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高考英语一轮复习——冠词的用法讲解练习


09年高考语法复习系列一





不定冠词的用法
考题点击1

The Wilsons live in _____ A-shaped house near
the coast. It is _____ 17th century cottage. (04浙江) A. the

, / B. an, the C. /, the D. an, a

D

该句意为“威尔逊先生一家住在海边的一幢A 型房子里,那是一幢十七世纪的屋子。”两处 都表示“一幢“,A-shaped 是元音开头,该用 an;而 seventeenth是辅音开头,所以该用 a。

考题点击2

Mrs. Taylor has _____ 8-year-old daughter who
has _____ gift for painting—she has won two national prizes. (05浙江卷) A.a; a B.an; the C.an; a D.the; a

C

“Taylor 夫人有一个在绘画方面极有天赋的八岁 的女儿,她已经两次获得全国大奖了。” eight 是元音开头,所以该用 an;而后面的 have a gift for为一短语,表示“在 … 方面有天赋”, 故答案为C。

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,

它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中
的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词(the Definite Article), 另一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article),还有一 种是零冠词(Zero Article)。 不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是“一个”的意

思。a用于辅音音素前,而an则用于元音音素前。

1) 代表一类人或物。 A knife is a tool for cutting with. Mr. Smith is an engineer.

2)当第一次提到某人或某物,且并非特指时,用不 定冠词a或an起介绍作用. She is working in a factory.

3)用于人名前,表示说话人对此人不认识,或表示 与某人有类似性质的人或事物.”一位名叫…”
A Mr. Smith came to visit you when you went out.

He wishes to become a Newton. 4)表示乐器的名词前一般用定冠词the, 但前面如 果出现定语修饰,也可能用不定冠词a, an。 He starts his day by playing the violin. He is playing a borrowed violin.

5)介词与表示交通工具的名词连用表示笼统的方 式,前面一般不用冠词,但如果名词的前面出现 了修饰语,前面需加冠词a/an。 He went to the station by car. He went to the station in a black car. 6) turn用作系动词时,后面作表语的单数名词前 不用冠词。 He turned writer many years later. (=He became a writer many years later.) 7)在序数词前表示“又一,再一” This is the third time I’ve been here. I want to be here a fourth time.

8)放在抽象名词前,用来表示具体的一个人或一件 事. He is not a success as a leader, but he has gained much experience in teaching. 9)在形容词\最高级前表示“非常” 不定冠词. Unit Nine is a most difficult unit, but it isn’t the most difficult unit in Book One.

10. a/an 用于说明事物的同一性质、特点、 程度或大小,表示“相同”之意,相当于 the same . we are nearly of an age . Birds of a feather flock together.物以类 聚。

11. 在某些句型中可加a It is a pity that you have missed the chance. It is a shame / a pleasure / a honour for sb. to do sth.

12. 不定冠词a(n)用于有形容词修饰的一日三餐前。

我每天早晨上班前.吃点简单的早餐。 Before I go to work every morning, I’ve a light breakfast.

12. 不定冠词a(n)用于有形容词修饰的季节、日期前。

车祸是7月底的一个星期天发生的。 The traffic accident happened on a Sunday towards the end of July.

13. 否定比较级表达最高级意义时,常借助 于不定冠词a/an. ? --- what do you think of the film? ? ---Oh , ? 我从没看过这最糟糕的电影。

14. 不定冠词a(n)用于形式为复数,但意义仍为单数的 名词前。

一千英里是相当远的距离。

A thousand miles is a good distance.

15). 词组或成语。 once in a while a few a pile a great many in a hurry have a word with sb. after a while keep an eye on a great deal of do sb a favor once upon a time have a good time as a matter of fact take a walk (break, bath, have a headache/fever

at a loss a lot as a whole many a of a size in a word have a cold all of a sudden a (great ) number at a distance a knowledge of keep a diary take ( a ) pride in seat)

a little a type of in a way as a rule in a minute in a short while have a try pay a visit to of tell a lie make a living all of a sudden

不定冠词的位置
考题点击1

D ______ role she played in the film! No wonder she
has won an Oscar. (2002上海春) A. How interesting C. What interesting B. How an interesting D. What an interesting

不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。但位于下 列形容词之后: such,what,many,half,如: I have never seen such an animal. Many a man is fit for the job.

考题点击2

D We were in ________ when we left that we forgot
the airline tickets. (2003上海)
A. a rush so anxious C. so an anxious rush B. a such anxious rush D. such an anxious rush

当名词前的形容词被副词 as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容 词之后: It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. So short a time. Too long a distance.

还需注意下面几个问题:
1、quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。 quite a lot / quite a sudden change / a rather difficult job 2、在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当表语为单数名词

但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可。如:

时,并将其倒装时,其前不用冠词;否则用冠词:
Brave man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes./ Though she is a young girl… 3、当名词被比较级形容词修饰时,不定冠词通常置于比较级 形容词之后。 There is much bigger a room than mine.

4. 表示世界上独一无二的事物的名词前一般加定冠词the; 但如 果名词前有修饰语,也可能用不定冠词a,an。 the world, a peaceful world the moon, a bright moon 5. 表示一日三餐的名词前面一般不用冠词,但前面如果有了定 语修饰,也可能用不定冠词a, an。 Have you had supper? We had a wonderful supper.

6. a/an 可表示单位,价格,速度,比率等,意为”每一个=per 或 every. at a speed of eighty miles an hour

定冠词的用法
考题点击1 As a rule, domestic servants doing odd jobs are paid _______. (04上海春季) A A. by the hour B. by hour C. by an hour D. by hours “按小时付费”,以及其它用来表示“按…计算” 都需用介词 by 加 the 加单位名词来表示,如: by the day; by the jin; by the pound; by the dozen …。 但需注意:size; weight; time; length … 等名词并 不表示单位,所以不需加 the。

考题点击2 On May 5, 2005, at ________World Table Tennis Championship, Kong Linghui and Wang Hao won the gold medal in men's doubles with ________ D score of 4: 1. (05江苏卷) A. a; a B. 不填; the C. a; 不填 D. the; a
“the World Table Tennis Championship”是由普通名 词构成的专有名词,用来表示一个机构名称。这

类名词前都要加 the。 “with a score of 4:1” 表示
“以4:1的比分”,是一个介词短语结构。

考题点击3
This book tells ________ life story of John Smith,

who left ______ school and worked for a newspaper
at the age of 16. (05辽宁卷)

C

A.the; the B.a; the C.the; 不填 D.a; 不填 “这本书讲的是 John Smith 的人生故事”,是特

指的,所以必须用 the。 “leave school” 表示
“毕业”,不用冠词。类似的用法还有:finish

school; in class; at church; go to school …等。

定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有“那(这)个”
的意思,但较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或

某些特定的人或东西。
1)特指双方都明白的人或物: Take the medicine. 把药吃了。 2)上文提到过的人或事: He bought a house. I?ve been to the house.

他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。
3)指世上独一物二的事物: the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth

4)与单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类 人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。 5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same等前面: Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。 That?s the very thing I?ve been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。 6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体: They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师) They are teachers of this school. (指部分教师)

7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位 的名词前: She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。 8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团 体、阶级、等专有名词前: the People?s Republic of China 中华人民共和国 the United States 美国 9)用在表示乐器的名词之前: She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。 10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人: the Greens 格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)

11) 用在表示“度量衡”之类的名词前: Apples are sold by the pound. 但要注意在 time, weight, length 等名词前不加 the。 12) 形容词最高级和序数词前及表示“世纪或逢十的年 代”的复数数词前。 The first day the most beautiful girl Peter is the tallest in our class. In the 1990?s ( 1990s) 13)表示乐器的名词中,Erhu等中国乐器前不加the Play Erhu

14)表示江河、海洋、海湾、海峡、湖泊、山脉、港口、群岛的 名词之前。(注:山峰、岛屿为专有名词,其前不用定冠词, 如:Mount Tai, Tai Wan Island) The Chang Jiang River, the Suez Canal, the Pacific Ocean, the Taiwan Straits, the Tai Hang Mountains, the West Lake, the Philippines 15)用在国籍前表示全体 The Chinese, the Japanese 16)在发明物的单数名词前 Thomas Edison invented the electric lamp. 17)用于报刊杂志、会议、条约、历史事件、时期、朝代前 The Times泰晤士报, the 16th Party Congress第十六次党代 会, the Atlantic Pact大西洋公约, the May 4th Movement 五四运动, the Xi’an Incident西安事变, the Middle Ages中 世纪, the Tang Dynasty唐朝

18)用在某些动词后,代替物主代词,指人 的身体或衣着的某部分。 常用这类动词有:hit, take, beat, strike, pat, pull, catch, shake, seize其中,表 打的介词用on, in,表抓,拿的介词用by He catch sb by the arm / by the hand / by the collar

19)用于习语或固定结构中 All the time, all the year round, all the age of, at the same time, at the beginning of, at the end of, by the end of, in the end, in the beginning, in the day, in the daytime, the other day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day before yesterday, the day after tomorrow, at the bottom of, at the edge of, at the foot of, by the side of, in the distance, in the middle of, in the sky, in the sun, in the world, in the shade, under the shade, on the left, in the street, on the ground, in the east of, on the way to, on the other side of, by the way, in the darkness, on the radio, under the leadership, with the help of, in the habit of, in the form of, break the law, make the bed, tell the truth, keep the balance of ---

定冠词的位置
考题点击1

D He did it ____ it took me. (2003北京)
A. one-third a time B. one-third time C. the one-third time D. one-third the time 定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后, 名词之前。 All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。

零冠词的用法
考题点击1 If you go by ______ train, you can have quite a comfortable journey, but make sure you get ______ fast one. (05全国卷3) B A.the; the B.不填;a C.the; a D.不填;不填 在由介词 by 加表示交通方式的名词短语中,不 用冠词。但如果 by 不表示交通方式,而表示地 理位置,就需要加冠词了。如:by sea 乘船;by the sea 在海边

考题点击2
It is often said that _____ teachers have _____

very easy life. ( 05北京卷)
A. 不填;不填 C. the, 不填 B. 不填;a D. the, a

B

teachers 是复数名词,用来表示类属,不加冠词。 只有在特定范围内的复数名词前才加冠词。 “have a … life”是一个习惯短语,表示“过着… 的生活”。

考题点击3
The warmth of _______ sweater will of course

be determined by the sort of ______wool used.
(01全国) A. the; the B. the;/ C. /; the D. /; /

B

sweater 的保暖性能取决于使用哪一种类型的羊 毛。the 加单数名词 sweater 表示一种类型;而羊 毛是物质名词,表示类属的物质名词不加冠词。

1)国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary;

2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定
冠词; They are teachers. 他们是教师。 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词; Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母

4)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示
特定的意思时,需要加定冠词; Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。

5)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示 时间的名词之前,不加冠词; We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。 6)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词; The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。 7)在三餐饭、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加 冠词 如:have breakfast,play chess 但如果三餐饭的名词前有形容词修饰,则需要加 冠词。如:have a big breakfast

8)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词; I can?t write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。 9)当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时, 中间无冠词;by bus,by train; 10)有些个体名词不用冠词;如: school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed, table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直 接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义; go to hospital 去医院看病 go to the hospital 去医院 (并不一定去看病)

11)不用冠词的序数词; a. 序数词前有物主代词 b. 序数词作副词 He came first in the race. c. 在固定词组中 at (the) first, first of all, from first to last 12)学科名词、语言名称前 Study Physics / Chinese / English / Chemistry. 注意:What?s the Chinese for the word “ map ”? 13)某些疾病名称前 Heart attack, liver trouble, high blood pressure 但有些表示疾病的名词前要加不定冠词:have a headache, fever, cut, cough, wound, pain等。

14)呼唤语,在自家人或熟人间谈到家庭中的成员时,或指家中雇佣的 cook, teacher, nurse时。 What’s wrong with you, mother? Who’s monitor in your class, girl? Mother asked nurse to take the child out. 15)可数名词已有物主代词,指示代词,不定代词,名词所有格以及 kind of, sort of, piece of修饰时。 I like this book. I have not any pictures. I have this kind of bike. This is Peter’s dictionary. 16)用基数词表示物体的编号时。 Lesson One, Room 201, Class 4, Grade 3 17)在动词go, turn“变成”后的名词前。 His brother turned engineer. He has gone lawyer. 18)普通名词+as引导的让步状语从句(倒装),名词前;Man指人类时 man前。 Child as he is, he knows a lot of things. Man will conquer nature.

19)含有零冠词的习语或固定结构 After school, after class, after graduation, after liberation, all day and all night, all night long, arm in arm, ask for help, ask for advice, at dinner, at first, at last, at night, at noon, at once, at present, at war, at work, by accident, by chance, by air, by bike, by hand, by means of, by mistake, catch fire, catch sight of, catch/get/take hold of, come into power, day and night, day by day, east and west, face to face, father and son, for example, for sale, hand in hand, heart and soul, husband and wife, in bed, in danger, in debt, in fact, in hunger, in ink, in pencil, in need, in order, in public, in return, in search of, in silence, in space, in surprise, in town, in trouble, in use, in time, on time, keep in touch with, learn --- by heart, lose weight, put on weight, make fun of, make room for, make use of, man and woman, on duty, on fire, on foot, on sale, on show, on strike, out of breath, out of danger, out of order, out of sight, set fire, shoulder to shoulder, side by side, step by step, take care of, take pride in, time and time, watch TV, with anger, with pleasure, with satisfaction

使用冠词注意事项
一、表示类别 不定冠词+可数名词单数 A horse is a useful animal. 定冠词+可数名词单数 The horse is a useful animal. 可数名词复数 Horses are useful animals. 不可数名词 What fine weather it is!

二、并列结构中冠词的使用 1、一个人具有双重身份或身兼数职时,可以用一个冠 词。 A blind singer and poet The principal and secretary 2、两件东西配成一套使用时,只用一个冠词。 A needle and thread A watch and chain A knife and fork 3、两个关系十分密切的单数名词并列时,一般不用冠 词。 Hand and foot, heart and soul, father and son, knife and fork, bread and butter, from right to left, day and night, face to face, day by day, word for word逐字地, husband and wife

三、一冠之差,意思不同。 A most很---the most最--等等

四、society做“社会”时,如果泛指一般的 社会,前面不用定冠词;如果表示特定的 某个社会,要用定冠词。 A thief is a danger to society. The society of the Greeks was based on freedom.

五、方位名词作状语时,前面不用定冠。另外,方 位名词作定语修饰专有名词时,前面不加冠词, 但第一个字母要大写。 The window faces north. The soldier got to a village east of the lake. You can see from the map that South America is joined to North America. 下面三句意思相同: Yangzhou is (lies) northeast of Nanjing. Northeast of Nanjing is (lies) Yangzhou. To the northeast of Nanjing is (lies) Yangzhou.

六、形容词最高级前不加定冠词的五种情况: 最高级用来加强语气,表示非常,极其的意思。不 用定冠词或用不定冠词。 做标语的形容词最高级,只用来同本身比较,并且 无一定范围时,不用定冠词。 如果形容词的最高级修饰的是同源宾语,前面只用 物主代词。 如果形容词最高级用在that, though, as引导的倒 装让步状语从句中,不用定冠词。 在at the least, at the best, at the worst, at the latest, at the farthest等短语中,定冠词 通常省略。

She was in closet touch with us. He is a most learned scholar in electronics. The lake is deepest at this point. Vegetables are best when they are fresh. He dreamed his most dreadful dream last night. Youngest though he is, he is the wisest. Most strong – bodied man as he is, he can’t move the big stone. He will be back on May 20 at latest. The town is 30 miles from here at farthest.

七、of前后的两个名词表示同位关系时,后 一名词前通常不用冠词。 He is not used to the position of servant. She played the role of happy hostess. 八、抽象化的man可以表示男人气质或气概, woman可以表示女人气质。 That is a lot of man.那真是大丈夫。 That is a lot of woman.那真是妇人之见。 九、表示男女对比,不用冠词。 Woman is supposed to live longer than man.

十、序数词前不用冠词有四种情况。 序数词作副词 序数词作名词表示名词等时。 序数词和名词构成复合形容词。 表示街道名称。 You should first read the questions before you answer them. These TV sets are all firsts. They tried to get first – hand information. Twenty – second Street Sixth Avenue

冠词的位置
1、all (both, half)+定冠词+名词 All (both, half) the apples are good. 2、such a (an)+名词 She is such a beautiful girl that everyone likes her. 3、as, so too+形容词+a, an+名词 She is too good a girl for him.她太好了,他配不上她。 She is so beautiful a girl that everyone likes her. 4、How+形容词+a,an+名词+主语+谓语 What + a, an+形容词+名词+主语+谓语 How beautiful a girl she is! What a beautiful girl she is! 5、rather, quite + a, an+形容词+名词=a, an rather, quite+形容词+名词 It’s quite a cold day today. It’s a quite cold day today. 如果名词前没有形容词只能用rather, quite + a, an +名词结构 Peter is rather a fool.


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