定语从句 一 关系代词引导的定语从句 1. who 指人在从句中做主语 (1) The boys who are playing football are from Class One.. (2) Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way. 2. whom 指人，在定语从句中充当宾语，常省略。 （注：who 和 whom 已无太
大区别，基本 可以通用。区别是 who 可以做主语而 whom 不可以，whom 前可以加介词如 to whom，但是 who 不可以） (1) Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked with on the bus. (2) Mr. Ling is just the boy(whom)I want to see. (3) The man who/whom you met just now is my friend. 如果在从句中做宾语,就用 whom 或 who. 比如: He is the man whom/who I talk to. 如果是在从句中作主语就只能用 who. 比如: 3. whose 通常指人也可指物 在定语从句中做定语。 (1) He has a friend whose father is a doctor. (2) I once lived in a house whose roof has fallen in. whose 指物时通常以以下结构来代替 (3) The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. (4) The classroom , the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. (5) Do you like the book whose color is yellow? (6) Do you like the book , the color of which is yellow? 4. which 指物 在定语从句中做主语或者宾语，做宾语时可省略。 (1) Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩都喜欢的游戏. (2) This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天刚买的钢笔. 5. that 既指人又指物 在定语从句中做主语或者宾语，做宾语时可省略。 （1）The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million. （2）Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning? He is the man who has an English book.
限制性定语从句只能用 that 的几种情况： 1、当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时，或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much，each 等修饰时
(1) Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said? (2) There seems to be nothing (that) seems impossible for him in the world. (3) All that can be done has been done. 2、当先行词被序数词修饰 The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 3、当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时 This is the best film that I have seen. 4、当形容词被 the very, the only，the same,the last 修饰时 This is the very good dictionary that I want to buy, 5、当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 (1) Who is the man that is standing there? (2) Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 6、当先行词既有人，也有动物或者物体时 Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? 7.当关系代词在定语从句中做表语 The village is no longer the one that it used to be 10 years ago. 8.当在 there be 句型中，通常情况下用 that，不用 which
二 关系副词引导的定语从句 1. when 指时间 在定语从句中做时间状语 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. 2. where 指地点 在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 3. why 指原因 在定语从句中做原因状语
(1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 注意：关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up.
三 介词和关系代词 1）介词后面的关系词不能省略。 2）that 前不能有介词。 3 ） 某些在从句中充当时间，地点或原因状语的 "介词+关系词 "结构可以同关系副词 when ,where 和 why 互换。 (1) This is the house in which I lived two years ago. This is the house where I lived two years ago. (2) Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? Do you remember the day when you joined our club? (3) This is the reason why he came late. This is the reason for which he came late. 当介词放在关系代词前面时，关系代词只能用 which/whom 即“介词+which/whom" 且不能省略。但当介词位于末尾时可用 that/which/who/whom.作介词的宾语，且可以省略。 例如： (1) The school (that/which) he once studied in is very famous. " that/which"可以省略 = The school in which he once studied is very famous. "which”不可省略
(2) Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine (that/which) you asked for. = Tomorrow I will bring here a magazine for which you asked. (3) We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom/that/who) we have often talked about. = We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked.
注意： 1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of 等 T This is the watch which/that I am looking for. F This is the watch for which I am looking. 2. 若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom，不可用 who 或者 that；指物时用 which，不能用 that；关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) The man with that you talked is my friend. (F) (2) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3. “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者 数词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.
(2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities.
方法一： 用关系代词，还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语 动词。不及物动词后面无宾语，就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加 关系代词；而及物动词后接宾语，则要求用关系代词。例如：
This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. （错） This is the mountain village where I visited last year. （错） I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. （对） This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. （对） I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。 此两题错在关系 词的误用上。
方法二： 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、 状)，也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案：例 1 D，例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句： This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 例 2 变为肯定句： This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 在句 1 中，is 后应跟表语，只有 the one 可以，而后面的 you visited a few days ago 则做 one 的定语从句。 而句 2 中, 主、 谓、 宾俱全， 从句部分为句子的状语表地点， 既可用副词 where， 又因 in the museum 词组，可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中，介词 on 用的不对，所以 选 A。 五 as,which 引导的非限制性定语从句 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句，as 和
which 可代整个主句， As 一般放在句首，which 在句中。
As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 典型例题 1）Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise. A. it B. that C. which D. he 此为非限定性从句，不能用 that 修饰，而用 which.，it 和 he 都使后句成为句子，两个 独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选 he 句意不通。 2）The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it which 可代替句子，用于非限定性定语从句，而 what 不可。That 不能用于非限定性定 语从句，it 不为连词，使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。 3）It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it
关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句，有相同之处 也有不同之处。具体情况是： 1、As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语，代表前面整个句子。 (1) He married her, as/which was natural. (2) He was honest, as/which we can see. 2、as 引导非限制性定语从句，可放在主句之前，或者主句之后，甚至可以切割一个主 句；which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。另外，as 有“正如……，正像……” 的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe. 注意：当主句和从句存在逻辑上的因果关系时，常用 which。 (5) Tom was always late for school, which made his teacher angry. 3、当先行词受 such, the same 修饰时，常用 as (1) I have never heard such a story as he tells. (2) He is not such a fool as he looks. (3) This is the same book as I lost last week. (三）以 the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, that 引导，而且通常可以省略。 The way in which/ that/./ he answered the question was surprising.
在下列定语从句中，填入适当的介词。 1. The pencil ________ which he wrote was broken. 2. He built a telescope ________ which he could study the skies. 3. The woman, ________ whom I learned the news, is a nurse. 4. The wolf ________ which the sheep was killed was shot. 5. She has three children, all _______ whom are at school. 6. There is a tall tree outside, ________ which stands our teacher. 7. My glasses, _______ which I was like a blind man, fell to the ground and broke. 8. In the dark street, there wasn’t a person ________ whom she could turn for help. 9. I was surprised at the way ________ which he treated the old man. 10. The age _______ which children can go to school is seven. 11. His bike ________ which he went to work was stolen last night. 12. Do you know the building ________ which is flying a red flag? 13. Ours is a beautiful school, ________ which we are proud. 14. He bought a book yesterday, the author ________ which is a teacher. 下列句子中各有一处错误，找出并改正。 1.The person to who you should write is Mr. Green. 2. I lost the book in that there were some of my photos. 3. He went back to the town in where he was born twenty years ago. 4. He was the boy after whom the woman had looked for many years. 5. In that city, there wasn’t a single person from whom she could turn for help. 6. The man to whom you shook hands just now is our English teacher.
1. The book, the cover ________ is red, is not mine. A. of it B. for which C. of which D. of whose 2. There was a hole ________ we could see what happened inside. A. by which B. through which C. across which D. in which 3. Thank you very much for ________ you have done for my sister. A. what B. which C. if D. that 4. Where is the boy ________ you have borrowed the dictionary? A. to whom B. whom C. from whom D. for who 5. Jane is a nurse in the hospital, ________ she learned in a local medical school. A. after that B. after which C. before that D. before which 6. It is reported that two schools, ________ are being built in my hometown, will be open next year. A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which