2013 上海高考一模各区 C 篇阅读汇总
Discoveries in science and technology are thought by ―untaught minds‖ to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fl
eming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold ( 霉 ) on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of tough trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score. The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take most shots at the goal—and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovation and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities. ―Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that there‘s no particular goodness in doing things the way they have always been done.‖ Wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction to seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient: ―How come nobody thought of that before?‖ The creative approach begins with the proposal that nothing be as it appears. Innovators will not accept that there is only one way to do anything. Faced with getting from A to B, the average person will automatically set out on the best-known and apparently simplest route. The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are sure to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends. Highly creative individuals really do march to a different drummer.
72. What does the author probably mean by ―untaught mind‖ in the first paragraph? A. An individual who often comes up with new ideas by accident. B. A person who has had no education. C. A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity. D. A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation. 73. According to the author, what differs innovators from non-innovators? A. The way they present their findings. B. The way they deal with problems. C. The intelligence they possess. D. The variety of ideas they have. 74. The phrase ―march to a different drummer‖ (the last line of the passage) suggests that highly creative individuals are _____. A. unwilling to follow common ways of doing things B. diligent in pursuing their goals C. concerned about the advance of society D. devoted to the progress of science 75. The most suitable title for this passage might be _____. A. The Relation Between Creation and Diligence B. To Be a Creative Expert in the Study of Human Creativity C. What Are So Special about Creative Individuals D. Discoveries and Innovation
Thirty years ago, public health officials in the United States reported on the first cases of what came to be known as AIDS. But today an estimated sixteen and a half million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS. Millions more live with adults who are sick from AIDS. Lucie Cluver from Oxford University in England has studied children of AIDS(AIDS orphaned children and children living with sick adults) in South Africa. She says children can be deeply affected by their experiences. And one of the biggest impacts we see is mental health, their psychological health. So, for example, we see that AIDS orphaned children have very much higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress disorder than children who have a live parent or children whose parents have died of other causes. Lucie Cluver says children have to live with the sense of shame connected to AIDS. Many are abused(欺负) at school or excluded from the community. Children living with sick adults are more likely to live in poverty and face physical and emotional abuse. Also, Lucie Cluver says the children often become the caregivers. They‘re missing school to go and get medication. They‘re often taking them to the toilet, cleaning their wounds or washing their bedclothes. So these kids find it very stressful and upsetting. They‘re very worried about the health and feel responsible for the health of the sick person. Close contact with sick adults can sometimes spread tuberculosis(肺 结核) or other diseases. And, as Lucie Cluver said, even when the children are in school, paying attention can be difficult. It‘s constantly on their minds and really making it difficult for them to do well at school. She calls for testing more children for tuberculosis. She also calls for giving more parents the drugs needed to keep them healthy longer with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. There are programs to help children, but there is ―far more to be done.‖ Interventions(干预治疗) and support groups are ―urgently needed‖ for those orphaned by AIDS or living with sick adults. But the evidence for which interventions are effective ―is still thin‖. 72. The topic of the passage is __________. A. children of AIDS doing badly at school B. more and more children suffering from AIDS C. children of AIDS facing mental problems D. an increasing number of people dying of AIDS 73. According to Lucie Cluver, AIDS orphaned children have very much higher levels of depression mainly because they __________. A. have a sense of shame connected to AIDS B. cannot focus their attention on study at school C. are more likely to be affected with tuberculosis D. often have to miss school to look after their sick parents 74. We can infer from the last paragraph that __________. A. enough has been done for children of AIDS B. interventions prove very effective for children of AIDS C. nothing can be done to help children except interventions D. interventions may be useful for helping children of AIDS 75. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. The first case of AIDS occurred 30 years ago. B. Children whose parents are infected with AIDS often help with housework. C. Children whose parents have died of causes other than AIDS don‘t have stress disorder. D. Children don‘t have psychological problems when their parents are still alive with HIV.
Prolonging human life has increased the size of the human population. Many people alive today would have died of childhood diseases if they had been born 100 years ago. Because more people live longer, there are more people around at any given time. In fact, it is a decrease in death rates, not an increase in birthrates, that has led to the population explosion. Prolonging human life has also increased the dependency load. In all societies, people who are disabled or too young or too old to work are dependent on the rest of society to provide for them. In hunting and gathering cultures, old people who could not keep up might be left behind to die. In times of famine (饥荒), infants might be allowed to die because they could not survive if their parents starved, where as if the parents survived they could have another child. In most contemporary societies, people feel a moral obligation (责任) to keep people alive whether they can work or not. We have a great many people today who live past the age at which they want to work or are able to work; we also have rules which require people to retire at a certain age. Unless these people were able to save money for their retirement, somebody else must support them. In the United States many retired people live on social security checks which are so little that they must live in near poverty. Older people have more illnesses than young or middle-aged people; unless they have wealth or private or government insurance, they must often ―go on welfare‖ if they have a serious illness. When older people become senile (衰老的) or too weak and ill to care for themselves, they create grave problems for their families. In the past and in some traditional cultures, they would be cared for at home until they died. Today, with most members of a household working or in school, there is often no one at home who can care for a sick or weak person. To meet this need, a great many nursing homes and convalescent (疗 养 的 ) hospitals have been built. These are often profit making organizations, although some are sponsored by religious and other nonprofit groups. While a few of these institutions are good, most of them are simply ―dumping (倒垃圾 的) grounds‖ for the dying in which ―care‖ is given by poorly paid, overworked, and under skilled personnel (员工). 75. According to the passage, which of the following statements about the old people in the United States is TRUE? A. Many of them live on social security money which is hardly enough. B. Minority of them remain in a state of near poverty after their retirement. C. Many nursing homes are sponsored by religious and nonprofit groups. D. Older people have wealth or private insurance if they have a serious illness. 74. The phrase ―this need‖ in the last paragraph refers to ________. A. prolonging the dying old people‘s lives B. reducing the problems caused by the retired people C. making profits through caring for the sick or weak people D. taking care of the sick or weak people 73. It can be inferred from the passage that in hunting and gathering cultures _______. A. it was a moral responsibility for the families to keep alive the aged people who could not work B. the survival of infants was less important than that of their parents in times of starvation C. old people were given the task of imparting (传授) the cultural wisdom of the tribe to new generations D. death was celebrated as a time of rejoicing for an individual freed of (免除) the hardships of life 72. The author believes that the increased size of the human population results from ___. A. an increase in birthrates C. a decrease in death rates B. the industrial development D. childhood diseases
Throughout the centuries, various writers have contributed greatly to the literary treasure trove of books lining the shelves of today‘s libraries. In addition to writing interesting material, many famous writers, such as Edgar Allan Poe, were larger-than-life characters with personal histories that are as interesting to read as the stories they wrote. Poe‘s rocky life included being driven off from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1831 and an ongoing battle with alcohol. Yet, despite heavy gambling debts, poor health, and terrible unemployment, Poe managed to produce a body of popular works, including ―The Raven‖ and ―The Murders in the Rue Morgue.‖ Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick, once lived among the man-eaters in the Marquesas Islands and wrote unusual tales inspired by his years of service in the U.S. Navy. Dublin-born Oscar Wilde was noted for his charismatic personality, his outrageous lifestyle, and creating witty catchphrases such as, ―Nothing succeeds like excess.‖ D.H. Lawrence wrote shameful novels that were often cut, and Anne Rice led a double life writing bestselling horrible novels under her real name and using ―A.N. Roquelaure‖ for the lowbrow unhealthy novels she penned on the side. Nonconformist(不墨守成规的)author and naturalist Henry David Thoreau once fled to the woods and generated enough interesting material to fill his noted book Walden. Thoreau wrote on the issue of passive resistance protest in his essay ―Civil Disobedience‖ and served time in jail for refusing tax payments in protest of the United States government‘s policy towards slavery. American short story writer O. Henry‘s colorful life was ruined by tragic events, such as being accused and sentenced for stealing money from an Austin, Texas bank. Despite his success selling his short stories, O. Henry struggled financially and was nearly bankrupt when he died. As diverse as these famous authors‘ backgrounds were, they all led unconventional lives while writing great literary works that will endure throughout the ages. The next time you read an interesting book, consider learning more about the author by reading his or her biography so you can learn about the unique life experiences that shaped his or her writing. 72. Which of the following is NOT TRUE about Edgar Allan Poe? A. He had his own interesting personal history as other famous writers. B. He graduated from United States Military Academy at West Point in 1831. C. He once had heavy gambling debts and fell down with illness. D. He managed to produce popular works no matter how rocky his life was. 73. What can you infer from Para.2? A. D.H. Lawrence and Anne Rice once wrote similar type of novels. B. Anne Rice used a pen name because her novels were quite popular. C. Anne Rice used different names when she wrote bestselling novels. D. Henry David Thoreau enriched his books by living in the forests. 74. Which statement is TRUE according to the passage? A. Henry David Thoreau was passionately opposed to horrible events. B. Anne Rice always used a pen name to conceal her true identity. C. Herman Melville stayed with man-eaters during his naval service. D. O Henry‘s life was colorful though he had lots of difficulties. 75. The passage mainly tells us that ______. A. many famous writers lived nontraditional lives B. most famous writers were usually troublemakers C. writers had to lead interesting lives to generate materials D. the biographies of famous writers are always inspirational
As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease—especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behavior, such as poor eating habits, smoking, and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight, but does not eat very nutritious foods, who feels OK but exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not an outstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts(血细胞计数), but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. He may not even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier. The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely ―not ill‖ and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body‘s special needs. Both types have simply been called ―well.‖ In recent years, however, some health specialists have begun to apply the terms ―well‖ and ―wellness‖ only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health. People who are well are concerned with nutrition and exercise, and they make a point of monitoring their body‘s condition. Most important, perhaps, people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health. Even people who have a physical disease or handicap (缺陷) may be ―well,‖ in this new sense, if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations. ―Wellness‖ may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people face the challenges of daily life. 72. Today medical care is placing more stress on ______. A. keeping people in a healthy physical condition B. monitoring patients‘ body functions C. removing people‘s bad living habits D. ensuring people‘s psychological well-being 73. In the first paragraph, people are reminded that ______. A. good health is more than not being ill B. drinking, even if not to excess, could be harmful C. regular health checks are essential to keeping fit D. prevention is more difficult than cure 74. Traditionally, a person is considered ―well‖ if he ______. A. does not have any unhealthy living habits B. does not have any physical handicaps C. is able to handle his daily routines D. is free from any kind of disease 75. According to the author, the true meaning of ―wellness‖ is for people ______. A. to best satisfy their body‘s special needs B. to strive to maintain the best possible health C. to meet the strictest standards of bodily health D. to keep a proper balance between work and leisure
At some time in your life you may have a strong desire to do something strange or terrible. However, chances are that you don‘t act on your impulse, but let it pass instead. You know that to commit the action is wrong in some way and that other people will not accept your behavior. Perhaps the most interesting thing about the phenomenon of taboo (禁忌的) behavior is how it can change over the years within the same society, how certain behavior and attitudes once considered taboo can become perfectly acceptable and natural at another point in time. Topics such as death, for example, were once considered so upsetting and unpleasant that it was a taboo to even talk about them. Now with the publication of important books such as On Death and Dying and Learning to Say Goodbye, people have become more aware of the importance of expressing feelings about death and, as a result, are more willing to talk about this taboo subject. One of the newest taboos in American society is the topic of fat. Unlike many other taboos, fat is a topic that Americans talk about constantly. It‘s not taboo to talk about fat; it‘s taboo to be fat. The ―in‖ look is thin, not fat. In the work world, most companies prefer youthful-looking, trim executives to sell their image as well as their products to the public. The thin look is associated with youth, vigor, and success. The fat person, on the other hand, is thought of as lazy and lacking in energy, self-discipline, and self-respect. In an image-conscious society like the U.S., thin is ―in‖, fat is ―out‖. It‘s not surprising, then, that millions of Americans have become obsessed (着 迷) with staying slim and ―in shape‖. The pursuit of a youthful physical appearance is not, however, the sole reason for America‘s obsession with diet and exercise. Recent research has shown the critical importance of diet and exercise for personal health. As in most technologically developed nations, the life-style of North Americans has changed dramatically during the course of the last century. Modern machines do all the physical labor that people were once forced to do by hand. Cars and buses transport us quickly from point to point. As a result of inactivity and disuse, people‘s bodies can easily become weak and vulnerable to disease. In an effort to avoid such a fate, millions of Americans are spending more of their time exercising every day. 72. From the passage we can infer taboo is _____. A. a strong desire to do something strange or terrible B. a crime committed on impulse committed C. behavior considered unacceptable in society‘s eyes D. an unfavorable impression left on other people 73. Based on the ideas presented in the passage we can conclude being fat _____. A. will always remain a taboo B. is not considered a taboo by most people C. has long been a taboo D. may no longer be a taboo some day 74. In the U.S., thin is ―in‖, fat is ―out‖, this means _____. A. thin is ―inside‖, fat is ―outside‖ B. thin is ―devoted‖, fat is ―lazy‖ C. thin is ―youthful‖, fat is ―spiritless‖ D. thin is ―fashionable‖, fat is ―unfashionable‖ 75. The main reason the passage gives for why so many Americans are exercising regularly is _____. A. their changed life-style B. their eagerness to stay thin and youthful C. their appreciation of the importance of exercise D. the encouragement they have received from their companies
Seligman is leading the research on what might be called Happiness Revolution in psychology. Since World War II, psychologists have focused on fixing what is broken —repairing psychosis（精神病）, and neurosis（精神衰弱）. Research has piled up steadily when it comes to looking at patients who are neurotic, while the happy or joyful people among us have received little scientific examination. When Seligman did a search to find academic articles about such ?positive psychology‘ he found only 800 out of 70,000. ?Psychologists tend to be concerned with taking a negative 8 person, and helping him get to negative 2,‘ said Seligman, a psychology professor of the University of Pennsylvania. ?My aim is to take a plus 2 person and boost him to a plus 6.‘ In the last 50 years, statistics have shown that we are less happy as a people. ?While our quality of life has increased dramatically over that time, and we‘ve become richer, we‘re in an epidemic of depression,‘ Seligman said. ?Depression is 10 times more common now, and life satisfaction rates are down as well.‘ Seligman argues that the new science he writes about is shifting psychology‘s model away from its narrow-minded focus on mental illness towards positive emotion, virtue and strength that increase people‘s happiness. If you want to be happy, forget about winning the lottery（抽奖）, getting a nose job, or securing a raise. In his new book, Authentic Happiness, psychologist Martin Seligman argues that overall lifetime happiness is not the result of good genes, money, or even luck. Instead, he says we can increase our own happiness by making use of the strengths and virtues that we already have, including kindness, originality, humor, optimism, and generosity. He has named the field ?Positive Psychology,‘ arguing that we would be better off building on our own strengths rather than mourning, and, hence, trying to repair, our weaknesses. By frequently calling upon their strengths, people can build up natural barriers against misfortune and negative emotions, he said. Science has shown that there are several distinct roads to being a happy person — though happiness might not mean what you think. Material goods — even simple ones like ice cream, and massages — are only stimulating things that rapidly give people a boost. To cultivate happiness, we must first find out our individual strengths and virtues. Next, apply the qualities in such a way as to enhance your happiness-generating system. 72. The distinctive feature of Seligman‘s work lies in ______. A. evaluating the psychological state of people B. making a study of people who suffer from mental illness C. focusing the scientific examination on the happy or joyful people D. figuring out the exact number of the academic articles about ?positive psychology‘ 73. What does Seligman mean by saying ?take a plus 2 person and boost him to a plus 6‘? A. We should focus on happy or joyful people. B. We need more and more happy and joyful people. C. It‘s difficult to make people happy from a plus 2 to plus 6. D. Happy people also need to improve their level of happiness. 74. According to the passage, which of the statements might Martin Seligman support? A. Promotion leads to true happiness. B. We can rely on our strengths for happiness. C. Intelligent people are usually more satisfied. D. Mental illness should be the focus of psychology. 75. The passage mainly talks about ______. A. strengths and happiness B. ways to cultivate happiness C. development of psychology D. effect of positive psychology
NASDAQ, acronym for the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation system, is one of the largest markets in the world for the trading of stocks. The number of companies listed on NASDAQ is more than that on any of the other stock exchange in the United States, including the New York Stock Exchange(NYSE) and the American Stock Exchange (AMSE). The majority of companies listed on NASDAQ are smaller than most of those on the NYSE and AMSX. NASDAQ has become known as the home of new technology companies, particularly computer and computer-related businesses. Trading on NASDAQ is started by stock brokers(经纪人) acting on behalf of their clients. The brokers negotiate with market makers who concentrate on trading specific stocks to reach a price for the stock. Unlike other stock exchange, NASDAQ has no central location where trading takes place. Instead, its market makers are located all over the country and make trades by telephone and via the Internet. Because brokers and market makers trade stocks directly instead of on the floor of a stock exchange, NASDAQ is called an over-the-counter market. The term over-the –counter refers to the direct nature of the trading, as in a store where goods are handed over a counter. Since its inception(开市) in 1971, the NASDAQ Stock Market has been the innovator(创新者). As the world‘s first electronic stock market, NASDAQ long ago set a precedent(先例) for technological trading innovation that is unrivaled(无对手的). Now ready to become the world‘s first truly global market, the NASDAQ Stock Market is the market of choice for business industry leaders worldwide. By providing an efficient environment for raising capital NASDAQ has helped thousands of companies achieve their desired growth and successfully make the leap into public ownership. 72. What is TRUE of NASDAQ? A. It is the largest stock market in the world. B. It lists only small companies. C. It lists all the new technology companies. D. It lists the biggest number of companies. 73. The word‖ negotiate‖(Line 8,Para.1) means ________. A. discuss B. argue C. interfere
74. NASDAQ is also known as an over-the –counter market because it seems______. A. a stock market B. a stock exchange C. a counter D. a store 75. Since its founding in 1971, NASDAQ has contributed to ______. A. raising money for many companies B. creating an efficient environment for many companies C. the expected development of many companies D. the unexpected development of many companies
The candidate longing for election to the highest office in the United States must be native-born American citizen who is at least 35 years old and who has lived in the United States for at least 14 years. The election course is complicated, and the road to the Oval Office is long. Potential candidates must present papers stating their intention to seek their party‘s recommendation; delegates then choose from among those running some months later at the national conferences. Before that, however, each state holds a primary election that determines how the state‘s voters want the party‘s delegates to vote. Methods of choosing the delegates vary from state to state. At the conferences, there are speeches and often heated discussions. It may take several rounds of voting before delegates can agree on a candidate. On the final day of the meeting, the presidential candidate announces his or her choice for vice president. Election Day, by law, is the Tuesday that follows the first Monday in November. On this day, registered voters may cast their votes for president, vice president, and candidates for other federal (联邦), state, and local offices. The popular vote, however, does not determine who will be president. The president is chosen by a vote of the Electoral College, a group of 538 citizens from the 50 states and the District of Columbia who are chosen to cast votes for the president and vice president. The rules for choosing electors, as with the delegates, vary. Each state also decides whether its electoral votes must reflect the popular vote. The number of electors in each state is determined by the number of representatives and senators (议员) that a state sends to Congress and, therefore, may change every 10 years, depending on the results of the United States census (人口普查). The winner must get at least 270 of the electoral votes when the Electoral College meets in December of the election year. The election results are not official, however, until the following January, when Congress meets in a joint conference to count the electoral votes. At the end of the road to the Oval Office is the swearing-in ceremony, at which the new or reelected president takes the oath (誓言) of office on January 20. 72. Which of the following is not a requirement for candidates for the presidency of the USA? A. Minimum age of thirty-five years old. B. Previous experience in an elective office. C. Native of the United States of America. D. Bottom residency of fourteen years in the States. 73. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Election results are not authorized until the first month of the coming year. B. Ways to select the delegates of each state are very much the same in the USA. C. The successful presidential candidate wins a maximum number of electoral votes. D. A party‘s potential candidate is chosen months before its national conference is held. 74. We can conclude from the passage that ______. A. the candidate who wins the popular vote will be the winner of the election B. the electors don‘t have the right to vote against their registered voters‘ will C. the presidents of the United States are theoretically picked by the citizens directly D. the change of a state‘s population barely has effect on the presidential election 75. Which of the following might be the best title of the passage? A. The Various Ways of Presidential Election in the USA B. The Qualifications for Being the President of the USA C. The Rules for Choosing Presidential Candidates in the USA D. The Process of the Election for the President of the USA
Does solving a math problem give you a headache? Do you feel nervous when you sit a math exam? For most students, math can be tough but scientists have proved that math problems can actually trigger physical pain. Scientists came to his conclusion with an in-depth experiment, which was published in the Public Library of Science One journal. They began by finding out how much participants fear math. Those involved were asked a series of questions such as how they feel when they receive a math textbook or when they walk into a math lesson. Based on their answers, participants were divided into groups. One group was made up of people who were particularly afraid of math and participants in the other group were more comfortable with the subject. Both groups were then given either math tasks or word tasks. When a math task was going to come next, a yellow circle would appear but when a word task was soon to come, a blue square would be shown. Using a brain-scan machine, scientists noticed that whenever people from Group One saw a yellow circle, their brain would respond in a way similar to when their body is feeling pain. It was like the pain they would fee, for example, if they burnt their hand on a hot stove. But they reacted less strongly when they knew that they would be faced with a word task. However, scientists saw no strong brain response from people in the second group. Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMA), math is associated with tension, apprehension and fear. ―When you are really thinking about the math problems, your mind is racing and you are worrying about all the things that could go wrong,‖ explained Ian Lyons from University of Chicago, US, leader of the study. ―The higher a person‘s anxiety of a maths task, the more he activated brain regions associated with threat detection, and the experience of pain.‖ More interestingly, the brain activity disappeared when participants actually started dealing with the math tasks. ―This means that it‘s not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful,‖ Lyons said. Based on the study, scientists suggested that things could be done to help students worry less and move past their fear of math, which might mean they perform better in tests. 72. In the first stage, scientists ask participants some questions to _. A. see whether math hurts B. find out how much they fear math C. observe how their brain response D. test their endurance of pain
73. The underlined word ―the anticipation of math‖ is closest in meaning to . A. the attempt of learning math B. the motivation to work out math problem C. the effort to understand math D. the act of thinking about math
74. Which is the best title for the passage? A. How to overcome math fear. B. Physical pain affects math performance. C. Math pain in your brain. D. Unknown truth about pain. 75. What can be concluded from the experiment? A. The anticipation of math has no relation to students‘ confidence in math. B. Moderate mathematic anxiety promotes students‘ academic performance. C. Effective solutions have been worked out to lower students‘ anxiety of math. D. Physical pain caused by HMA disappears in the process of doing math problem.
Although websites such as Facebook and MySpace experienced increasing growth during the middle of the first decade of the 21st century, some users fail to realize the fact that the information they post online can come back to trouble them. First, employers can monitor employees who maintain a blog, photo diary, or website. Employers can look for troublesome employees‘ opinions, sensitive information disclosures, or wildly inappropriate conduct. For example, a North Carolina newspaper fired one of its features writers after she created a blog on which she anonymously wrote about the characteristics of her job and coworkers. The second unintended use of information from social networking websites is employers who check on potential employees. A New York Times article reported that many companies recruiting (招募) on college campuses use search engines and social networking websites such as MySpace, Xanga, and Facebook to conduct background checks. Although the use of MySpace or Google to investigate a student‘s background is somewhat upsetting to many undergraduates, the Times noted that the use of Facebook is especially shocking to students who believe that Facebook is limited to current students and recent alumni. Company employers are not the only people interested in college students‘ lives. The third unintended use of social networking websites is college administrators who monitor the Internet — especially Facebook — for student misconduct. For example, a college in Boston‘s Back Bay expelled (除名) its Student Government Association President for joining a Facebook group highly critical of a campus police sergeant. In addition, fifteen students at a state university in North Carolina faced charges in court for underage drinking because of photos that appeared on Facebook. Although more users of websites such as Facebook are becoming aware of the potential pitfalls (陷阱) of online identities, many regular users still fail to take three basic security precautions. First, only make your information available to a specific list of individuals whom you approve. Second, regularly search for potentially harmful information about yourself that may have been posted by mistake or by a disgruntled (不 满的) former colleague. Third, never post obviously offensive material under your name or on your page as, despite the best precautions, this material will likely make its way to the wider world. By taking these simple steps, members of the digital world can realize the many benefits of e-community without experiencing some of the damaging
72. The main purpose of the passage is to _. A. explain the growth of the digital world through from the aspect of privacy B. discuss the risks of the digital world and suggest ways to protect yourself C. propose steps Facebook, MySpace, and Google can take to protect user privacy D. illustrate potential unintended uses of private information 73. The author implies that users should take all of the following actions to protect their online privacy EXCEPT _. A. know to whom you make your online information available B. avoid uploading information that would be damaging if it were discovered C. carefully select and limit who can view your electronic profile D. speak with employers to inform them of any misinformation published about you 74. Which of the following best describes the relationship between the last paragraph and the other paragraphs? A. It offers detailed examples to support previous points of view. B. It summarizes the points of view in the previous paragraphs. C. It provides suggestions to solve the previously mentioned problems. D. It offers evidence to make the previous points of view clearer. 75. According to the passage, which of the following does the writer imply? A. Information obtained unwillingly from the Internet is permissible in court. B. It is impossible to protect yourself from unintended uses of information online. C. Even if you restrict who can view your data, the government may still access it. D. Done properly, posting offensive information about oneself causes no risk.