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2014全国高考汇编阅读之科普知识类


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2014 全国高考汇编阅读之科普知识类
启迪精品英语工作室出品 一(2014 安徽卷) B Recordings of angry bees are enough to send big, tough African elephants running away, a new study says. Beehives ( 蜂窝 )-either recorded or real-may even prevent elephants from damaging farmer's crops.
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In 2002, scientist Lucy King and her team found that elephants avoid certain trees with bees living in them. Today, Lucy wants to see if African honeybees might discourage elephants from

eating crops. But before she asked farmer to go to the trouble of setting up beehives on their farms, she needed to find out if the bees would scare elephants away. Lucy found a wild beehive inside a tree in northern Kenya and set up a recorder. Then she threw a stone into the beehive, which burst into life. Lucy and her assistant hid in their car until the angry bees had calmed down. Next,Lucy searched out elephant families in Samburu National Reserve in northern Kenya and put a speaker in a close to each family. From a distance, Lucy switched on the pre-recorded sound of angry bees while at the same time recording the elephants with a video camera. Half the elephant groups left the area within ten seconds. Out of a total of 17 groups, only one group ignored the sound of the angry bees. Lucy reported that all the young elephants immediately ran to their mothers to hide under them. When Lucy Played the sound of a waterfall (瀑布) instead of the angry bees to many of the same elephant families, the animals were undisturbed. Even after four minutes, most of the groups stayed in one place. Lucy is now studying whether the elephants will continue to avoid the sound of angry bees after hearing it several times. She hasn't tested enough groups yet to know, but her initial (最初的) results were promising enough to begin trials with farmers. She has now begun placing speakers in the fields to see if elephants are frightened away.
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60. We know from the passage that elephants may he frightened of A. loud noises B. some crops
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C. video cameras D. angry bees

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61. As mentioned in the passage, Lucy A. works by herself in Africa
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B. needs to test more elephant groups C. has stopped elephants eating crops

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D. has got farmers to set up beehives on their farms 62. Why did Lucy throw a stone into a wild beehive? A. To record the sound of bees.
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B. To make a video of elephants.

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C. To see if elephants would run away. D. To find out more about the behavior of bees.
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63. Which of the following is true according to the passage? A. Young elephants ignore African honeybees. B. Waterfalls can make elephants stay in one place. C. Elephants do not go near trees with bees living in them. D. Farmers do not allow Lucy to conduct tests in their fields. 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文讲述了非洲大陆的大象十分害怕蜜蜂的声音,科学家 Lucy King 正在研究 十分可以利用这个现象来保护庄稼不受大象的侵扰。 60. 【答案】D 【试题解析】细节题。根据文章第一句 Recordings of angry bees are enough to send big, tough African elephants running away, a new study says.可知愤怒的蜜蜂的录音的声音足以让非洲大 象都害怕地跑开。故 D 正确。 61. 【答案】B
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【试题解析】推理题。根据文章最后一段 She hasn't tested enough groups yet to know, but her initial (最初的) results were promising enough to begin trials with farmers.可知她需要还需要对 更多的象群进行研究,以证明蜜蜂的声音对大象是有影响的。故 B 正确。 62. 【答案】A
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【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第三段 1,2 行 Lucy found a wild beehive inside a tree in northern Kenya and set up a recorder. Then she threw a stone into the beehive, which burst into life. Lucy
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and her assistant hid in their car until the angry bees had calmed down.他们找到一个蜂巢,放好 录音机,然后扔一个石块击中蜂巢,让蜜蜂都飞起来寻找敌人。他们录下这个声音。可知他 们扔石头是为了录下愤怒的蜜蜂的声音。故 A 正确。 63. 【答案】C 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章倒数第二段 From a distance, Lucy switched on the pre-recorded sound of angry bees while at the same time recording the elephants with a video camera. Half the elephant groups left the area within ten seconds. Out of a total of 17 groups, only one group ignored the sound of the angry bees.可知当她播放蜜蜂的声音的时候,大部分的大象都在 10 秒钟只能离开了,说明大象很害怕蜜蜂的声音。故 C 正确。 【长难句解析】 Recordings of angry bees are enough to send big, tough African elephants running away, a new study says.
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【翻译】一个新的研究说:愤怒的蜜蜂的录音足以让体型巨大的非洲大象都逃走。 【分析】本句中的表语 are enough to send big, tough African elephants running away 中的不定 式 to send big, tough African elephants running away 表示的是结果。 句中有一个固定搭配 send sb doing sth 让某人做某事,doing 是宾语补足语的成分。
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二(2014 北京卷) D Multitasking
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What is the first thing you notice when you walk into a shop? The products displayed (展示) at the entrance? Or the soft background music? But have you ever notice the smell? Unless it is bad, the answer is likely to be no. But while a shop’s scent may not be outstanding compared with sightsand sounds, it is certainly there. And it is providing to be an increasing powerful tool in encouraging people to purchase. A brand store has become famous for its distinctive scent which floats through the fairly dark hall and out to the entrance, via scent machines. A smell may be attractive but it may not just be used for freshening air. One sports goods company once reported that when it first introduced scent into its stores, customers’ intension to purchase increased by 80 percent.
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When it comes to the best shopping streets in Pairs, scent is just as important to a brand’s success as the quality of its window displays and goods on slaes. That is mainly because shopping is a very different experience to what it used to be. Some years ago,the focus for brand name shopping was on a few people with sales assistants’ disproving attitude and don’t-touch-what-you-can’t-afford displays. Now the rise of electronic commerce (e-commerce) has opened up famous brands to a wider audience. But while e-shops can use sights and sounds, only bricks-and-mortar stores (实体店) can offer a full experience from the minute customers step through the door to the moment they leave. Another brand store seeks to be much more than a shop, but rather a destination. And scent is just one way to achieve this.
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Now a famous store uses complex man-made smell to make sure that the soft scent of baby powder floats through the kid department, and coconut (椰子) scent in the swimsuit section. A department store has even opened a new lab, inviting customers on a journey into the store’s windows to smell books, pots and drawers, in search of their perfect scent.
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67. According to the passage, what is an increasingly powerful tool in the success of some brand store?
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A. Friendly assistant. C. Soft background music

B. Unique scents. D. attractive window display.
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68. E-shops are mentioned in the passage to _______ . A. show the advantages of brick-and-mortar stores B. urge shop assistants to change their attitude C. push stores to use sights and sounds D. introduce the rise of e-commerce
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69. The underlined word ―destination‖ in Paragraph 5 means _______ . A. a platform that exhibts goods B. a spot where travelers like to stay
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C.a place where customers love to go

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D. a target that a store expects to meet

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70. The main purpose of the passage is to ______ . A. compare and evaluate

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B. examine and assess

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C. argue and discuss 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读
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D.inform and explain

【文章大意】本文介绍了现在的很多商店都运用一个新方法:味道,来吸引顾客。并解释了 这样做的原因。这是与网店比较起来实体店的一个优势。 67. 【答案】B 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第三段 1,2 行 A brand store has become famous for its distinctive scent which floats through the fairly dark hall and out to the entrance, via scent machines.可知这 家商店的成功的原因是店里很有特色的味道。故 B 正确。 68. 【答案】A 【试题解析】推理题。根据第五段 3,4 行 But while e-shops can use sights and sounds, only bricks-and-mortar stores (实体店) can offer a full experience from the minute customers step through the door to the moment they leave.可知电子网店里可以使用声音和视觉来吸引顾客, 那么实体店里就可以使用味道来吸引顾客。 作者举电子网店是为了说明实体店也有自己的优 势。故 A 正确。 69. 【答案】C 【试题解析】推理题。根据本句 Another brand store seeks to be much more than a shop, but rather a destination.另外一家实体店通过种种方法努力让自己不仅仅是一个商店, 而成为人们 愿意去的目的地,既然来到这里,他们就可能多购物了。光顾该词是指 C 项含义。 70. 【答案】D
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【试题解析】推理题。本文介绍了现在的很多商店都运用一个新方法:味道,来吸引顾客。 并解释了这样做的原因。也就是说本文是为了告诉我们这样的行为并做出解释。故 D 正确。 【长难句解析】 One sports goods company once reported that when it first introduced scent into its stores, customers’ intension to purchase increased by 80 percent. 【翻译】一家运动品牌公司曾经报道,当他们首先引进香味进入商店的时候,顾客们的购物 欲望增加了百分之 80. 【分析】本句中动词 reported 后面含有一个宾语从句 that when it first introduced scent into its stores, customers’ intension to purchase increased by 80 percent.通常宾语从句的引导词 that 是 可以省略的, 但是本题宾语从句中有一个 when 引导的时间装预从句, 所以 that 是不能省略。
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三(2014 广东卷)

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D

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Scientists today are making greater effort to study ocean currents (洋流) . Most do it using satellites and other high-tech equipment. However, ocean expert Curtis Ebbesmeyer does it in a special way --- by studying movements of random floating garbage. A scientist with many years’ experience, he started this type of research in the early 1990s when he heard about hundreds of athletic shoes washing up on the shores of the northwest coast of the United States. There were so many shoes that people were setting up swap meets to try and match left and right shoes to sell or wear.
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Ebbesmeyer found out in his researches that the shoes — about 60,000 in total — fell into the ocean in a shipping accident. He phoned the shoe company and asked if they wanted the shoes back. As expected, the company told him that they didn't. Ebbesmeyer realized this could be a great experiment. If he learned when and where the shoes went into the water and tracked where they landed, he could learn a lot about the patterns of ocean currents. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's best areas for beachcombing(海滩搜寻) because winds and currents join here, and as a result, there is a group of serious beachcombers in the area. Ebbesmeyer got to know a lot of them and asked for their help in collecting information about where the shoes landed. In a year he collected reliable information on 1, 600 shoes. With this data, he and a colleague were able to test and improve a computer program designed to model ocean currents, and publish the findings of their study. As the result of his work, Ebbesmeyer has become known as the scientist to call with questions about any unusual objects found floating in the ocean. He has even started an association of beachcombers and ocean experts, with 500 subscribers from West Africa to New Zealand. They have recorded all lost objects ranging from potatoes to golf gloves.
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41. The underlined phrase swap meets in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ______________. A. fitting rooms B. trading fairs
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C. business talks D. group meetings
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42. Ebbesmeyer phoned the shoe company to find out _____________. A. what caused the shipping accident B. when and where the shoes went missing C. whether it was all right to use their shoes D. how much they lost in the shipping accident
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43. How did Ebbesmeyer prove his assumption? A. By collecting information from beachcombers. B. By studying the shoes found by beachcomber. C. By searching the web for ocean currents models. D. By researching ocean currents data in the library.
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44. Ebbesmeyer is most famous for ___________________. A. traveling widely the coastal cities of the world B. making records for any lost objects on the sea C. running a global currents research association
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D. phoning about any doubtful objects on the sea

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45. What is the purpose of the author in writing this passage? A. To call people's attention to ocean pollution. B. To warn people of shipping safety in the ocean. C. To explain a unique way of studying ocean currents.

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D. To give tips on how to search for lost objects on the beach. 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文介绍了.海洋专家 Curtis Ebbesmeyer 通过研究海上漂流物的方法来研究洋 流,接着就对此方法进行了详细说明。 41.【答案】B 【试题解析】 猜测词义题。 根据横线部分下一句 try and match left and right shoes to sell or wear 人们尝试着配对左右脚的鞋,然后去卖或者穿。说明人们想搞一个贸易集会来卖这些鞋子。 故 B 正确。 42. 【答案】C 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据第二段 2,3 行 He phoned the shoe company and asked if they wanted
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the shoes back. As expected, the company told him that they didn't.他打电话给这件制鞋公司, 询 问他们是否还想要这些鞋子。 也就是说他想知道是否可以使用这些鞋子来进行他的实验。 故 C 正确。
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43. 【答案】A 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第三段第 2 句 Ebbesmeyer got to know a lot of them and asked for their help in collecting information about where the shoes landed. In a year he collected reliable information on 1, 600 shoes.可知他通过 beachcombing 来收集信息,进行自己的研究, 以此来研究洋流的问题。故 A 正确。 44. 【答案】D
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【试题解析】推理题。根据文章最后一段第一句 As the result of his work, Ebbesmeyer has become known as the scientist to call with questions about any unusual objects found floating in the ocean.得知因为专门打电话询问海洋里漂流的物体而出名。故 D 正确。 45. 【答案】C 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第一段第 3 句 However, ocean expert Curtis Ebbesmeyer does it in a special way --- by studying movements of random floating garbage. 海洋专家 Curtis Ebbesmeyer 通过研究海上漂流物的方法来研究洋流,接着就对此进行了详细说明。故本文 是为了解释这一独特的研究洋流的方法,C 项正确。
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四(2014 湖北卷) C Working with a group of baboons (狒狒) in the Namibian desert, Dr. Alecia Carter of the Department of Zoology, Cambridge University set baboons learning tasks involving a novel food and a familiar food hidden in a box. Some baboons were given the chance to watch another baboon who already knew how to solve the task, while others had to learn for themselves. To work out how brave or anxious the baboons were, Dr. Carter presented them either with a novel food or a threat in the form of a model of a poisonous snake.
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She found that personality had a major impact on learning. The braver baboons learnt, but the shy ones did not learn the task although they watched the baboon perform the task of finding the novel food just as long as the brave ones did. In effect, despite being made aware of what to do,
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they were still too shy to do what the experienced baboon did.

The same held true for anxious baboons compared with calm ones. The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching. This mismatch between collecting social information and using it shows that personality plays a key role in social learning in animals, something that has previously been ignored in studies on how animals learn to do things. The findings are significant because they suggest that animals may perform poorly in cognitive (认知的) tasks not because they aren’t clever enough to solve them, but because they are too shy or nervous to use the social information. The findings may impact how we understand the formation of culture in societies through social learning. If some individuals are unable to get information from others because they don’t associate with the knowledgeable individuals, or they are too shy to use the information once they have it, information may not travel between all group members, preventing the formation of a culture based on social learning.
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59. What is the first paragraph mainly about? A. The design of Dr. Carter’s research. B. The results of Dr. Carter’s research.
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C. The purpose of Dr. Carter’s research. D. The significance of Dr. Carter’s research. 60. According to the research, which baboons are more likely to complete a new learning task? A. Those that have more experience. B. Those that can avoid potential risks. C. Those that like to work independently. D. Those that feel anxious about learning. 61. Which best illustrates the ―mismatch‖ mentioned in Paragraph 4? A. Some baboons are intelligent but slow in learning. B. Some baboons are shy but active in social activities. C. Some baboons observe others but don’t follow them. D. Some baboons perform new tasks but don’t concentrate.
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62. Dr. Carter’s findings indicate that our culture might be formed through ______. A. storing information B. learning from each other
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C. understanding different people D. travelling between social groups 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文通过叙述 Dr. Alecia Carter 在狒狒身上进行的一项研究显示动物的性格在 社会化的学习中起着很重要的作用。 同样人类也与此相似, 我们的文化的形成正是通过交换 信息等社会学习活动。 59. 【答案】A
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【试题解析】 段落大意题。 根据第一段 2,3,4 行 Dr. Alecia Carter of the Department of Zoology, Cambridge University set baboons learning tasks involving a novel food and a familiar food hidden in a box. Some baboons were given the chance to watch another baboon who already knew how to solve the task, while others had to learn for themselves.可知本段主要描述他进行的这项 研究的设计方案,也就是他在这项研究里是如何做的。故 A 正确。 60. 【答案】D 【试题解析】细节题。根据第三段第 2 句 The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching.可知那 些很焦虑的急切想学习的狒狒学得更快,更好。而那些害羞的狒狒却没有能够做到。故 D 正确。
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61. 【答案】C 【试题解析】推理题。根据第三段 The same held true for anxious baboons compared with calm ones. The anxious individuals learnt the task by observing others while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching.可知一些狒狒虽然观察了很长时间, 但是并 没有采取行动。这一错位说明性格在动物的社会行为中起着很重要的作用。第四段里的 mismatch 就是指第三段最后一句 while those who were relaxed did not, even though they spent more time watching.的内容。故 C 正确。 62. 【答案】B 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章最后一段第一句 The findings may impact how we understand
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the formation of culture in societies through social learning 可知人们是通过社会学习来理解我 们文化的组成的。也就是说人们需要相互交换信息,相互学习。故 B 正确。 【长难句解析】 1.Working with a group of baboons (狒狒) in the Namibian desert, Dr. Alecia Carter of the Department of Zoology, Cambridge University set baboons learning tasks involving a novel food and a familiar food hidden in a box. 【翻译】和一群狒狒在纳米比亚的沙漠里工作的来自剑桥大学的动物学博士 Alecia Carter 给狒狒们设定了一个涉及到新奇食品和很熟悉的放在盒子里的食品的学习任务。 【分析】 本句中的现在分词短语 Working with a group of baboons (狒狒) in the Namibian desert 在句中做为状语, 因为动词 work 与句子主语 Dr. Alecia Carter 构成主动关系。 同时现在分词 短语 involving a novel food and a familiar food hidden in a box 作为定语修饰前面的名词 learning tasks。
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2. This mismatch between collecting social information and using it shows that personality plays a key role in social learning in animals, something that has previously been ignored in studies on how animals learn to do things.
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【翻译】这种收集信息和使用信息的错位说明性格在动物的社会性学习方面起着关键的作 用,这是在关于动物如何学习的之前的研究中被忽略的问题。
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【分析】 本句中的动词 show 后面含有一个 that 引导的宾语从句 that personality plays a key role in social learning in animals, something that has previously been ignored in studies on how animals learn to do things。 这个宾语从句中 something 就指 personality plays a key role in social learning in animals 这一点。 Something 后面是一个定语从句 that has previously been ignored in studies on how animals learn to do things。修饰先行词 something。

五(2014 湖南卷) C The behaviour of a building’s users may be at least as important as its design when it comes to energy use, according to new research from the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC). The UK promises to reduce its carbon emissions (排放)by 80 percent by 2050, part of which will be achieved by all new homes being zero-carbon by 2016. But this report shows that sustainable
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building design on its own — though extremely important- is not enough to achieve such reductions: the behaviour of the people using the building has to change too. The study suggests that the ways that people use and live in their homes have been largely ignored by existing efforts to improve energy efficiency (效率),which instead focus on architectural and technological developments.
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‘Technology is going to assist but it is not going to do everything,’explains Katy Janda, a UKERC senior researcher,‘consumption patterns of building users can defeat the most careful design. ’In other words,old habits die hard, even in the best-designed eco-home.
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Another part of the problem is information. Households and bill-payers don’t have the knowledge they need to change their energy-use habits. Without specific information, it’s hard to estimate the costs and benefits of making different choices. Feedback (反馈) facilities, like smart meters and energy monitors, could help bridge this information gap by helping people see how changing their behaviour directly affects their energy use; some studies have shown that households can achieve up to 15 percent energy savings using smart meters. Social science research has added a further dimension (方面),suggesting that individuals’ behaviour in the home can be personal and cannot be predicted 一 whether people throw open their windows rather than turn down the thermostat (恒温器) , for example. Janda argues that education is the key. She calls for a focused programme to teach people about buildings and their own behaviour in them.
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66. As to energy use, the new research from UKERC stresses the importance of________. A. C. zero-carbon homes sustainable building design B. the behaviour of building users D. the reduction of carbon emissions
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67. The underlined word ―which‖ in Paragraph 2 refers to‖________.‖ A. C. the ways B. their homes D. existing efforts
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developments

68. What are Katy Janda’s words mainly about? A. B. C.

The importance of changing building users, habits. The necessity of making a careful building design. The variety of consumption patterns of building users.
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D.

The role of technology in improving energy efficiency.

69. The information gap in energy use _______. A. B. C. D. can be bridged by feedback facilities affects the study on energy monitors brings about problems for smart meters
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will be caused by building users’ old habits

70. What does the dimension added by social science research suggest? A. B. C. D. The social science research is to be furthered. The education programme is under discussion. The behaviour of building users is unpredictable.
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The behaviour preference of building users is similar.

【考点】考察科普知识类短文 【文章大意】UKERC 的研究发现居民的行为和房屋的设计在节能方面同样的重要。文章号 召我们要注意自己的行为切实注意环保节能。 66. 【答案】B
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【试题解析】细节题。根据文章 1,2 行 The behaviour of a building’s users may be at least as important as its design when it comes to energy use, according to new research from the UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC). 居民的行为和房屋的设计在节能方面同样的重要。这是 UKERC 的研究的结果。 所以如果我们要想达到节能的目的, 我们必须要注意使用者的行为。 故 B 正确。 67. 【答案】D 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据本段 The study suggests that the ways that people use and live in their homes have been largely ignored by existing efforts to improve energy efficiency (效率),which instead focus on architectural and technological developments.可知:这个研究说明人们现在提 高能源使用效率的努力忽视了使用者的行为, 却把太多的注意力集中到了房屋的设计和技术 的发展方面。故本句中的 which 是指 existing efforts。故 D 正确。 68. 【答案】A
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【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第三段‘Technology is going to assist but it is not going to do everything,’和‘consumption patterns of building users can defeat the most careful design. ’In
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other words,old habits die hard, even in the best-designed eco-home.可知技术是可以给我们带 来帮助, 但是它不能解决所有的问题。 房屋使用者的使用行为可以让最细心的设计都失去效 果。本句说明 Katy Janda 认为房屋使用者的习惯很重要。故 A 正确。 69. 【答案】A 【试题解析】 细节题。 根据第四段 3,4 行 Feedback (反馈)facilities, like smart meters and energy monitors,could help bridge this information gap by helping people see how changing their behaviour directly affects their energy use 可知 Feedback facilities 可以 bridge the information gap。故 A 正确。 70. 【答案】C 【试题解析】 细节题。 根据最后一段 1,2 行 Social science research has added a further dimension (方面),suggesting that individuals’behaviour in the home can be personal and cannot be predicted 可知很多家庭的个人行为是很难预测的。故 C 正确。 【长难句解析】 1.The behaviour of a building’s users may be at least as important as its design when it comes to energy use 【翻译】当涉及到使用能源的时候,房屋使用者的行为和房屋的设计至少是同样地重要。 【分析】本句中含有一个倍数表达法 as important as…;本题是一个原级的比较。倍数表达 法是高中英语教学的重点,当我们要表达甲是乙的几倍时,通常用句型来表示:1. “A+倍 数+形容词或副词的比较+than+B”,表示“A 比 B 大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。如:This rope is twice longer than that one. 2.“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示“A 正 好是 B 的多少倍”。如:Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲的面积是欧洲的四倍。3 “A++the size/height/length/width, etc+of+B” , 表示 “A 正好是 B 的多少倍” 。 如: This street is four times the length of that one.4.“??times+what+从句”。如 The production is now three times what it was ten years ago.
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六(2014 江苏卷) C Most damagingly, anger weakens a person's ability to think clearly and keep control over his behaviour. The angry person loses objectivity in evaluating the emotional significance of the
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person or situation that arouses his anger.

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Not everyone experiences anger in the same way; what angers one person may amuse another.The specific expression of anger also differs from person to person based on biological and cultaral forces. In contemporary culture, physical expressions of anger are generally considered too socially harmful to be tolerated. We no longer regard duels(决斗) as an appropriate expression of anger resulting from one person's awareness of insulting behaviour on the part of another. Anger can be identified in the brain, where the electrical activity changes. Under most conditions EEG (脑电图) measures of electrical activity show balanced activity between the right and left prefrontal ( 额 叶 前 部 ) areas. Behaviourally this corresponds to the general even-handed disposition (意向)that most of us possess most of the time. But when we are angry the EEG of the right and left prefrontal areas aren't balanced and. as a result of this, we're likely to react. And our behavioural response to anger is different from our response to other emotions, whether positive or negative. Most positive emotions are associated with approach behaviour: we move closer to people we like. Most negative emotions, in contrast, are associated with avoidance behaviour: we move away from people and things that we dislike or that make us anxious. But anger is an exception to this pattern. The angrier we are. the more likely we are to move towards the object of our anger. This corresponds to what psychologists refer to as offensive anger: the angry person moves closer in order to influence and control the person or situation causing his anger. This approach-and-confront behaviour is accompanied by a leftward prefrontal asymmetry (不对称 ) of EEG activity. Interestingly, this asymmetry lessens if the angry person can experience empathy (同感) towards the individual who is bringing forth the angry response. In defensive anger, in contrast, the EEG asymmetry is directed to the right and the angry person feels helpless in the face of the anger-inspiring sitaation. 61. The "duels" example in Paragraph 2 proves that the expression of anger _ . A. usually has a biological basis C. is socially and culturally shaped B. varies among people D. influences one's thinking and evaluation
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62. What changes can be found in an angry brain? A. Balanced electrical activity can be spotted.
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B. Unbalanced patterns are found in prefrontal areas. C. Electrical activity corresponds to one's behaviour. D. Electrical activity agrees with one's disposition.
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[ 来源: 中国# 教育^@ 出版 网~%]

63. Which of the following is typical of offensive anger? A. Approaching the source of anger. C. Moving away from what is disliked. B. Trying to control what is disliked.
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D. Feeling helpless in the face of anger.
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64. What is the key message of the last paragraph?

A. How anger differs from other emotions. B. How anger relates to other emotions. C. Behavioural responses to anger. 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读
[ 来源:*中国教育 出^ 版网@&#]

D. Behavioural patterns of anger.

【文章大意】 本文介绍了一些与愤怒有关的表现以及医学原理和人们生气的时候表现出的行 为模式。 61. 【答案】C 推理题。根据文章第二段 In contemporary culture, physical expressions of anger are generally considered too socially harmful to be tolerated.在当代社会里, 愤怒的肢体表现被认为是对社会 有伤害而不能被容忍。 但是在古代却又着决斗这样的行为, 说明愤怒的表现形式是由不同的 社会和文化形成的。故 C 正确。 62. 【答案】B 细节题。根据第三段 3,4 行 But when we are angry the EEG of the right and left prefrontal areas aren't balanced 可知当我们生气的时候,脑电图在额叶前部会出现不平衡的现象。故 B 正确。 63. 【答案】A 细节题。 根据文章第四段 3,4,5 行 The angrier we are. the more likely we are to move towards the object of our anger. This corresponds to what psychologists refer to as offensive anger: the angry person moves closer in order to influence and control the person or situation causing his anger. 可 知当我们生气的时候,我们很可能靠近让我们生气的对象。这是典型的 offensive anger 的表 现。故 A 正确。 64. 【答案】D 段落大意题。根据本段 1,2 行 Most positive emotions are associated with approach behaviour 及 Most negative emotions, in contrast, are associated with avoidance behaviour 中的 approach
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behaviour 和 avoidance behaviour 可知本段讲述的是愤怒的时候, 人们表现出的行为模式。 故 D 正确。

七(2014 辽宁卷) A A new study shows students who write notes by hand during lectures perform better on exams than those who use laptops(笔记本电脑). Students are increasingly using laptops for note-taking because of speed and legibility(清晰 度) . But the research has found laptop users are less able to remember and apply the concepts they have been taught. Researchers performed experiments that aimed to find out whether using a laptop increased the tendency to make notes ―mindlessly‖ by taking down word for word what the professors said. In the first experiment, students were given either a laptop or pen and paper. They listened to the same lectures and were told to use their usual note-taking skills. Thirty minutes after the talk, they were examined on their ability to remember facts and on how well they understood concepts. The researchers found that laptop users took twice as many notes as those who wrote by hand. However, the typists performed worse at remembering and applying the concepts. Both groups scored similarly when it came to memorizing facts. The researchers’ report said, ―While more notes arc beneficial, if the notes are taken mindlessly, as is more likely the case on a laptop, the benefit disappears.‖ In another experiment aimed at testing long-term memory, students took notes as before but were tested a week after the lecture. This time, the students who wrote notes by hand performed significantly better on the exam. These two experiments suggest that handwritten notes arc not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior revision in the future. 21. More and more students favor laptops for note-taking because they can A. write more notes C. get higher scores B. digest concepts better D. understand lectures better .
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.

22. While taking notes, laptop users tend to be

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A. skillful C. thoughtful 23. The author of the passage aims to A. B. C. D.

B. mindless D. tireless .
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examine the importance of long-term memory stress the benefit of taking notes by hand explain the process of taking notes promote the use of laptops .
[ 来@^ 源&*:#中教网][ 来源&@:z*zstep.%co^m]

24. The passage is likely to appear in A. a newspaper advertisement C. a science magazine 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读

B. a computer textbook D. a finance report

【文章大意】作者在本文中讲述了一次实验:使用笔记本电脑记笔记和手动记笔记的学生进 行对比。结果发现手动记笔记的学生表现更好,告诉我们需要进行手动记笔记,而不是使用 电脑。 21.【答案】A 【试题解析】细节题。根据文章第二段第一句 Students are increasingly using laptops for note-taking because of speed and legibility(清晰度).可知学生越来越多使用电脑记笔记是因 为速度和清晰度。也就是说使用笔记本电脑记笔记速度更快,可以记录更多的内容。故 A 正确。 22. 【答案】B 【试题解析】推理题。根据第三段 Researchers performed experiments that aimed to find out whether using a laptop increased the tendency to make notes ―mindlessly‖ by taking down word for word what the professors said. 研究人们做实验是为了发现使用笔记本电脑记笔记是否会 让人处于一种无意识的状态之中, 只是机械地输入。 而实验结果说明用笔记本记录的学生表 现不如使用钢笔记录的人。说明使用笔记本记录的确会让人有 mindless 的感觉。故 B 正确。
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23. 【答案】B 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章最后一段 These two experiments suggest that handwritten notes arc not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior
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revision in the future.可知手动记笔记对于短期长期记忆都有好处,也就说本文强调我们需要 进行手动记笔记,而不是使用电脑。故 B 正确。 24. 【答案】C 【试题解析】 推理题。 本文通过讲述一个实验结论告诉我们手动记笔记对于短期长期记忆都 有好处,学生的表现比使用电脑记笔记更好。不会是广告,电脑教科书也不会是金融报告, 这属于教学类的科学研究。故 C 正确。 【长难句解析】 1.A new study shows students who write notes by hand during lectures perform better on exams than those who use laptops。 【翻译】 一项新的研究显示上课时手动写笔记的学生在考试中要比使用笔记本电脑的学生表 现更好。 【分析】本句中动词 show 后面宾语从句的引导词 that 被省略了,这个宾语从句中含有定语 从句 who write notes by hand during lectures 修饰 students; 另外一个定语从句 who use laptops 修饰 those。 2.These two experiments suggest that handwritten notes are not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior revision in the future. 【翻译】 这两个使用都说明手动写笔记不仅对于即时学习和理解有好处, 而且会导致未来的 表现更好。
[www.zz&^st#ep.co*m~] [ 来源:中~ 国教育^ 出*版& 网@][ 来源:~中%& 国教育^ 出*版网]

【分析】本句中的动词 suggest 表示―说明,暗示‖,并不是―建议‖;另外句中的宾语从句 that handwritten notes are not only better for immediate learning and understanding, but that they also lead to superior revision in the future.较长,谓语部分是有 not only…but also…连接。

八(2014 辽宁卷) C Would it surprise you to learn that, like animals, trees communicate with each other and pass on their wealth to the next generation?
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UBC Professor Simard explains how trees are much more complex than most of us ever imagined. Although Charles Darwin thought that trees arc competing for survival of the fittest, Simard shows just how wrong he was. In fact, the opposite is true: trees survive through their
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co-operation and support, passing around necessary nutrition ―depending on who needs it‖. Nitrogen (氮) and carbon are shared through miles of underground fungi (真菌) networks, making sure that all trees in the forest ecological system give and receive just the right amount to keep them all healthy. This hidden system works in a very similar way to the networks of neurons (神经元)in our brains, and when one tree is destroyed, it affects all. Simard talks about ―mother trees‖, usually the largest and oldest plants on which all other trees depend. She explains how dying trees pass on the wealth to the next generation, transporting important minerals to young trees so they may continue to grow. When humans cut down ―mother trees‖ with no awareness of these highly complex ―tree societies‖ or the networks on which they feed, we are reducing the chances of survival for the entire forest.
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―We didn’t take any notice of it.‖ Simard says sadly. ―Dying trees move nutrition into the young trees before dying, but we never give them chance.‖ If we could put across the message to the forestry industry, we could make a huge difference towards our environmental protection efforts for the future. 29. The underlined sentence ―the opposite is true‖ in Paragraph 2 probably means that trees A. B. C. D. compete for survival
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.

protect their own wealth depend on each other

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provide support for dying trees .

30. ―Mother trees‖ are extremely important because they A.look the largest in size in the forest B. C. D. pass on nutrition to young trees
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seem more likely to be cut down by humans know more about the complex ―tree societies‖ .

31. The underlined word ―it‖ in the last paragraph refers to A.how ―tree societies‖ work B. how trees grow old
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C. how forestry industry develops D.how young trees survive
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32. What would be the best title for the passage? A. B. C. D. Old Trees Communicate Like Humans Young Trees Are In Need Of Protection
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Trees Are More Awesome Thart You Think Trees Contribute To Our Society
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【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文主要讲述了森立的树木会通过―tree societies‖把自己的财富交给下一代。 并详细说明了这一发现的具体内容。 29. 【答案】C 【试题解析】推理题。根据本句 Although Charles Darwin thought that trees arc competing for survival of the fittest, Simard shows just how wrong he was. In fact, the opposite is true: 可知达 尔文认为树是相互竞争以获得生存。但是 Simard 的实验发现达尔文是错误的。实际上:与 达尔文的理论相反的观点是正确的。也就是说树不是竞争生存,而是考相互合作,相互依靠 生存下来的。故 C 正确。 30. 【答案】B
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【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第四段 Simard talks about ―mother trees‖, usually the largest and oldest plants on which all other trees depend.可知―mother trees‖通常都是其他的树依赖的大树, 它承担这向小树输送养料的作用。ACD 三项都是片面的理解。故 B 正确。 31. 【答案】A 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据第四段最后三行和最后一段第一行 When humans cut down ―mother trees‖ with no awareness of these highly complex ―tree societies‖ or the networks on which they feed, we are reducing the chances of survival for the entire forest.
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―We didn’t take any notice of it.‖当人们意识不到这种复杂的―tree societies‖情况下砍倒了 mother trees, 我们就减少了整个森林幸存的机会。 最后一段第一句中的 it 就是指 complex ―tree societies‖。故 A 正确。 32. 【答案】C
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【试题解析】主旨大意题。根据文章主题段第一段 Would it surprise you to learn that, like animals, trees communicate with each other and pass on their wealth to the next generation? 可知 树和动物一样,能够把自己的财富交个下一代。这比人们原来的看法完全不一样,树比我们
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认为地更聪明。故 C 正确。 【长难句解析】

[ 来@& 源:中*国教育出 版网# ~]

UBC Professor Simard explains how trees are much more complex than most of us ever imagined. 【翻译】UBC 的教授 Simard 树木要比我我们很多人想象得还要复杂。 【分析】本节中的动词 explain 后面含有一个 how 引导的宾语从句 how trees are much more complex than most of us ever imagined.这个从句中有一个比较从句 most of us ever imagined。

九(2014 山东卷) D How fit are your teeth? Are you lazy about brushing them? Never fear: An inventor is on the case. An electric toothbrush senses how long and how well you brush, and it lets you track your performance on your phone. The Kolibree toothbrush was exhibited at the International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas this week. It senses how it is moved and can send the information to an Android phone or iPhone via a Bluetooth wireless connection. The toothbrush will be able to teach you to brush right (don’t forget the insides of the teeth!) and make sure you’re brushing long enough. ―It’s kind of like having a dentist actually watch your brushing on a day-to-day basis,‖ says Thomas Serval, the French inventor. The toothbrush will also be able to talk to other applications on your phone, so developers could, for instance, create a game controlled by your toothbrush. You could score points for beating monsters among your teeth. ―We try to make it smart but also fun,‖ Several says. Serval says he was inspired by his experience as a father. He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth. They said ―yes,‖ but Serval would find their toothbrush heads dry. He decided he needed a brush that really told him how well his children brushed.
[ 来源:^@ 中*& 教~网]

The company says the Kolibree will go on sale this summer, for $99 to $199, developing on features. The U.S. is the first target market.
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Serval says that one day, it’ll be possible to replace the brush on the handle with a brushing unit that also has a camera. The camera can even examine holes in your teeth while you brush.
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56. Which is one of the feature of the Kolibree toothbrush? A. It can sense how users brush their teeth. B. It can track users’ school performance. C. It can detect users’ fear of seeing a dentist. D. It can help users find their phones.
[ 来~#源:中 国教育 出版&% 网^] [ 来源:&@ 中国教育 出^%*版网] [ 来源&#%:中^*教网]

57. What can we learn from Serval’s words in Paragraph 3? A. You will find it enjoyable to see a dentist.
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B. You should see your dentist on a day-to –day basis.

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C. You can brush with the Kolibree as if guided by a dentist. D. You’d like a dentist to watch you brush your teeth every day. 58. Which of the following might make the Kolibree toothbrush fun? A. It can be used to update mobile phones.
[ 中国*教育^#& 出版网%]

B. It can be used to play mobile phone games C. It can send messages to other users D. It can talk to its developers. 59. What is Paragraph 5 mainly about? A. How Serval found out his kids lied to him.
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B. Why Serval thought brushing teeth was necessary. C. How Serval taught his kids to brush their teeth. D. What inspired Serval to invent the toothbrush 60. What can we infer about Serval’s children? A. They were unwilling to brush their teeth
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B. They often failed to clean their toothbrushes. C. They preferred to use a toothbrush with a dry head. D. They liked brushing their teeth after Serval came home.
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61. What can we learn about the future development of the Kolibree? A. The brush handle will be removed. B. A mobile phone will be built into it.
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C. It will be used to fill holes in teeth D. It will be able to check users’ teeth 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读
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【文章大意】本文介绍了一种新的发明:the Kolibree toothbrush;介绍了这种牙刷的特点及功 能。以及这个发明的起因和具体的用法。 56. 【答案】A 【试题解析】细节题。根据文章第二段 2,3 行 It senses how it is moved and can send the information to an Android phone or iPhone 可知这种牙刷可以感觉到牙刷的移动并向手机发射 与此有关信息的信号。也就是说这种牙刷可以感觉到用户如何刷牙。故 A 正确。 57. 【答案】C 【试题解析】细节题。根据第三段 2,3 行―It’s kind of like having a dentist actually watch your brushing on a day-to-day basis,‖可知这种牙刷会让你感觉到有一个牙医在注意着你如何刷牙 并指导你如何刷牙。故 C 正确。 58【答案】.B
[ 来#源:~中 国%& 教育@ 出版 网]

【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第四段 2,3 行 developers could, for instance, create a game controlled by your toothbrush. You could score points for beating monsters among your teeth. ―We try to make it smart but also fun,‖可知还可以用这个来玩游戏,让它具有娱乐性。故 B 正 确。 59. 【答案】D 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第五段前 3 行 Serval says he was inspired by his experience as a father. He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth. They said ―yes,‖ but Serval would find their toothbrush heads dry.可知作为父亲的他经常发现孩子不 刷牙。所以他想找一个方法来监督孩子刷牙,他才有了发明这样的事物的想法。故本段是为 了说明他有这样的发明的原因,也就是:是什么鼓励着他发明出 The Kolibree toothbrush。 故 D 正确。 60. 【答案】A 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据第五段 2,3 行 He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth. They said ―yes,‖ but Serval would find their toothbrush heads dry.可知 Serval 问孩子们有没有刷牙,孩子说―yes‖,但是牙刷还是干的。什么吗孩子没有刷牙。是因 为他们不喜欢刷牙,这是他们不喜欢做的事情。故 A 正确。 61. 【答案】D 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章最后一句 The camera can even examine holes in your teeth while
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you brush. 可知牙刷上装的相机甚至能够检查你的牙齿上的小洞。说明它可以检查你的牙 齿。故 D 项正确。 【长难句解析】 1.The toothbrush will also be able to talk to other applications on your phone, so developers could, for instance, create a game controlled by your toothbrush.
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【翻译】 这种牙刷还可以和其他的手机应用进行交流, 那么开发者就可以创造一种由你的牙 刷控制的游戏。 【分析】本句中的 so 表示上下文之间的因果关系,是一个并列连词。句中的 for instance 是 一个插入语,过去分词短语 controlled by your toothbrush 在句中充当定语修饰前面的名词 a game,这主要是因为动词 control 与 game 之间构成被动关系。 2. He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth. 【翻译】他下班回家以后经常会问他的孩子是否已经刷牙了。 【分析】本句中的情态动词 would 表示过去常常做某事,would 表示过去常常做,现在可能 还在做;而 used to do sth 表示过去常常做,现在不做了。另外句中的宾语从句 if they had brushed their teeth 中的 if 表示―是否‖,而不是―如果‖。
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十(2014 四川卷)

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D With around 100 students scheduled to be in that 9 am Monday morning lecture, it is no surprise that almost 20 people actually make it to the class and only 10 of them arc still awake after the first IS minutes; it is not even a surprise that most of them are still in their pyjamas (睡衣). Obviously, students are terrible at adjusting their sleep cycles to their daily schedule. All human beings possess a body clock. Along with other alerting (警报) systems, this governs the sleep/wake cycle and is therefore one of the main processes which govern sleep behaviour. Typically, the preferred sleep/wake cycle is delayed in adolescents, which leads to many students not feeling sleepy until much later in the evenings. This typical sleep pattern is usually referred to as the "night owl" schedule of This is opposed to the "early bird" schedule, and is a kind of disorder where the individual tends to stay up much past midnight. Such a person has great difficulty in waking up in the mornings.
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Research suggests that night owls feel most alert and function best in the evenings and at night. Research findings have shown that about 20 percent of people can be classified as "night owls" and only 10 percent can be classified as "early birds" - the other 70 percent are in the middle. Although this is clearly not true for all students, for the ones who are true night owls this gives them an excellent excuse for missing their lectures which unfortunately fall before midday. 43. What docs the author stress in Paragraph I? A. Many students are absent from class. B. Students are very tired on Monday mornings. C. Students do not adjust their sleep patterns well.
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D. Students are not well prepared for class on Mondays. 44. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 2? A. Most students prefer to get up late in the morning. B. Students don't sleep well because of alerting systems. C. One's body clock governs the sleep/wake cycle independently. D. Adolescents' delayed sleep/wake cycle isn't the preferred pattern. 45. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word "classified"? A. Criticised. B. Grouped. C. Organised.
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D. Named.

46. What docs the text mainly talk about? A. Functions of the body clock. B. The "night owl" phenomenon. C. Human beings' sleep behaviour. D. The school schedule of "early birds". 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】 本文属于说明文中的科普类短文。 很多学生在星期一上课时难以将他们的睡眠 周期调整到正常为引子,解释了―night owl‖这一睡眠周期现象。 43. 【答案】 C 【试题解析】 推理题。 文章开头 it is no surprise that almost 20 people actually make it to the class and only 10 of them arc still awake after the first IS minutes;可知在星期一早上的课上只有 20% 的学生到位;在上课 15 分钟后还有 10%的学生还醒着,甚至有人还穿着睡衣,而最终归结
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到第一段最后一句 Obviously, students are terrible at adjusting their sleep cycles to their daily schedule。可知学生还没有调整好自己的睡眠模式。故 C 正确。 44. 【答案】 D 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第二段 2,3 行 the preferred sleep/wake cycle is delayed in adolescents 醒睡周期在青少年身上被推迟了; 以及第三段话 1,2 行 This is opposed to the ―early bird‖ schedule, and is a kind of disorder where the individual tends to stay up much past midnight 可知,这种―night owl‖现象是一种睡眠形式的紊乱,并不是好的睡眠周期。故 D 正确。 45. 【答案】 B
[ 来源^@:中% 教&#网]

【试题解析】猜测词义题。根据此句 Research findings have shown that about 20 percent of people can be classified as "night owls" and only 10 percent can be classified as "early birds" - the other 70 percent are in the middle.: 调查结果表明大约 20%的人可归类为―猫头鹰‖型, 只有 10% 的人可以归为―早起‖型。此处 classify 应为―归类,分类‖等意思。把不同的人分为不同的类 型。故 B 正确。 46. 【答案】B
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【试题解析】 主旨大意题。 本文通过星期一早晨学生很难从原来的睡眠模式里转换调整来导 入―night owl‖这一睡眠周期现象。故 B 正确。 【长难句解析】 With around 100 students scheduled to be in that 9 am Monday morning lecture, it is no surprise that almost 20 people actually make it to the class and only 10 of them arc still awake after the first I5 minutes;
[ 中国^ 教 #育 ~出& 版% 网][www. z~^&z# step.co@m] [ 来源:%@ 中~& 教*网]

【翻译】安全了大约 100 个学生参加星期一 9 点的演讲,一点也不令人惊讶的是几乎有 20 个人能够准时到位,在开始 15 分钟以后仍然有 10 个人还醒着
[ 来 @ 源:中*& 国教% 育#出 版网]

【分析】 本句中含有一个 with 的复合结构 With around 100 students scheduled to be in that 9 am Monday morning lecture。 with 复合结构在语法功能上相当于状语从句, 其基本结构为: with+ 宾语+宾语补足语;宾语补足语可以是名词,代词,形容词,副词,现在分词,或者过去分 词,也可以是不定式等。对宾语的情况进行补充说明。当宾语补足语中的动词与宾语构成被 动关系的时候,使用过去分词的形式;当二者构成主动关系的时候,使用现在分词的形式。 要特别要注意 With 的复合结构经常与独立主格结构转换使用。
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十一(2014 四川卷) E
[ 来源 ^@~: 中国 教育出 版 *网 &]

Women are friendly. But men are more competitive. Why? Researchers have found it's all down to the hormone oxytocin (荷尔蒙催生素). Although known as the love hormone, it affects the sexes differently. "Women tend to be social in their behavior. They often share with others. But men lend to be competitive. They are trying to improve their social status," said Professor Ryan. Generally, people believe that the hormone oxytocin is let out in our body in various social situations and our body creates a large amount of it during positive social interactions (互动) such as falling in love or giving birth. But in a previous experiment Professor Ryan found that the hormone is also let out in our body during negative social interactions such as envy.
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Further researches showed that in men the hormone oxytocin improves the ability to recognize competitive relationships, but in women it raises the ability to recognize friendship. Professor Ryan's recent experiment used 62 men and women aged 20 to 37. Half of the participants(参与 者)received oxytocin. The other half received placebo (安慰剂).
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After a week, the two groups switched with participants. They went through the same procedure with the other material. Following each treatment, they were shown some video pictures with different social interactions. Then they were asked to analyze the relationships by answering some questions. The questions were about telling friendship from competition. And their answers should be based on gestures, body language and facial expressions. The results indicated that, after treatment with oxytocin, men's ability to correctly recognize competitive relationships improved, but in women it was the ability to correctly recognize friendship that got better. Professor Ryan thus concluded: "Our experiment proves that the hormone oxytocin can raise people's abilities to better distinguish different social interactions. And the behavior differences between men and women are caused by biological factors (因素) that are mainly hormonal."
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47. What causes men and women to behave differently according to the text? A. Placebo. C. The gesture. B. Oxytocin. D. The social status.

48. What can we learn from Professor Ryan's previous experiment? A. Oxytocin affects our behavior in a different way. B. Our body lets out oxytocin when we are deep in love. C. Our body produces oxytocin when we feel unhappy about others' success. D. Oxytocin improves our abilities to understand people's behavior differences. 49. Why did Professor Ryan conduct the recent experiment?
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A. To test the effect of oxytocin on the ability to recognize social interactions. B. To know the differences between friendship and competition. C. To know people's different abilities to answer questions. D. To test people's understanding of body language. 50. The author develops the text by______. A. explaining people's behaviors B. describing his own experiences
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C. distinguishing sexual differences D. discussing research experiments 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】文章讲述了 Professor Ryan 调查实验,实验告诉我们荷尔蒙催生素能提高人们 辨认不同的社会交往的能力;男女之间行为的差异是由主要是荷尔蒙的生物因素所引起的。 47. 【答案】 B 【试题解析】 细节题。 根据文章第一段 1,2 行 Women are friendly. But men are more competitive. Why? Researchers have found it’s all down to the hormone oxytocin(荷尔蒙催生素)可知,男女 之间行为表现的不同是由于荷尔蒙催生素水平的不一样导致的。故 B 正确。 48. 【答案】 A 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据文章第三段 Generally, people believe that the hormone oxytocin is let out in our body in various social situations and 和 our body creates a large amount of it during positive social interactions (互动) such as falling in love or giving birth.第四段 But in a previous
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experiment Professor Ryan found that the hormone is also let out in our body during negative social interactions such as envy 在实验里 Professor Ryan 发现在消极的社会交往中,我们身体 也释放出荷尔蒙,可知之前的实验告诉我们 hormone oxytocin (荷尔蒙催生素)使用了另外一 种形式来影响我们的行为。故 A 正确。 49. 【答案】 A 【试题解析】 推理题。 文章最后三行 Professor Ryan thus concluded: "Our experiment proves that the hormone oxytocin can raise people's abilities to better distinguish different social interactions. And the behavior differences between men and women are caused by biological factors (因素) that are mainly hormonal." 可知, 最近这次实验是想测试一下荷尔蒙催生素对辨认社交能力的效果, 而结果证实了荷尔 蒙催生素能提高人们的这种能力。 50. 【答案】 D
[ 中#@ 国教% 育出&^ 版网] [w@ww.zzstep*.#%com&][ 来源:zzs t&ep~@.c^o%m]

【试题解析】推理题。作者是通过讨论所做的不同的实验产生的不同的结果而展开,之前的 实验结果和现在的实验结果的比对。产生新的结论。故 D 正确。 【长难句解析】 Further researches showed that in men the hormone oxytocin improves the ability to recognize competitive relationships, but in women it raises the ability to recognize friendship. 【翻译】进一步地研究显示在男性身上,荷尔蒙催生素能够提高辨认竞争性关系的能力,但 是在女性身上,它能够提高辨认友谊的能力。
[www#.z@zs*tep.c%om~]

【分析】本句中的动词 show 后面有两个宾语从句 in men the hormone oxytocin improves the ability to recognize competitive relationships, but in women it raises the ability to recognize friendship.使用了 and 连接。
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十二(2014 天津卷) B
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A world-famous Canadian author, Margaret Atwood, has created the world’s first long-distance signing device(装置), the LongPen. After many tiring book-signing from city to city, Atwood thought there must be a better way to do them . She hired some technical experts and started her own company in 2004. Together they
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designed the LongPen. Here’s how it works: The author writes a personal message and signature on a computer tablet(手写板) using a special pen. On the receiving end, in another city, a robotic arm fitted with a regular pen signs the book. The author and fan can talk with each other via webcams(网络摄像机) and computer screens。 Work on the LongPen began in Atwood’s basement(地下室). At first, they had no idea it would be as hard as it turned out to be. The device went through several versions, including one that actually had smoke coming out of it. The investing finally completed, teat runs w ere made in Ottawa, and the LongPen was officially launched at the 2006 London Book Fair. From here , Atwood conducted two transatlantic book signings of her latest book for fans in Toronto and New York City. The LongPen produces a unique signature each time because it copies the movement of the author in real time. It has several other potential applications. It could increase credit card security and allow people to sign contracts from another province. The video exchange between signer and receiver can be recorded on DVD for proof when legal documents are used. ―It’s really fun‖, said the owner of a bookstore, who was present for one of the test runs. ―Obviously you can’t shake hands with the author, but there are chances for a connection that you don’t get from a regular book signing.. The response to the invention has not been all favorable. Atwood has received criticism from authors who think she is trying to end book tours. But she said, ―It will be possible to go to places that you never got sent to before because the publishers couldn’t afford it.‖ 41. Why did Atwood decide to invent the LongPen? A. To set up her own company
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B. To win herself greater popularity C. To write her books in a new way C. To make book signings less tiring 42. How does the LongPen work? A.It copies the author’s signature and prints it on a book. B. It signs a book while receiving the author’s signature. C. The webcam sends the author’s signature to another city.
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D. The fan uses it to copy the author’s signature himself. 43. What do we know about the invention of the LongPen? A. It has been completed but not put into use. B. The basement caught fire by accident. C. Some versions failed before its test run. D. The designers were well-prepared for the difficulty. 44. How could the LongPen be used in the future? A. To draft legal documents. B. To improve credit card security C. To keep a record of the author’s ideas.
[ 来源:@ 中%#& 教网^] [www.z#@zs%tep.^com*]

D. To allow author and fan to exchange videos 45. What could be inferred from Paragraphs 5 and 6? A. Atwood doesn’t mean to end book tours. B. Critics think the LongPen is of little use
[ 来源 :中国 教*#育^& 出版% 网][ 来源:z# z@step.&co%m*]

C. Bookstore owners do not support the LongPen D. Publishers dislike the LongPen for its high cost 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文介绍了一种特殊的远程签字笔 LongPen,可以让作者在很远的城市为读者 签名。文章介绍了这种发明的起因以及发明过程等信息。 41. 【答案】D 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第二段第一行 After many tiring book-signing from city to city, Atwood thought there must be a better way to do them .可知在很多次令人疲惫的签名售书的活 动以后,他认为应该有一个更好的方法。说明他想这样做是因为签名令人疲惫了。故 D 正 确。
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42. 【答案】B

[ 来 %#^ 源*@:中教网]

【试题解析】细节题。根据第二段 2,3,4 行 Here’s how it works: The author writes a personal message and signature on a computer tablet(手写板) using a special pen. On the receiving end, in another city, a robotic arm fitted with a regular pen signs the book.可知作者在一个城市里用一 支特殊的笔写下签名,另外一个城市里的自动手臂会接受信号也写下同样的内容。故 B 正
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确。 43. 【答案】C 【试题解析】推理题。根据文章第三段第三句 . The device went through several versions, including one that actually had smoke coming out of it.可知这个装置的发明经历了很多次失 败,最后才成功。故 C 项正确。 44. 【答案】B
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【试题解析】细节题。根据文章第四段 2,3 行 It could increase credit card security and allow people to sign contracts from another province. The video exchange between signer and receiver can be recorded on DVD for proof when legal documents are used.可知这种技术可以应用在 信用卡技术方面,以提高信用卡的安全性。故 B 正确。 45. 【答案】A 【试题解析】 推理题。 根据第六段最后一句 But she said, ―It will be possible to go to places that you never got sent to before because the publishers couldn’t afford it.‖这会让作者有机会去更 多你没有去过的地方, 因为出版商不可能出钱让你去。 说明他发明 LongPen 并不想结束 book tours.,而是让作者有更多的机会到处走走。故 A 正确。 【长难句解析】
[ 来源*:中国教^ 育出& 版@ 网~] [ 来~%#源:中国教 育出* 版& 网] [ 来@ 源:&*中国~教育#出 版网]

―It will be possible to go to places that you never got sent to before because the publishers couldn’t afford it
[ 来&% 源~^:中@ 教网]

【翻译】很可能让你去一些你以前从来没有被送去的地方,因为出版商无法承担得起。 【分析】 本句中 it 是一个形式主语, 真正的主语是后面的不定式 to go to places that you never got sent to before; 定语从句修饰先行词 places; 后面的 because 引导的是原因状语从句 because the publishers couldn’t afford it。

十三(2014 浙江卷 ) C
[中 & 国教育 #*~出 %版网 ]

Last summer, two nineteenth-century cottages were rescued from remote farm fields in Montana, to be moved to an Art Deco building in San Francisco. The houses were made of wood. These cottages once housed early settlers as they worked the dry Montana soil; now they hold Twitter engineers.
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The cottages could be an example of the industry’ s odd love affair with ―low technology,‖ a concept associated with the natural world, and with old-school craftsmanship (手艺) that exists long before the Internet era. Low technology is not virtual (虚拟的) —so, to take advantage of it, Internet companies have had to get creative. The rescued wood cottages, fitted by hand in the late eighteen-hundreds, are an obvious example, but Twitter’s designs lie on the extreme end. Other companies are using a broader interpretation (阐释) of low technology that focuses on nature.
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Amazon is building three glass spheres filled with trees, so that employees can ―work and socialize in a more natural, park-like setting.‖ At Google’s office, an entire floor is carpeted in glass. Facebook’s second Menlo Park campus will have a rooftop park with a walking trail.
[ 来源:z~@^ zstep#* .com]

Olle Lundberg, the founder of Lundberg Design, has worked with many tech companies over the years. ―We have lost the connection to the maker in our lives, and our tech engineers are the ones who feel impoverished (贫乏的) , because they’re surrounded by the digital world,‖ he says. ―They’re looking for a way to regain their individual identity, and we’ve found that introducing real crafts is one way to do that.‖
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This craft based theory is rooted in history, William Morris, the English artist and writer, turned back to pre-industrial arts in the eighteen-sixties, just after the Industrial Revolution. The Arts and Crafts movement defined itself against machines. ―Without creative human occupation, people became disconnected from life,‖ Morris said. Research has shown that natural environments can restore( 恢复 ) our mental capacities. In Japan, patients are encouraged to ―forest-bathe,‖ taking walks through woods to lower their blood pressure. These health benefits apply to the workplace as well. Rachel Kaplvin, a professor of environmental psychology, has spent years researching the restorative effects of natural environment. Her research found that workers with access to nature at the office—even simple views of trees and flowers—felt their jobs were less stressful and more satisfying. If low-tech offices can potentially nourish the brains and improve the mental health of employees then, fine, bring on the cottages. 50. The writer mentions the two nineteenth-century cottages to show that ________. A. Twitter is having a hard time B. old cottages are in need of protection
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C. early settlers once suffered from a dry climate in Montana D. Internet companies have rediscovered the benefits of low technology 51. Low technology is regarded as something that _______. A. is related to nature C. consumes too much energy
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B. is out of date today D. exists in the virtual world

52. The main idea of Paragraph 5 is that human beings ________. A. have destroyed many pre-industrial arts B. have a tradition of valuing arts and crafts C. can become intelligent by learning history D. can regain their individual identity by using machines 53. The writer’s attitude to ―low technology‖ can best be described as ________. A. positive B. defensive C. cautious D. doubtful

54. What might be the best title for the passage? A. Past Glories, Future Dreams B. The Virtual World, the Real Challenge C. High-tech Companies, Low-tech Offices D. The More Craftsmanship, the Less Creativity 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】本文介绍了―大自然能够促进人的创造力‖这一理念,也就是在自然环境下工作 的人们工作效率更高。 所以世界上很多的大公司都积极创设自认的办公环境提高员工的创造 力。 50.D 推理题。据文章第一段可知 19 世纪的两座小木屋被运到了 San Francisco,现在让工程 师在里面工作。根据第二段 The cottages could be an example of the industry’ s odd love affair with ―low technology,‖这里的 low technology 是指在工业化之前的技术。 也就是说现代科技的 大公司发现了他们需要低科技年代的自然环境来提高员工的创造力。 所以才会有第一段的做 法。故 D 正确。 51.A 推理题。根据文章最后一段 Her research found that workers with access to nature at the office—even simple views of trees and flowers—felt their jobs were less stressful and more satisfying.工人们在自然状态下的办公室里工作会感觉压力更下,更加满意。再根据文章第
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三段第一句 Amazon is building three glass spheres filled with trees, so that employees can ―work and socialize in a more natural, park-like setting.‖可知这样做会让工人感觉是在自然环境下就 像是在公园里工作一样。故 Low technology 被认为是与自然有关的,故 A 正确。 52.B 段落大意题。根据第一句 This craft based theory is rooted in history, William Morris, the English artist and writer, turned back to pre-industrial arts in the eighteen-sixties, just after the Industrial Revolution 得知英国的艺术家和作家 William Morris 认为工业基础理论是扎根于历 史的, 很多都可以追溯到 18 世纪 60 年代之后的工业革命之后的艺术理论。 也就是告诉我们 人类有重视艺术的传统的。故 B 项正确。 53.A 推理题。根据文章第三段内容可知很多大公司都积极创设一种自然的低技术的环境来 提高员工的创造性。在根据倒数第二段第一句 Research has shown that natural environments can restore(恢复) our mental capacities.可知研究人们还认为自然的环境能够恢复员工的精神 能力。这些都说明作者认为 low technology 是非常有好处的。也就是说作者对它的态度是积 极的。故 A 正确。
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54.C 主旨大意题。本文主要介绍了之前的 low technology 对现在的高科技公司有很大作用, 很多 low technology 可以被用来装饰办公室,来提高员工的创造性和恢复精神能力。在文章 第三段里列举了多个实例,说明本文的主要内容是 C 项。 【长难句解析】 The cottages could be an example of the industry’ s odd love affair with ―low technology,‖ a concept associated with the natural world, and with old-school craftsmanship (手艺) that exists long before the Internet era. 【翻译】这些小木屋可以背当成工业时代喜欢利用―低技术‖的例子,这是一个与自然世界, 存在与网络年代之前的旧手艺有关的概念。 【分析】本句较长,句中的 a concept 与前面的 the industry’ s odd love affair with ―low technology 是 同 位 语 的 关 系 , associated with the natural world, and with old-school craftsmanship (手艺) that exists long before the Internet era.是一个形容词短语做定语修饰名词 a concept 。其中有定语从句 that exists long before the Internet era 修饰名词 old-school craftsmanship。

十四(2014 重庆卷 )
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C

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The idea of being able to walk on water has long interested humans greatly. Sadly, biological facts prevent us ever accomplishing such a thing without artificial aid_we simply weigh too much, and all our mass pushes down through our relatively small feet, resulting in a lot of pressure that makes us sink. However, several types of animals can walk on water. One of the most interesting is the common basilisk Basilicus basilicus,a lizard (蜥蜴)native to Central and South America. It can run across water for a distance of several meters, avoiding getting wet by rapidly hitting the water’s surface with its feet. The lizard will take as many as 20 steps per second to keep moving forward. For humans to do this, we,d need huge feet that we could bring up to our ears in order to create adequate w hitting. ’’
[ 中*国教^&% 育#出版网]

But fortunately there is an alternative :cornflour. By adding enough of this common thickening agent to water (and it does take a lot),you can create a ―non-Newtonian‖ liquid that doesn’t behave like normal water. Now, if the surface of the water is hit hard enough, particles(粒子)in the water group together for a moment to make the surface hard. Move quickly enough and put enough force into each step, and you really can walk across the surface of an adequately thick Liquid of cornflour.
[ 来&#源%:中国^ 教~ 育出版 网]

Fun though all this may sound, it’s still rather messy and better read about in theory than carried out in practice. If you must do it, then keep the water wings handy in case you start to sink_and take a shower afterward! 44.Walking on water hasn’t become a reality mainly because humans______. A.are not interested in it B.have biological limitations C.have not invented proper tools D.are afraid to make an attempt 45.What do we know about Basilicus basilicus from the passage? A.It is light enough to walk on water. B.Its huge feet enable it to stay above water. C.It can run across water at a certain speed.
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D.Its unique skin keeps it from getting wet in water.

46.What is the function of the cornflour according to the passage? A.To create a thick liquid. B.To turn the water into solid. C.To help the liquid behave normally. D.To enable the water to move rapidly.
[ 来 源:%^ 中教&@ 网#]

47.What is the author’s attitude toward the idea of humans’ walking on water? A.It is risky but beneficial.
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B.It is interesting and worth trying. IC.t is crazy and cannot become a reality. D.It is impractical though theoretically possible. 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读
[w~ww.zzs^&t#ep.com*] [ 来源* :中国 教育出 版&^@ 网~]

【文章大意】人类一直都希望能够达到草上飞的境界。文章中叙述了使用 cornflour 在水面 上产生一层,让我们能够在水上奔跑的新的理论,虽然在理论上可行,但是并不实际。
[w&@w^w.%zzst~ep.com]

44.B 推理题。 根据文章第 2 行: We simply weigh too much, and all our mass push down through our relatively small feet.可知我们人类太重 了,我们的身体把太多的重量都加到了我们的脚 上,带来了太多的压力,让我们会沉下去。故 B 正确。 45.C 细节题。根据第二段第 4 行:The lizard will take as many as 20 steps per second to keep moving forward。 可知这种蜥蜴可以在水面之上连续奔跑一段距离而不沉到水里。 故 C 正确。 46.A 推理题。根据文章第三段第 2,3 行:you can create a ―non-Newtonian‖ liquid that doesn’t behave like normal water. Now ,if the surface of the water is hit hard enough …可知这种 cornflour 会让水面上形成一个很厚的表层。故 A 正确。 47.D 推理题。根据文章倒数第三行 Fun though all this may sound, it’s still rather messy and better read about in theory than carried out in practice。可知这种做法仍然只是停留在理论上, 并不能在实际上有应用。说明作者认为这是不实际的。故 D 正确。 【长难句解析】 1.By adding enough of this common thickening agent to water(and it does take a lot), you can create a ―non-Newtonian‖ liquid that doesn’t behave like normal water.
[ 来源 :z&zstep.co~#m@^] [ 来&~*源^:中教网@]

【翻译】 通过向水面添加一些这样的常见的东西, 你会创造出一种不同于正常的水的非牛顿
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规律的液体。 【分析】本句中的介词 by 表示通过某种手段或方法,后面要接动名词短语做宾语。同时本 句中有一个定语从句 that doesn’t behave like normal water.修饰前面的先行词 liquid。
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2.Fun though all this may sound, it’s still rather messy and better read about in theory than carried out in practice. 【翻译】尽管所有这些听起来很有趣,但是这仍然只是理论上更好一点,而不是实际执行。 【分析】本句中的 Fun though all this may sound 是一个形式倒装,相当于一个让步状语从句 Though all this may sound fun。

十五(2014 重庆卷 )

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E It’s generally believed that people act the way they do because of their personalities and attitudes. They recycle their garbage because they care about the environment. They pay S5 for a caramel brul6e latte because they like expensive coffee drinks. It’s undeniable that behavior comes from our inner dispositions (性情) , but in many instances we also draw inferences about who we are, as suggested by the social psychologist Daryl Bern, by observing our own behavior. We can be strangers to ourselves. If we knew our own minds,why would we need to guess what our preferences are from our behavior? If our minds were an open book, we would know exactly how much we care about the environment or like lattes. Actually, we often need to look to our behavior to figure out who we are.
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Moreover, we don’t just use our behavior to learn about our particular types of character~we infer characters that weren’t there before. Our behavior is often shaped by little pressures around us, which we fail to recognize. Maybe we recycle because our wives and neighbors would disapprove if we didn't. Maybe we buy lattes in order to impress the people around us. We should not mistakenly believe that we always behave as a result of some inner disposition. Whatever pressures there can be or inferences one can make, people become what they do, though it may not be in compliance (符合)with their true desires. Therefore, we should all bear in mind Kurt Vonnegufs advice: ―We are what we pretend to be, so we must be careful about what we pretend to be. ’’
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52.According to the passage, personalities and attitudes are commonly believed to A.determine one’s behavior B.reflect one’s taste C.influence one’s surroundings D.result from one’s habits 53.Which of the following would Daryl Bern most probably agree with? A.The return of a wallet can indicate one’s honesty. B.A kind person will offer his seat to the old.
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__________.

C.One recycles plastics to protect the environment. D.One buys latte out of true love of coffee.
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54.What can be inferred from the underlined sentence in the passage? A.We fail to realize our inner dispositions.
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B.We can be influenced by outside pressures. C.Our behavior is the result of our true desires.
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D.Our characters can shape our social relationships. 55. What does the author mainly discuss in the passage? A.Personalities and attitudes. B.Preferences and habits. C.Behavior and personalities. D.Attitudes and preferences. 【考点】考察科普知识类阅读 【文章大意】很多人都认为人的性格决定了人的行为。作者在本文中提出了另外一个理论, 很多情况下人们的行为收到了外界压力的影响,并不一定能够反映我们的真正的性格。
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52.A 推理题。根据文章第一段 1,2 行 It is generally believed that people act the way they do because of their personalities and attitudes。 可知人们都认为他们做事情是因为他们的性格让他 们这样做了。也就是说他们认为他们的性格决定了他们的行动。故 A 正确。 53.A 推理题。根据文章第二段第一句:It’s undeniable that behavior comes from our inner dispositions….可知作者认为: 无法否认我们的行为来自我们内心的性情。 这句话说明我们的 行为可以说明我们的性格。A 项:归还钱包的做法可以说明人们很善良。故 A 正确。
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54.B 推理题。根据下划线前面一句:Our behavior is often shaped by little pressure around us, which we failed to recognize。可知我们的行为经常受到我们周围的压力的影响,这一点我们 很少意识到。 接着就列举下划线的例子, 说明该例子表示的正是我们容易受到外界压力的影 响,做出一个与内心性格不一样的事情。故 B 正确。 【长难句解析】 1.It’s generally believed that people act the way they do because of their personalities and attitudes. 【翻译】人们通常都认为人们是因为他们的个性和态度而决定他们做事的方式。 【解析】本句中的 the way 表示….的方式;后面的从句有多种连接方法,如:the way that/in which/不填….;另外本句中的 it 是形式主语,真正的主语是 that 引导的主语从句。 2.Whatever pressures there can be or inferences one can make, people become what they do, though it may not be in compliance with their true desires. 【翻译】无论可能有什么样的压力或者做出什么样的推论, 人们总是成为他们想成为的那 个样子,尽管这也许和他们真正的想法是不一致的。 【解析】本句中的 Whatever pressures there can be or inferences one can make 是一个让步状语 从句,同时也是一个形式倒装。―特殊疑问词+ever‖既可以引导让步状语从句,也可以引导 名词性从句;而―no matter+特殊疑问词‖只能引导让步状语从句。
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