have come from distant lands to connect us with the distance of time,” he said early this month. Two Inuit women, both in their mid 60s, are among the few remaining who can do Kntadjait, or throat singing, which has few words and much sound. Their art is governed by the cold of their surroundings, forcing them to say little but listen attentively. Ambrose started the festival in 1993, after several years of working with those reviving (coming back into use or existence) storytelling in Wales. “It came out of a group of people who wanted to reconnect with traditions. and as all the Welsh are storytellers, it was in good hands here.” Ambrose said. 1. Ambrose believes that the art of storytelling _______.
A. will be more popular than TV B. will be popular again C. started in Wales D. are in the hands of some old people 2. From the tales told by the Inuit, people can learn _______. A. about their life as early as thousands of years ago B. why they tell the stories in a throat-singing way C. how cold it has been where the Inuit live D. how difficult it is to understand the Inuit 3. According to the writer, which of the following is NOT true? A. Storytelling once stopped in Wales. B. Storytelling has a long history in Wales. C. Storytelling is always well received in Wales. D. Storytelling did not come back until 1993 in Wales. 4. The underlined phrase in good hands means _______. A. controlled by rich people B. grasped by good storytellers C. taken good care of D. protected by kind people 【答案解析】 短文介绍了威尔斯故事节的有关情况。 1. B。推断题。根据 …but this is an unusual art form whose time has come again 可以推断这种讲故事的传统会再 度受到欢迎。 2. A。细节题。根据 Some of the tales, like those the Inuit from Canada, are thousands years old 可推知此题答案为 A。 3. D。细节题。文中说 Ambrose started the festival in 1993，Ambrose1993 年创办了这个节，但并不等于说讲故 事的传统 1993 年才恢复的，这是两码事。故选 D。 4. C。词义猜测题。从 as all the Welsh are storytellers 可以推断出 in good hands 是“照顾得好或举办得好”的 意思，故选 C。 (2) I came to live here where I am now between Wounded Knee Greek and Grass Greek. Others came too, and we made these little grey houses of logs that you see, and they are square, It is a bad way to live, for there can be no power in a square. You have noticed that everything an Indian does is in a circle, and that is because the Power of the World always works in circles, and everything tries to be round. In the old days when we were a strong and happy people, all our power came to us from the respectful circle of the nation, and so long as the circle was unbroken, the people were getting rich. The flowering tree was the living center of the circle, and the circle of the four quarters nursed it. The east gave peace and light, the south gave warmth, the west gave rain, and the north with its cold and strong wind gave strength and continuous power. This knowledge came to us from the outer world with our brief. Everything the Power of the World does is done in a circle. The sky is round, and I have heard that the earth is round like a ball, and so are all the stars. Birds make their nests in circle, for theirs are the same as ours. The sun comes forth and goes down again in a circle. The moon does the same, and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves. Our places were like the nests of birds, and these were always set in a circle, the nation’s circle, a nest of many nests, where the Great Spirit meant for us to nurse our children. But the Wasichus (Indian word for “white people”) have put us in these square boxes. Our power is gone and we are dying, for the power is not in us any more. You can look at our boys and see how it is with us. Where we were living
by the power of the circle in the way we should, boys were men at twelve or thirteen years of age. But now it takes them very much longer to be bull - grown. 1. According to the passage, the Indians _______. A. don’t have modern instruments in their homes B. refused to move from round places C. lived in round places, but were forced to live in square houses D. lived in round places, but then decided to move into square houses 2. Two things being compared in the passage are _______. A. the Indians’ past and present living conditions B. the Indians’ past and modern beliefs C. the Indians’ old and new power D. people and nature 3. In the second paragraph “the four quarters” refers to _______. A. the four rooms of the Indian’s house B. the four kinds of natural power C. the four seasons D. the four directions 4. According to the author, once the Indians moved into square houses, _______. A. they had to move to other houses B. boys took more time to grow into men C. they forgot the old way of life D. everyone was not happy 【答案解析】 本文描述了一名印第安人认为该民族被白人从圆形建筑赶到方形房子之后，以前的种种祥和就此消失了。 1. C。细节题。阅读全文可知 A、B、D 不符合原文之意，而答案 C 是本文大意的描述。 2. A。细节题。根据本文内容可知全篇作者都在把过去的祥和与现在的不如人意进行对比，故选 A。 3. D。细节题。根据第 2 段 and the circle of the four quarters nursed it. The east gave…the south gave…the west gave…the north with… 可知 D 为正确答案。 4. B。细节题。根据最后一段 But now it takes them very much longer to be bull-grown 可知现在男孩要长大需花 费更长的时间。 (3) When you are in another country, it is important to know the language, but it is equally important to know how to communicate nonverbally(非语言地), before saying anything by making gestures. According to a pioneer in nonverbal communication, only 30 to 35 percent of our communication is verbal. When people don't know the language, the most common way to communicate is through gestures. However, many gestures have different meanings, or no meaning at all, in different parts of the world. In the United States, for example, nodding your head up and down means “yes”. In some parts of Greece and Turkey, however, this motion can mean “no”. In Southeast Asia, nodding your head is a polite way of saying “I've heard you”. In ancient Rome, when the emperor wanted to spare someone's life, he would put his thumb up. Today in the United States, when someone puts his / her thumb up, it means “Everything is all right”. However, in Sardinia and Greece, the gesture is insulting and should not be used there. In the United States, raising your clasped hands above your head means “I’m the champion” or “I’m the winner”. It is the sign prizefighters make when they win a fight. When a leading Russian statesman(政治家) made this gesture after a White House meeting, Americans misunderstood and thought he meant he was a winner. In Russia, however, it is a sign of friendship.
In the United States, holding your hand up with the thumb and index finger in a circle and the other three fingers spread out means “Everything is O.K.” and is frequently used by astronauts and politicians. In France and Belgium, it can mean “You’re worth nothing.” There are other nonverbal signals that people should be aware of when they go to another country, such as the distance to maintain between speakers. Americans usually feel comfortable when speaking with someone if the distance between them is about eighteen inches to arm’s length. Anything closer makes them feel uncomfortable. When talking to Americans, it is also important to make eye contact. If you look down when talking to an American, he / she may feel that you are embarrassed, afraid, or trying to hide something. In addition to knowing how to communicate nonverbally in a country, it is important to know what you and he cannot discuss. In the United States, there are certain topics to avoid when you first meet someone, For example, don’t ask people their age, weight, religion, marital status(婚姻状况), how much money they earn, or how much something costs. You can talk about work, the weather, traffic problems, sports, food, news of the day, where one lives, consumer subjects (computers, car repairs, and so forth), and travel or vacation plans. These few examples illustrate that your actions can speak louder than your words. In a particular cultural contest, what you say and what you don’t say are equally important. 1. Which of the following is true? A. People all over the world only communicate verbally. B. Most of our gestures have no meaning at all. C. Some people think that 65 to 70 percent of our communication is nonverbal. D. Gestures are the most common way to common way to communicate. 2. As we can see from the passage there are ______ kinds of nonverbal communication signals. A. four B. five C. six D. seven 3. Please paraphrase the clause“…your actions can speak louder than your words. A. Your deeds are better than your words B. What you do is better than what you say C. You try to show your best manners D. you are better understood by your gestures than through your words 4. The main idea of the passage is that when you are in another country, ______. A. it is unimportant to know the language B. it is important to know what you can talk about to a foreigner C. to know how to communicate nonverbally is as important as to know the language D. to communicate the rough gestures is more important than to know the language 【答案解析】 当我们去一个国家时，知道用该国的语言交流诚然很重要，但知道怎样通过手势语交流也同样重要。 1. B。 判断题。 根据 According to a pioneer in nonverbal communication, only 30 to 35 percent of our communication is verbal 可推知答案。 2. C。细节题。通读全文就会知晓，本文谈到了 6 种 gestures。 3. D。推断题。这句话的意思是：你的行动比你的话更有效，再联想到本文谈论在国外与人进行交流时 gesture 的重要性。由此可推出答案为 D。 4. C。主旨题。从文章结构和内容来看，第 1 句话 When you are in another country, it is important to know the language, but it is equally important to know how to communicate nonverbally 就是主题句。