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12.Disorders


Psychological Disorders
liudexiang

Overview
? ? ? ? ? Perspectives on psychologcal disorders Mood disorders Anxiety disorders Psychosomatic and somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders

Perspectives on psychologcal disorders
? ? ? ? ? Biological model Psychoanalytic model Cognitive-behavioral model Diathesis-stress model Systems approach

Biological model
? Biological model : View that psychological disorders have a biochemical or physiological basis.

Psychoanalytic model
? Psychoanalytic model: View that pscychological disorders result from unconscious internal conflicts.

Cognitive-behavioral model
? Cognitive-behavioral model: View that psychological disorders result from learning maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving.

Diathesis-stress model
? Diathesis-stress model: View that people biologically predisposed to a mental disorder will tend to exhibit that disorder when particularly affected by stress.

System approach
? System approach: View that biological, psychological, and social risk factors combining to produce psychological disorders. Also known as the biopsychosocial model of psychological disorders.

Mood disorders
? Depression ? Suicide ? Mania and bipolar disorder

Mood disorders
? Mood disorders: Disturbance in mood or prolonged emotional state. ? Depression: A mood disorder characterized by overwhelming feelings of sadness, lack of interest in activities, and perhaps excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness.

Mood disorders
? Mania : A mood disorder characterized by euphoric states, extreme physical activity, excessive talkativeness, distractedness, and sometimes grandiosity.

Mood disorder
? Biopolar disorder: A mood disorder in which periods of mania and depression alternate, sometimes with periods of normal mood intervening.

Anxiety disorders
? Anxiety disorders: Disorders in which anxiety is a characteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior.

Specific phobia
? Specific phobia: Anxiety disorder characterized by an intense, paralyzing fear of something.

Agoraphobia
? An anxiety disorder that involves multiple, intense fears of crowds, public places, and other situations that require separation from a souce of security such as the home.

Panic disorder
? An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks in which the person suddenly experiences intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause.

Generalized anxiety disorder
? An anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears that are not attached to any particular object or circumstance.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
? An anxiety disorder in which a person feels driven to think disturbing thoughts or to perform senseless rituals.

Pcychosomatic disorders
? Disorders in which there is real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety.

Somatoform disorders
? Disorders in which there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis.

Conversion disorders
? Somatoform disorders in which a dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems.

Dissociative disorders
? Disorders in which some aspect of the personality seems separated from the rest.

Dissociative identity disorder
? Also called multiple personality disorder which is characterized by the separation of the personality into two or more distinct personalities.

Depersonalization disorder
? A dissociative disorder whose essential feature is that the person suddenly feels changed or different in a strange way.

Personality disorders
? Disorders in which inflexible and maladptive ways of thinking and behaving learned early in life cause distress to the person or conflicts with others.

Schizoid personaltiy disorder
? Personality disorder in which a person is withdrawn and lacks feelings for others.

Paranoid personality disorder
? Personality disorder in which the person is inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others.

Dependent personaltiy disorder
? Personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone.

Avoidant personality disorder
? Personality disorder in which the person’s fears of rejection by others lead to social isolation.

Narcissistic personality disorder
? Personality disorder in which the person has an exaggerated sense of selfimportance and needs constant admiration.

Borderline personality disorder
? Personality disorder characterized by marked instability in self-image, mood, and interpersonal relationships.

Antisocial personality disorder
? Personality disorder that involves a pattern of violent, criminal, or unethical and exploitative behavior and an inability to feel affection for others.

The End


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