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名词与主谓一致


名词与主谓一致

名词

可数名词与不可数名词
? 可数名词包括个体名词和集体名词,都有 其单数和复数形式,且单数变复数有规律 和不规则两种构成形式

规则变化
1. 大多数名词直接在名词后加-s构成。 ?例如cups,days,glasses等

2. 以-s,-x,-c

h,-sh结尾的 名词后加-es

Class-classes Box-boxes Match-matches Brush-brushes

3. ? ?

以辅音字母y结尾的名词,变y为i,再加-es City-cities Country-countries

但以元音字母 y结尾的名词,或专有名词以y结 尾的,直接在词尾加-s Key-keys Toy-toys, Germany-Germanys, Henry-henrys

4.以-f或-fe结尾的名词,一般把f或 fe变为v,再加-es。
? Knife-knives ? Shelf-shelves ? Thief-thieves Leaf-leaves Life-lives Loaf-loaves

妻子(wife)拿刀(knife)去砍狼(wolf),小偷 (thief)吓得发了慌; 躲在架后(shelf)保己命 (myself), 半(half)片树叶(leaf)遮目光。
按:顺口溜中的红体字是中学阶段学过的九个以—f(e)结尾的名词:wife(妻 子),knife(小刀),wolf(狼),thief(小偷),shelf(架子),self(自己),life(生命), half(一半),leaf(树叶)。这九个词变复数时,都是改-f(e)为ve再加-s。 由self构成的复合词,其变化与self相同 (如myself→ourselves; yourself→yourselves;himself,herselfitself→themselves)。

? 但以下以-f或-fe结尾的名词变复数时,直 接加-s ? Safe-safes Proof-proofs ? Belief-beliefs serf-serfs

以f结尾的名词变为复数时大都变f为ves,但有几个 直接加-s变为复数,我们就可用这个句子帮助进行 集中。 一个农奴(serf)在海湾(gulf)捡了珊瑚礁 (reef),来到房顶(roof)上,找到首长(chief), 有了证据(proof),增加了信仰(belief),加上-s 成对成双。

? 直接加-s或把f或fe变v,再加es都行 ? Scarf-scarfs 或scarves 围巾 ? Handkerchief-handkerchiefs或 handkerchieves 手帕

? ? ? ? ?

A. B. C. D.

turn green in spring leaf leafs leave leaves

5. 以辅音字母o结尾的名词,其复 数多加-es构成 ? Hero-heroes ? Tomato-tomatoes ? Potato-potatoes ? Negro-negroes

? 以辅音字母o结尾的名词, 以及你某些以o结尾的外来 词,变为复数时只加-s。

Radio-radios Piano-pianos Studio-studios Zoo-zoos

Photo-photos Viedo-viedos Zero-zeros Bamboo-bamboos

6. ? ? ? ?

以th结尾的名词,直接在词后加s Mouths Paths Youths Truths

不规则变化
1. ? ? ? ? ? ? 改变单数名词中的元音字母 FootManToothMouseGoosewoman-

2. ? ? ? ? ?

在词尾加en或其他 OxChildCrisisMedium-media Phenomenon-Phenomena

3. 单复数形式相同
? ? ? ? SheepfishWorksSeriesDeerMeansAircraftSpecies-

此外还包括由汉语音译表示度量衡、货币等单位的名词,如 Yuan Jiao Jin mu

只有复数形式
? ? ? ? Clothes Glasses Thanks Ashes Trousers Goods Shorts compasses

以上名词表示数量时,需要加上相应的单位名词 A pair of glasses A suit of clothes

5. 表示某国人的单复数变化
A. 单复数同形,这类词包括所有以-ese 或-ss结尾的民族名称。 Chinese Japanese Swiss portuguese

B. 词尾加-s GermanRomanPole-

RussianAmerican-

C. 把man变为men FrenchmanEnglishman-

6. 复合名词的复数变化
A. 有两个名词构成的复合词,在第二个名 词后加-s Store-keepers售货员 Boy-friends Tooth-brushes Grown-ups成年人 Girl-friends

B. 以可数名词+介词(短语)构成的复合 名词,在名词部分加-s Sisters-in-law Passers-by Prisoners-of-war 但grown-ups和breakdowns是例外

C. 以man或woman为前缀的复合名词 变为复数形式的时候,前后两部分都要 变 Woman singer-women singers Man cook-men cooks

7.

有些名词的复试形式表示特别的意义

? ? ? ? ? ?

Customs海关 Forces 军队 Times 时代 Greens 青菜 Papers 报纸文件 Irons 脚镣手铐

Letters 文学 Spirits 酒精,情绪 Drinks 饮料 Looks外表 Manners礼貌

不可数名词
? 不可数名词包括物质名词、抽象名词和 专有名词,一般只有单数形式,没有复 数形式。 ? Health Bread ? Advice Glass ? America

Father went to his doctor for about his heart trouble A. An advice B. Advice C. Advices D. The advices

以下名词常用作名词,注意:不要使用复数或者在前面加a或an,其谓语动词用单数 形式。 Advice fun paper fruit progress weather snow luck housework dust Butter wealth 倾倾百老汇 furniture rubbish sugar harm traffic water knowledge honesty glass behavior air homework clothing information work news trouble rice ice grass coffee bread baggage

? 不可数名词不能直接用冠词或 数词修饰,而应该与某些特定 的单位名词连用,来表示“量” 的概念
A piece of news/ advice/ meat/paper/information/chalk/bread/music/furniture/work 一则,个,片,张,条,支… A bottle of ink/milk/wine A sheet of paper/cloth A cup of/ a glass of/ a head of (一头)

主谓一致
? 在英语中,主谓一致指的是句子中 的谓语动词在人称和数上必须保持 一致

1. 语法一致原则
? 句子的主语是单数形式,谓语动词要用 单数形式,主语是复数形式,谓语动词 用复数形式 ? The number of mistakes are surprising. ? To be polite is a good manner.

? The construction of the two new railway lines by now. ? A. has been completed ? B. have been completed ? C. has completed ? D. have completed

意义一致原则
? 即谓语动词该用单数形式,还是复数形 式,取决于主语所表达的内容在含以上 是单数还是复数意义 ? The Chinese are industrious ? 中国人是勤劳的 ? The USA is a developed country ? 美国是个发达国家

? 像news,works,politics, physics等词,虽然形式上是以-s 结尾,但表示的意义是单数,故谓 语动词用单数形式。
相反,crowd,people,police, cattle等词形式上是单数形式,但表示复数 意义,股谓语动词用复数 This works were built in 2000 Maths is my favorite subjects The crowd were running for their lives

? Every possible means to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear ? A is used ? B are used ? C has been used ? D have been used

临近原则
? 谓语动词该用单数还是复数,取决于最邻近它的名词、 代词或其它词的数 ? 另外,or,either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also 连接两个名词或代词作主语的时候, 或由there, here引导的句子,并且主语不止一个时, 谓语动词通常与他邻近的主语保持一致

? There is a book and three pens on the desk。 ? Either her father or her mother calls for her every afternoon。

需要注意的一些特殊情况
① 由and 连接的复合名词作主 语时,如表示复数概念,相 应的谓语动词要用复数形式 The maths teacher and the headmaster have attended the meeting

② 有时and连接两个名词指同一个人,同 一件事情或者同一个概念,这时and后 的名词前没有冠词,其谓语动词用单数 形式。
The writer and the teacher are coming The writer and teacher is coming

A poet and artist coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon ? A is B are ? C was D were

? 常见的由and 连接两个名词指一个概念的形式 ? ? ? ? ? ? The needle and thread 针线 Salt and water 盐水 The fork and knife 刀叉 Soap and water 肥皂水 Iron and steel 钢铁 Bread and butter奶油面包

③ 如果and 后面加not,谓语动词也用单 数

My friend,and not hers,is chosen to join the army

④ 由and 连接的并列单数主语前如果 分别有no,each,every修饰时, 其谓语动词用单数

Each actor and each actress was invited

⑤ 主语后面跟有with,together with, along with,as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, as much as, but, except, besides,including, in addition to等引导的短语, 谓语动词的单复数按主语的单复 数而定。

The driver,rather than his friends, is responsible for the traffic accident

? Professor smith, along with his assistants on the project day and night to meet the deadline ? A work ? B working ? C is working ? D are working

⑥ Either,neither,each, every或no+单数可数名词和 由some,any,no,every 构成的复合不定代词,如 something,everybody, anyone等作主语,都作单数 看待。
Each of us has a new pen Everything around us is matter

⑦ 在口语中当either或neither后跟有 “of+复数名词做主语时,其谓语动词 可用单数或复数。

Neither of the books is/ are interesting

⑧ 以few, a few, many, both,both of 等词或词组修 饰复数可数名词时,句子中的谓 语动词用复数; A little,much,a great deal of,A large amount of 修饰不可数名词时,谓语动词用 单数形式
Very few students go to the cinema A large amount of damage was done in quite a short time

⑨ A number of 表示”很多“的意思, 修饰可数名词的复数,做主语时,谓语 动词用复数 The number of 表示”数量、号码 “做主语时,其谓语动词用单数形式

? As you can see,the number of cars on our roads rising these days ? A was keeping ? B keep ? C keeps ? D were keeping

⑩ Large quantities of +可数或不可 数名词,large amounts of +不可 数名词作主语时,谓语动词一般用复数 The quantity of +可数或不可数名 词,the amount of+不可数名词作 主语时,谓语动词用单数

? Large amounts of money were spent on the teaching building ? The amount of money is great ? The quantity of heat in the office has not been increased

? With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of earth each year ? A is washing away ? B is being washed away ? C are washing away ? D are being washed away

11 One and a half后,名词要用复数形 式,但做主语时,谓语动词用单数 One and a half bananas is left on the table

12 如果主语由more than one+n 或 many a +n 构成,尽管从意义上是复 数,但它的谓语动词仍用单数 Many a student is fond of collecting stamps

13 冠词the +形容词或分词表示一类 人时,动词用复数 The brave/poor/rich/blind/young/ old/sick等

? One of +复数名词+谓语的结构中,谓 语动词用单数形式 ? One of the boys has got a price

? One of +复数名词+定语从句 句型中, 定语从句用的谓语动词用复数 ? He is one of the students who always help others

? 如果one 前面加定冠词the 或the only,那么,后面定语从句中谓语动词 用单数 ? She was the only one of my classmates that comes from america

? He is the only one of the students who a winner of scholarship for three years. ? A is ? B are ? C have been ? D has been

? 表示时间、重量、数目、价格、长度数 学运算等的词或词组做主语时,尽管他 们是复数形式,但如果把这些复数形式 的词或词组看做是一个整体,谓语动词 就用单数形式 ? Three weeks is a short time ? 1000 is a large number

? 分数+of+名词构成的短语作主语时,其 谓语动词与of后面名词的数保持一致, 分数作主语,要根据其代表的单复数概 念,确定单复数形式


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名词和主谓一致 | 名词主谓一致 | 集体名词主谓一致 | 定语从句与主谓一致 | 主谓一致 | as well as 主谓一致 | 主谓一致ppt | along with 主谓一致 |