U1 add sth.up 把……加起来 add sth.to sth.把……加到/进……里 add up to 加起来共计/达(不用于被动语态) add to 增加；增添 upset upset upset sth upset sb 某事使某人心烦不安 sb upset sth 某人打翻某物 sb be upset about sth ignore be ignorant of
对· · ·不了解，无知 out of ignorance 出于无知 stay/keep/be calm 保持镇静 As far as I am concerned 就我而言 Sb be concerned about sth 担心 Sb be concerned in/with sth 涉及 Concerning sth =Regarding sth 关于，某事 go through a hard time 经历了一段困难时期 go through the baggage 检查行李 go through the newspaper 浏览报纸 go through lots of money 花了很多钱 set down the ideas on paper 把想法写在纸上 set me down at the bus-stop 在车站让我下车 a series of on purpose=by design 故意 by accident=by chance 偶然，碰巧 in order (not) to in order that so as (not) to so that at dusk at dawn power powerful come to power 当前
do sth face to face a face-to-face talk draw the curtain 放下窗帘 dust-dusty dirt-dirty settle down settle in sw 在某地定居 settle an argument/ a matter 解决争端/问题 suffer from 因……而痛苦, 患……病 suffer from loneliness 因孤独而痛苦 suffer from a bad cold 得了重感冒 遭受, 蒙受(痛苦、饥饿、寒冷、损失等) suffer a heavy loss 遭受严重损失 suffer pain/hunger/cold/death 遭受痛苦;饥饿;寒冷;死亡 sufferer n. 受苦者suffering n. 痛苦, 苦难 recover from illness be tired of (doing) sth 厌烦做某事 be tired from (doing) sth 因做某事很累 pack up a pack of 一包 have trouble with sb 与某人闹别扭 have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth fall in love with sb be grateful to sb for sth swap A for B
You had to pay to get it repaired Get/have sth done Your friend comes to school very upset.主语补足语 While （you were） walking the dog, you were careless and it got loose and was hit by a car.主句与从句一致，切从句含有 be 动词，主语和 be 动词可一起省略 Tell him that he should have studied.本该做却没做 Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? 定语从句 Her family was Jewish so nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered. I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. 不定式作后置定语 I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound.定语从句 I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven in order to have a good look at the moon by my self. it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face… I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows. 现在分词作后置定语 It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. 定语从句 She found it difficult to settle and calm down in the hiding place. It 作形式宾语 I still find it hard to make good friends with them. I would be grateful if you could give me some advice.
U2 重点单词和短语 because of due to thanks to owing to as a result of on account of native adj. 本地的, 本国的 one’s native land/country/language 故乡；祖国；母语 a native speaker of English 以英语为母语的人 be native to （动植物）原产于某 地 n. 本地人；当地人；原产于某地的动植物 a native of ZhongXiang 钟祥人
come up: 走上前来；被提出； （太阳、月亮）升起；发生 He came up to me and said hello to me Your question came up at the meeting The sun has come up I’ll let you know if anything comes up come up with a good idea: 想出一个好点子 base vt. 以……为根据：base sth. on sth. 使……以……为依据/基础 base one’s opinions on facts: 意见以事实为依据 be based on: 以……为依据 n．基础：make London the base for revolutionary work 使伦敦成为革命工作的根据地 basis n. 根据；基本原则 on the basis of…… 在……的基础上 the basis of/for your opinion 你的看法的依据 present v. 赠送；呈现；介绍；描述 present sth. to sb./present sb. with sth. 向某人赠送/颁发/授予/介绍某物 present sb. to sb. else 向某人介绍/引见某人 adj 现在的；在场地 be present at the meeting 出席会议 everyone present 在场的各位 the present situation 目前的形式 at present/at the present time 目前；现在 for the present 眼下；暂时 n. 赠品；礼物
make use of 利用；使用 make full use of 充分利用 make good use of 好好利用 make little use of 不充分利用 make the best (use) of 更好地利用；往好里做 make the most of 更好地利用 His progress in study lies in the good use he made of his spare time We should consider what use can be made of such a material such as: 用于列举，往往不能把事物全部列出，可以以“名词（,）such as+被列举的事物” 和“such+名词+as+被列举的事物”形式出现 Sweet food, such as chocolate can make you fat =Such sweet food as chocolate can make you fat
command V. 命令；指令；掌握 command sb. to do sth. 命令某人做某事 command (that) sb. (should) do sth. 从句中用虚拟语气 n．命令;指令；掌握 have a good command of English. 精通/熟练掌握英语 request V. 请求，要求 request sth. from sb. 向某人索要某物 request sb. to do sth. 要求某人做某事 request that sb. (should) do sth. It’s requested that 从句 据要求 as requested 依据请求
play an important/vital part/role in (doing) sth. 在……中起重要/至关重要的作用 play the leading role/part 起主要作用，起带头作用，演主角 recognize vt. 识别；认出 recognize sb./sb’s voice. 认出某人/听出某人的声音 recognize sth./sb. to be 承认某人是…… recognize sth./sb. as sth. 正式认可/接受某事/人为…… recognition n. 承认，认出 beyond/out of recognition 认不出来 a large number of fluent English speakers 许多英语讲得流利的人 the number of people learning English 学习英语的人的数目 make sense 有道理；有意义；讲得通
In some important ways they are very different from one another. At fist the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. 过去分词作后置定语 It was base more on German than the English we speak at present. 定语从句 English became less like German because those who ruled England spoke first Danish and later French. 定语从句 The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. 现在分词作后 置定语 The fly agreed immediately without a second thought. Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. Many people believe the English spoken on TV and the radio is standard English.过去分 词作后置定语
Those who report the news were expected to speak excellent English.定语从句 You will hear differences in the way people speak. 掌握 way 作先行词的关系词 When people use words and expressions different from the standard language. The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken.
U3 prefer vt. 更喜欢 prefer coffee to tea. 更喜欢咖啡而不是茶 prefer doing to doing 更喜欢干……而不愿干…… prefer to do rather than do 宁愿干……而不愿干…… prefer that sb (should) do 更宁愿某人干… preference n. (两者之中) 较喜欢的东西；偏好；偏爱 have a preference for… 对……偏爱 have no particular preference 没有特别的偏好 persuade vt. 说服；劝服、 persuade sb. to do sth.=persuade sb. into doing sth. 说服某人做…… persuade sb. not to do=persuade sb. out of doing 说服某人停止做……；劝阻某人 做…… persuade sb. of sth. 或 persuade sb. + that 从句 使某人相信 persuasive adj. 有说服力的 6、schedule: n. 时间表；进度表 ahead of schedule 较预定的时间提前 on schedule 按照预定的时间，按时 behind schedule 迟于预定的时间；拖后 vt. 为……安排时间 schedule the meeting for that night 会议的时间定在那天晚上 be scheduled to do sth. 预定做某事 10、determine vt.& vi.确定；决定；使…下定决心 determine to do 决定做某事 determine sb. to do sth. 使某人决定做某事 determine on early start determined adj 已决定了的；坚定的；坚决的 be determined to do sth 决定干某事 a determined look 坚定的表情 a determined man 意志坚定的人 determination 决定；决心 with determination 坚决地 a man of great determination 意志坚定的人 at an altitude of =at a height of 在……高度 at 表示“在……处/时；以……” at a price of 以……的价格 at a speed/ rate of 以……速度 at a length of 在……长度 at a depth/ width of 在……深度，宽度 at a distance of 在……远的距离 at the cost of 以……为代价 make up one’s mind 下决心 keep one’s mind on 专心于 bear/ keep sth. in mind 记住某事 read one’s mind 看出某人心思 speak one’s mind 直言不讳 give off 发出（蒸汽、光、热等）
give in (to sb./ sth.) (向……)屈服；让步；投降 give out 分发；筋疲力尽
pace. n. 一步；速度；步调 keep pace with 跟……齐步前进 attitude, n. 态度；看法 take a friendly attitude to/ towards us. 对我们采取友善的态度 hold a positive/ negative attitude 持积极/消极态度 insist v. 坚决要求；主张 insist on (sb’s) doing sth. 坚决要求（某人）做 insist on (my) giving up smoking 坚决要求（我）戒烟 insist + 从句 He insisted that he was right. 他坚持认为他是正确的 He insisted that he should be set free. 他坚决要求他被释放 view. n. 视野；视力；景色；看法；观点 be/ go out of view 从视野消失 admire the view 欣赏景色 from my point of view 依我看来 take the view that 从句， 持有……观点 V. 考虑；观看 view sb. as sth. 把……看作 24、put up the tents. 搭起帐篷 put up the post 张贴海报 夜 put up your hands 举手 put up ten people for night 为十人提供食宿过 come into view 进入视线
Wang Wei soon got time interested in cycling too. It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. 强调句 she insisted that she organize the trip properly. 虚拟语气 When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience. 主动被动态情况 It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, traveling across western Yunnan Province. 现在分词作伴随状语 The very first time that Joe saw the film “ET” directed by Steven Spielberg, he made up his mind to become a director too. 作连词 Along the way children dressed in long wool coats stopped to look at us. 过去分词作后置 定语 At one point we were so high that we found ourselves cycling through clouds . We can hardly wait to see them.
U4 burst (burst, burst) vi. 爆裂；爆发 burst into a place=break into a place 突然闯进 burst in 突然插嘴；打断 burst into tears/ laughters/ flames 突然大哭/大笑/起火 burst out crying/ laughing/ singing 突然哭起来/笑起来/唱起来 n. 一阵 a burst of laughter/ applause 一阵笑声/掌声 a burst of anger 怒火的迸发 at an end 结束；终结 in the end 最后；终于 at the end (of sth.) 在结尾处；在（……）结束的时候 by the end of this month 在本月末 ruin n. 废墟；毁灭；遗迹 be/ lie/ stand in ruins 成为一片废墟 the ruins of Yuanmingyuan 圆明圆遗迹 v. 毁灭；使破产/灭 ruin one’s health 毁坏某人健康 ruin one’s hope 使某人希望破灭
destroy (destroyed, destroyed) vt. 破坏；毁坏；消灭 destroy the building 毁坏建筑 destroy/ ruin one’s hope 使希望破灭 destruction n. 破坏；毁坏 track n. 轨道；足迹；痕迹 keep track of 记录；掌握……的线索 shock: n. 休克；打击；震惊；令人震惊的事 be a great shock 沉重的打击 an electric shock 电击 The bad news left us speechless from shock 坏消息使我们震惊得说不出话来。 vt & vi (使)震惊；震动 be shocked by/ at 对……感到震惊 rescue: n & vt. 援救；营救 rescue sb. from… 从危险中救出 come/ go to one’s rescue 营救某人 a shocking accident 令人震惊的事故 a rescue team 救援队 rescuer n. 营救人员
trap vt. 使陷入困境 trap sb. in the mud= get/ be trapped in the mud 被困在泥巴里面 trap sb./ sth. into (doing)… 诱使某人/某物（做）…… n. 陷阱；困境 set a trap 设圈套
bury vt. 埋葬；掩埋；隐藏 bury one’s face/ head in sth. 把脸/头伸到……里去 bury oneself in= be buried in 埋头于；专心于 be buried in thought 陷入了沉思 burial n. 埋葬；葬礼 judge n. 裁判员；法官； work as a judge: 当法官/裁判 vt. 断定；判断；判决；认为
judge sth. from/ by sth. 由……来判断
judging from/ by sth. 由……来看（作状语） judge sb. to be… 认为某人…… As far as I can judge 据我判断 judge the case 审理这个案件
judgement n. 判决；审判；判断 make a judgement on sth. 对……作出判断 express vt. 表达；表示 express thanks/ thoughts 表达感谢/思想 n. 快车，速递 rise(rose risen) vi.增长；站起；起床 n.上涨；涨工资 rise by 20% 增长了 20% rise to 200. 增长到 200 rise from the chair 从椅子上站起来 Early to bed and early to rise is good to your health 早睡早起对身体有好处 ask for a rise 要求涨工资 get a rise 升级；涨工资 run out of；用光（不用被动) think little/ nothing of 轻视；忽视；对……满不在乎 think much/ highly of 重视；看重；对……高度评价 reach v. 延伸；达成（协议） ；得出结论；伸手够到某物；与……取得联系 The woods reaches as far as the river 森林延伸至河边 reach an agreement 达成协议 reach a conclusion 得出结论 reach him by telephone 用电话与他取得联系 reach out for sth 伸手去拿 n. 够着；达到 out of the reach of sb. 在某人伸手够不着的地方 within the reach of sb. 在某人伸手够得着的地方 above/ beyond the reach of sb. 超出某人的能力 It sounds/ looks/ feels/seems as if. 听/看/感觉起来/看来好像 without warning 在没有任何先兆的情况下 the disaster-hit/stricken areas 受灾地区 Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. 现在分词作伴随状语 It seemed as if the world was at an end! 掌握其用法 It was felt in Beijing, which is more than two hundred kilometers away. One-third of the nation felt it. A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals. 定语从句 In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. Thousands of families were killed of injured reached more than 400,000. another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan. All hope was not lost. 部分否定 The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges, all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year.
重点单词和短语 quality. n. 质量；品质；性质 be of high/good/ low/ poor quality 质量高/低 a man of fine qualities: 一位有很多好品质的男子 quantity 数量 qualify v. 使……具体资格（品质） mean adj. 吝啬的；自私；卑鄙的 It’s mean of sb. to do sth. 做某事真是太自私/卑鄙了 be mean to sb. about/ over sth. 在某方面对某人很吝啬 devote vt. (与 to 连用)献身；专心于 devote oneself to sth./ doing sth. 献身于……；专心做某事 devote one’s life/ time/ money/ energy to sth./ doing sth. 把本人的一生/时间/金钱/精力奉献于…… devoted. adj. 忠实的；深爱的 be devoted to… 专心致志于；忠于；喜欢 a devoted friend 一位忠实的朋友 a devoted mother 一位贤妻良母 principle n. 法则；原则；原理 stick to one’s principles 恪守自己的原则 out of work=be out of a job 失业 out of control 失去控制 out of reach 够不着 out of sight 看不见 out of mind 心不在焉 against one’s principle 违背某人的原则 out of patience 失去耐心 out of date 过时 out of money 钱花光 out of order 坏了；混乱
vote vt & vi. 投票；选举 n. 投票；选票；表决 vote on… 就……投票 vote for/ against 投票赞成/反对 vote to do 投票表决帮某事； vote + that 从句 blow up; 使丧气；炸毁 get the tire blown up 给轮胎打气 blow up a bridge 炸毁一座桥 equal adj. 相等的；平等的； be equal to 与……相等；等于；能胜任 v. 等于；比得上 n. 同等（对等）的人；对于；匹敌者 equal sb in sth = be an equal to sb in sth. 在某方面与某人匹敌/势力相当 equally adv. be in trouble 在危险；受罚；痛苦；忧虑等的处境中 get into trouble 遇到麻烦;出事 have trouble (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难 take great trouble to do sth 不辞辛苦做某事 turn to 求助于；致力于；转向；变成；转变到 turn to sb. for help/ advice 向某人求助/救 give up medicine and turn to writing 放弃医学转向写作 lose heart 丧失勇气或信心 lose one’s heart to 爱上；喜欢上
lose oneself in 迷上 lose one’s temper 发怒 excape. vi & vt 逃脱；逃走；泄露 escape punishment / being punished 逃避惩罚 n. 逃跑；逃脱 make one’s escape
escape from.. 从……逃跑/脱
逃走 have a narrow escape 死里逃生； 勉强逃脱
beg v. 请求；乞求 beg sb. to do sth. 乞求（某人）做某事 beg sb. for sth. 向某人要某东西 reward n. 报酬；奖金 vt. 酬劳；奖赏 reward sb. with sth. 用……酬谢某人 set up a laboratory 建立一个实验室 set out to do sth. 开始干……；着手于… set off 引爆，使……爆炸，动身 be sentenced to 被判处……（徒刑） fight (fought, fought) vi & vt. 打仗；打架；与……进行斗争或奋斗；对抗 fight for freedom 为争取自由而斗争 fight against ……为反对……而战 划线部分为定语从句 The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometers away. However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. “The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping out rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.” They could not get the jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people. The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. “…we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important or fight the government. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful; when this was not allowed… reward sb. for (doing) sth. 因……而酬谢某人 set about doing sth 开始干（做）某事
only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.” Only 引导的部分倒装用法 It was a prison from which no one escape. Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had little learning. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep. We use anything we can find to make candles to see the words. He gave me a job taking tourists around my old prision on Robben Island. I felt bad the first time I talk to a group.