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ANSI-AHAM I-1-2005


Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers

Household Electric Irons

ANSI/AHAM I-1-2005

Preface The Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers develops stan

dards in accordance with AHAM’s “Policy and Procedures Governing Technical Standards” which states: “AHAM Standards shall be in the best interest, mutually, of consumers who use appliances, the industries which provide and service appliances, and other interested parties. They shall relate to actual use conditions, be technically and scientifically sound.” Use or observance of AHAM standards is voluntary. This standard contains Test procedures which may be applied to any brand or model of household electric irons for measuring performance. Results of tests in accordance with this standard may be publicly stated. Recommended levels of performance which are considered important to include but which, necessarily, are recommendations only. With regard to safety, AHAM recommends that all appliance products -- both major and portable -manufactured or marketed in the United States be submitted to an appropriate independent laboratory for inspection and listing in conformance with the safety standards and procedures followed by such laboratories. The relevant standard for household electric irons is ANSI/UL 1005, “Standard for Safety for Household Electric Flatirons.” AHAM welcomes comments and suggestions regarding this standard. Any standard may be reviewed and improved as needed. Any interested party, at any time, may request a change in an AHAM standard. Such requests should be addressed to AHAM’s President, and should be accompanied by a statement of reason for the request and a suggested alternate proposal. Copyright ? 2005 by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) All rights reserved. The hard copy print version of this document shall be for individual use only. The electronic file version of this document shall be for storage on one computer for purposes of viewing and/or printing one copy for individual use only. This document shall not be reproduced in whole or in part by any means, and shall not be transmitted electronically or otherwise to a third person without the prior written permission of AHAM.

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Contents
Section
1. 2. 3.

Page

PURPOSE ............................................................................................................................... 1 SCOPE .................................................................................................................................... 1 DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................................ 1 3.1 Electric Iron. ....................................................................................................................... 1 3.2 Soleplate.............................................................................................................................. 1 3.3 Temperature Stabilization................................................................................................... 1 3.4 Mean Temperature .............................................................................................................. 2 3.5 Water................................................................................................................................... 2

4.

STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS AND INSTRUMENTATION ...................................... 2 4.1 Standard Voltage and Frequency........................................................................................ 2 4.2 Test Area............................................................................................................................. 2 4.3 Instrumentation. .................................................................................................................. 2 4.4 Iron Test Support ................................................................................................................ 2

5.

STANDARD METHOD FOR MEASURING PERFORMANCE......................................... 4 5.1 Scorch Print......................................................................................................................... 4 5.2 Alternate Temperature Distribution.................................................................................... 4 5.3 Measurement of Steam Rates.............................................................................................. 6 5.4 Spray Rate........................................................................................................................... 8 5.5 Spray Pattern....................................................................................................................... 9 5.6 Water Reservoir Fill and Empty Rates. .............................................................................. 9 5.7 Soleplate Friction or Soleplate Glide Angle ....................................................................... 9 5.8 Weight of Iron Test........................................................................................................... 10 6. SAFETY ........................................................................................................................... 10

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1.

PURPOSE

This standard establishes a uniform, repeatable procedure or standard method for measuring specified product characteristics of household electric irons. The standard methods provide a means to compare and evaluate different brands and models of household electric irons regarding characteristics significant to product use. The standard methods (including recommended levels of performance, when and if they appear) are not intended to inhibit improvement and innovation in product testing, design or performance. 2. SCOPE

This standard applies to household electric irons as defined in Section 3. This standard establishes standard methods for measuring performance and also includes sections on definitions, and standard test conditions and instrumentation. This standard establishes uniform methods for measuring performance. This standard only includes recommended test criteria where necessary to enable tests to be carried out. In addition, recommended performance levels only appear where sufficient technical information is available to include such levels. 3. DEFINITIONS

3.1 Electric Iron. An electric iron is a hand-held, portable household appliance designed primarily for smoothing or pressing textile materials. It includes an electrically-heated soleplate and temperature regulation as a means of accomplishing its intended function. 3.1.1 Dry Iron. An electric iron having means neither to produce and supply steam nor to spray water as part of performing its intended function. 3.1.2 Steam Iron. An electric iron having means to produce and supply steam as part of performing its intended function. 3.1.3 Surge or Shot of Steam Feature. This feature provides the means to produce a burst of steam to the fabric. 3.1.4 Spray Feature. This feature provides the means to spray water on the fabric. 3.2 Soleplate. The heated surface of an iron applied to the fabric.

3.3 Temperature Stabilization. Stabilization is reached when five successive cycles of operation of the temperature control on-points are within 5° F (2° C).

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3.4 Mean Temperature. Mean temperature at any point of the soleplate is one-half the sum of the highest and lowest temperature measured after stabilization is reached. 3.5 Water. The use of tap water with a hardness of 50-60 ppm of CaCO3 is recommended for all tests, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. 4. STANDARD TEST CONDITIONS AND INSTRUMENTATION

4.1 Standard Voltage and Frequency. For purposes of this standard, all tests will be conducted at 120 Volts, 60 Hertz (Hz). The test voltage will be measured at the appliance plug when the appliance is energized and will be maintained throughout testing. 4.2 4.3 Test Area. Test in an area free of direct drafts and maintained at a temperature of Instrumentation. 4.3.1 1%. Electrical Measurements. Electrical measurements must be accurate to within ±

73 ± 9° F (23 ± 5° C).

4.3.2 Temperature Measurements. Temperature measurements must be accurate to within ± 5° F (± 3° C). The temperature may be measured using a fine-wire thermocouple with a wire diameter not exceeding 0.013 inches (0.33 mm). (See Figure 1.) Attach the thermocouple to the center of a silver disc having a diameter of 0.375 inches (10 mm) and a thickness of 0.04 inches (1 mm) by silver soldering. Press the silver disc against the soleplate of the iron with a force of at least 0.25 lb. (1 N). Take all precautions to ensure good thermal contact between the silver disc and the soleplate and to reduce the heat loss as much as possible. 4.3.3 Weight Measurement. For purposes of testing in this standard, the iron weight will include the cord, plug, and (where applicable) the removable water reservoir. If the water reservoir is contained in the iron, it shall be dry, unless otherwise specified in the tests. All weight measurements must be accurate to within 0.0035 oz (0.1 gm). 4.4 Iron Test Support. Place the iron on three-pointed metallic supports while under measurement. The supports are to be constructed so that they hold the soleplate of the iron horizontally at least 4 inches (100 mm) above the base surface on which the iron is placed. (See Figure 1.)

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Figure 1. Temperature Measurements

Silver disc Thermocouple leads Ceramic pipe Spring Adjusting nut Supports

Silver disc

Ceramic Pipe

Small hole for leads

0.79 in. (20 mm) 0.38 in. (10 mm) dia. 0.04 in. (1 mm) 0.31 in. (8 mm) dia.

A thermocouple is soldered at the center of the silver disc. The silver disc is fixed to the end of the ceramic pipe with heat-resistant adhesive and is free to align itself with the soleplate.

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5.

STANDARD METHOD FOR MEASURING PERFORMANCE

5.1 Scorch Print. The scorch print is a scorched pattern used to determine the hottest and coolest points of the soleplate. Without water in the reservoir of the iron, place the test iron on the test fixture (see Figure 1) at the maximum temperature setting. Energize the iron until temperature stabilization is achieved. Immediately unplug the iron, remove from the test fixture, and place the iron on a sheet of white paper spread over an ironing board. Allow sufficient time for a scorch pattern to develop. When the scorch pattern is developed, remove iron from paper. The hottest point is the darkest area of the scorch pattern. The coolest point of the soleplate is the lightest area, or least burnt area of the scorch pattern. Note: Positive phototype paper, white tracing paper, or white blotting paper is recommended as the white paper for this measurement. A 100% cotton sail cloth can also be used for this measurement. Place the iron on the test fixture and place a thermocouple at the following locations. A. Hottest point of soleplate as determined from the paper or cloth test mentioned above. B. Midpoints of soleplate on a toe to heel center line. C. Coolest point(s) of soleplate, not within 0.5 inches (13 mm) of an edge. 5.2 Alternate Temperature Distribution. Place the iron in a horizontal position and using an Infrared camera, photograph the soleplate of the iron at maximum temperature setting in dry mode. Using the color scale provided with the camera, determine the locations A, B & C as in Section 5.1 above. 5.2.1 Standard Soleplate Temperature Measurements. The standard soleplate temperature measurements are recorded with the iron in the dry mode, on the test fixture (see Figure 1). These temperature measurements can be performed at any setting to determine the range of temperature. The measurements should be taken at the hottest point on the soleplate, as defined by the test in Section 5.1. If the iron has an automatic shut-off feature, it should be defeated without disturbing the soleplate thermocouple contact. 5.2.1.1 Initial Overswing Temperature of the Soleplate. The initial overswing temperature is the difference between the maximum temperature obtained after the initial energizing of the iron and the average Tmax temperature, with the iron in the maximum setting for fabric ironing. 5.2.1.2 Tmax. The maximum temperature recorded after the iron has achieved thermal stabilization.

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5.2.1.3 Tmin. The minimum temperature recorded after the iron has achieved thermal stabilization. 5.2.1.4 Mean Temperature of the Soleplate. The mean temperature is the average of Tmin and Tmax (see Figure 2). 5.2.1.5 Cyclic Fluctuation of the Temperature of the Soleplate. Cyclic fluctuation of temperature is the difference between Tmax and Tmin. 5.2.1.6 Range in Soleplate Temperature. The range in soleplate temperature is the difference between the mean temperature measured at the hottest and coolest locations as determined by the scorch print. 5.2.1.7 Heating Up Time of the Soleplate. The heating up time of an iron is the time as indicated in Figure 2. This is the amount of time between the initial energizing of the cold iron and first energization after initial overswing. This temperature is measured at the maximum setting for fabric ironing on the test fixture. (See Figure 1.) Note: Definitive temperatures for individual fibers and fabrics are being considered in conjunction with textile manufacturers’ recommendation.
FIGURE 2. Soleplate Temperature Measurements

Tmax Initial Overswing Temp. Cyclic Fluctuation Temperature

Temperature

Mean Temperature Tmin Heat Up Time Five Consecutive Control On Points

Time (minutes)

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5.2.2 Electrical Measurements. The iron is to be set to the maximum setting for fabric ironing. Using the appropriate calibrated meters, measure and record the voltage and wattage during an energization cycle after temperature stabilization. 5.3 Measurement of Steam Rates 5.3.1 Water Reservoir Capacity. The water reservoir that is used for steam production, surge (or shot of steam) production or spray water will be measured in ounces (or grams). Weigh iron without any water. (W1) Fill water reservoir(s) with water until the level reaches the maximum level mark (or the indicated maximum from the manufacturer’s instructions). If there is no maximum level indicated, or amount given in the instructions, fill the reservoir(s) until the water is at the bottom of the pour spout. Position the iron on the soleplate. Any water that spills from the spout will not be considered. Weigh the iron with water. (W2) Calculate the water reservoir weight: M= W2 - W1. 5.3.2 Measurement of Static Steam Rate. The static steam rate is the average weight of steam loss per minute. Fill the iron with the manufacturer’s maximum recommended amount of water. (See Section 5.2.1) Measure the combined weight of the iron and test fixture. Place the iron on its heel rest. Set the control of the iron to the maximum setting for fabric ironing. [Note: it may be necessary to override any automatic shut off controls.] Energize the iron and allow the iron to heat up as described in section 5.1.1.7. Place the iron on the test fixture, open the steam valve (if provided) to the maximum setting and allow the iron to steam for 10 minutes (or total steam time if less than 10 min.). At the end of the 10 min. period (or actual steam time), unplug the iron and re-weigh the iron and test fixture. The static steam rate is the initial weight less the final weight divided by 10 min.(or actual steam time). The above test is repeated with the control set to minimum setting for fabric ironing with steam. 5.3.3 Measurement of Ironing Steam Rate. (Dynamic Steam Rate) Prepare an ironing board with a quilted cotton pad covered with a linen cover. Prepare a linen cloth approximately 3 x 6 ft. (1 x 2 m) for the test. Place linen on ironing board in ironing position. Conduct the following test at both the maximum and minimum fabric ironing settings for steam ironing. Fill the iron with the manufacturer’s recommended amount of water. (See 5.2.1) Place the iron on its heel rest and heat the iron until stabilized. When stabilized, weigh the iron and record its weight. Remove the iron from the scale, place on the linen, open the steam valve (if provided) and begin ironing cloth. Iron cloth for 1 minute, moving the iron at the rate of one cycle per 3 seconds. One cycle is a movement of 18 inches ( 450 mm) and return. At the end of 1 minute, return the iron to the resting position. Within 15 seconds, move cloth on the ironing board so that a different portion of the cloth is to be ironed and return the iron to cloth, and begin ironing again. Continue to alternate ironing for 1 minute intervals until either the iron ceases to steam or a minimum of 10 minutes of ironing has been accomplished, whichever occurs first. At completion, place the iron on the scale and record its weight. The ironing steam rate is the average steam rate per minute calculated as the initial weight minus the final weight divided by the total steaming time. 6

The above test is repeated with the temperature control set to the minimum setting for fabric ironing with steam. If there is evidence of water spotting during this test, increase the temperature setting to the next highest value where water spotting does not occur and initiate the test. 5.3.4 Water Spotting Evaluation. The Dynamic Steam Rate Test is performed with the iron at maximum and minimum temperature settings for fabric ironing. If the temperature and steam production controls are separate, the test is to be conducted at the maximum and minimum steam production settings, as well. The occurrence of water spotting or streaking is recorded during the heel-rest to soleplate ironing position, soleplate ironing motion, and soleplate to heel-rest motion. 5.3.5 Flood Point Temperature--Steam Irons Only. The flood point is the soleplate temperature at which the iron fails to support steam operation and begins to emit water. Fill the iron to the maximum recommended water reservoir level. (See Section 5.2.1) Set the iron steam setting and temperature setting to maximum. After allowing the iron to heat on the heel-rest position as described in section 5.1.1.7, perform ironing per pattern in the Dynamic Steam Rate Test. Complete four cycles with four heel-rests. If water spotting does not occur, refill the water reservoir and reduce the temperature and allow to stabilize at the new setting. Repeat procedure until water spotting begins. Once water spotting is detected, slightly increase temperature, perform one cycle of dynamic steam testing with heel-rest period. Reduce temperature again until water spotting begins. Leaving the temperature setting at this position, empty the water reservoir and measure the Tmin value using the test procedure in Figure 1. 5.3.6 Start of Steam Time. The start of steam time is the time an iron takes to emit steam when moved from the heel-rest position to the soleplate down position. Begin tests with a cool, dry iron. Empty iron and cool to ambient temperature, if the iron was previously used in steam mode testing. Fill iron to recommended maximum water reservoir level (See 5.2.1). Set iron to maximum setting for fabric ironing and allow to heat on heel-rest position as described in section 5.1.1.7. Gently move the iron from heel-rest to soleplate down position. Record if steaming begins in this motion. If steaming does not begin, initiate ironing of fabric in a straight pattern for a length of 18 inches for six cycles. Record the time until steam is emitted. If steaming has not yet started after the six cycles, raise the nose of the iron 20 degrees off the ironing board. Drop the nose to ironing board, record the number of taps required to start steaming. Let the iron completely dry out and repeat the tests after refilling the water reservoir to the minimum level recommended by the manufacturer. 5.3.7 Total Static Steam Time. The time is to be recorded from the start of steam emission until steam production has ceased. The iron should be filled with water to the maximum level indicated on the iron or in the manufacturer’s instruction manual. With the iron set to the manufacturer’s highest indicated setting for steam ironing, the iron is allowed to heat up until stabilized temperatures are reached while on its heel rest. The iron is then mounted on the test fixture (Figure 1). [Note: It may be necessary to override any automatic shut-off controls.] 7

5.3.8 Surge or Shot of Steam Pump Priming. (Where applicable.) This test will calculate the average strokes of the surge actuator to initiate the surge or shot of steam feature. Empty all water from the iron. Pump the surge actuator until there is no remaining water in the pump assembly. Fill the iron with water to the maximum level. (See Section 5.2.1) With the iron on the test fixture and with the iron set in the dry operation mode, adjust the temperature control to the maximum setting for fabric ironing. Open the steam valve and allow the iron to heat up until stabilization. Operate the surge actuator with a full stroke. Repeat and record the number of strokes required until a surge of steam is observed from the soleplate. 5.3.9 Surge or Shot of Steam Rate (Where Applicable). This test will calculate the average steam discharge during operation of this feature as measured in ounces (or grams) of water per surge stroke. Set the temperature control to the maximum setting for fabric ironing. Close the steam valve. Fill the iron with water to the manufacturer’s recommended maximum water tank level (see Section 5.2.1) and weigh iron. Energize the iron and allow the soleplate to reach temperature stabilization. Move the iron to the soleplate position on test fixture (Figure 1) with a container of known weight under the iron to collect any leaks or drips. A slow running fan may be used to direct the normal steam production away and to avoid condensing this steam in the container. Operate the surge or shot of steam button at a rate of 1 stroke per 15 seconds for 50 strokes. Reweigh the iron. The surge or shot of steam rate is the final weight of the container and iron less the initial weight of the container and iron divided by the 50 strokes. If a combined steam and temperature control is provided, The Surge or Shot of Steam Rate is determined by the value described above minus the static steam value at 12.5 minutes. 5.3.10 Repeated Surge or Shot of Steam Testing Evaluation. The repeated surge test is an evaluation of an iron’s ability to resist water spotting while being operated in the surge mode. Fill iron to the manufacturer’s maximum recommended water reservoir level. Set the iron to the maximum setting for fabric steam ironing. If a separate steam production control is present, conduct the test at the maximum temperature and maximum steam production setting. With the steam valve closed, energize the iron and allow the iron to heat as described in 5.1.1.7 on the heel-rest position. Hold the iron 1 inch (2.5 mm) above the test cloth, in a horizontal soleplate position, and open the steam valve to the maximum setting. When the iron draws current (as determined by a watt or current meter) depress the surge button for 3 strokes in 3 seconds. Record any water spotting. Optional: a.) Repeat tests with iron on test cloth. b.) Repeat with iron at minimum setting for fabric steam ironing. If a separate steam production control is present, conduct the test at the minimum temperature and minimum steam production setting. 5.4 Spray Rate. The spray rate is the average amount of water, in ounces (or grams), emitted per spray pump stroke. Fill the iron with water to the manufacturer’s recommended maximum water tank level (See 5.2.1), prime the pump as necessary until iron emits spray, and weigh the iron. Move the iron to the soleplate position on test fixture (Figure 1). Operate the spray button at a rate of 1 stroke per 5 seconds for 50 strokes. Reweigh the iron. The spray rate is the initial weight of the iron less the final weight divided by the 50 strokes. 8

5.5 Spray Pattern. Fill the iron with water per manufacturer’s instructions. (See Section 5.2.1) Operate the spray mechanism a number of times in order to prime the pump assembly with water. Once a consistent spray has been obtained, place the iron soleplate on a flat horizontal surface covered with a piece of kraft paper in front of the iron and trace an outline of the soleplate on the paper. Operate the spray mechanism until a pattern of water appears on the paper. Record the pattern of spray and its relation to the soleplate. 5.6 Water Reservoir Fill and Empty Rates. The water reservoir fill rate is the highest rate of water fill achieved without spillage. Prepare a container of water with capacity equal to the manufacturer’s recommended reservoir capacity. (See Section 5.2.1) Place iron on heel-rest (or normal filling) position with water reservoir empty. For irons with a removable water reservoir, follow the manufacturer’s recommended filling procedure. Place the spout of the container on an edge of the water filling hole. Simultaneously, start a timer and begin filling. Fill as fast as possible without spilling. When the fill container is empty, stop timer and record time. The filling rate is determined by the initial fill amount divided by the time to fill. With water reservoir full, start a timer and simultaneously turn over iron (or removable reservoir) to most favorable emptying position so that water drains into a measuring vessel. When water stops coming out (not including dripping), stop timer and record emptying time and quantity of water collected. The empty rate is determined by the quantity drained from the iron divided by the time to empty. 5.7 Soleplate Friction or Soleplate Glide Angle. The soleplate glide angle is the angle from horizontal at which the iron begins to glide. The test surface is a 3/4 inch (19mm) thick piece of phenolic (or other surface material not affected by temperature) covered with 1 layer of ironing board cover and test cloth. Record the angle, fabric, temperatures and steam settings. The measurement is performed under two conditions: a.) With test cloth at ambient temperature and iron at recommended temperature setting (maximum setting for fabric ironing) for the test cloth. b.) Iron at recommended temperature setting (mean temperature) for each test cloth approximately 30° F (17° C) below the mean soleplate temperature for that fabric. Cloth temperature is confirmed by thermocouple trapped in the center of the test fabric, between the test cloth and the ironing board cover. The recommended test cloths are polyester, 50/50 poly cotton blend1, and 100% cotton sail cloth. This test may be conducted with the steam valve open or closed.
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Other Polyester/Cotton blends may be substituted if the 50/50 blend is not available. If a different blend is used, the percentage should be so noted on all test reports.

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5.8 Weight of Iron Test. For the purpose of comparative evaluation between irons, the iron should be weighed without water or the cord. The cord should be cut and removed at the point where it exits the cord bushing or strain relief. Weight should be recorded in pounds (or kilograms). 6. SAFETY

This voluntary standard sets forth methods for conducting performance testing of irons. This standard does not, nor is it intended, to address safety issues associated with the product. It is recommended that electric irons comply with the safety requirements of American National/Underwriters Laboratories Standard (ANSI/UL) No. 1005, “Standard for Safety of Electric Flatirons,” latest edition.

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Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers 1111 19th Street, NW ? Suite 402 ? Washington, DC


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