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Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking
感应人类活动:GPS 跟踪
Stefan van der Spek 1,*, Jeroen van Schaick 1, Peter de Bois 1, 2 and Remco de Haan 1 Abstract: The enhancement of GPS technology enables the use of GPS devices not only as navigation and orientation tools, but also as instruments used to capture travelled routes: as sensors that measure activity on a city scale or the regional scale. TU Delft developed a process and database architecture for collecting data on pedestrian movement in three European city centres, Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz, and in another experiment for collecting activity data of 13 families in Almere (The Netherlands) for one week. The question posed in this paper is: what is the value of GPS as ?sensor technology? measuring activities of people? The conclusion is that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research.

摘要: 增强 GPS 技术支持使用 GPS 设备不仅作为导航和定位工具,但也为仪器用来捕捉旅 行路线:作为传感器,测量活动在一个城市或区域范围内规模。代尔夫特开发过程和涂数据库架 构对行人运动收集数据在三个欧洲城市中心、诺维奇、鲁昂、科布伦茨,和在另一个实验中收集 活动数据的 13 个家庭在 Almere(荷兰)一个星期。本文提出的问题是:什么是 GPS 的价值是“传 感器技术的测量活动的人吗?结论是,GPS 提供了一个广泛的可用的工具来收集宝贵的时空数 据在不同尺度和不同的设置添加新层的知识城市研究,但使用 GPS 技术和部署的 GPS 设备仍 为未来的研究提供了重要的挑战。
Keywords: GPS; Tracking; People; Behaviour; Mapping; Movement.


1. Introduction

1.1. The Global Navigation Satellite System

1.1 全球导航卫星系统
The availability of so-called geopositioning devices such as GPS (Global Positioning System) devices has grown enormously in the last decade and is still increasing. More and more people own a navigation system such as a TomTom, a GPS for orientation for outdoor uses, biking and geo-caching or a mobile phone or other handheld communication device with built-in GPS. These devices are mainly used for orientation (determining where you are), navigation (determining where to go) and communication (exchanging information with others or accessing information services). But the devices can also be used for tracking, i.e. saving a travelled route into a track log. This ability makes the technology useful to collect spatial-temporal data and thus as ?sensors? for observing and measuring activities of people [1].

所谓的可用性 geopositioning 设备如 GPS(全球定位系统)设备有了巨大的增长在过去的十 年,仍在增长。越来越多的人拥有自己的导航系统如 TomTom GPS 定向用于户外,骑自行车和 geo 缓存或手机或其他手持通信设备内置 GPS。 这些设备主要用于定向(确定你在哪里),导航(确 定去哪里)和沟通(与他人交换信息或访问信息服务)。 但设备还可以用于跟踪,即节约了旅行路线 进入跟踪日志。这种能力使得有用的技术来收集数据,因此时空“传感器”观察和测量活动的人 [1]。
GPS is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). GNSS is a system for location or position determination – so called geopositioning [2]. Using a special receiver, a geoposition in space and time can be calculated based on the reception of satellite signals. The United States? Global Positioning System (GPS) was the first available system using satellite Position Determination Technology (PDT) [2]. Other GNSSs are under development in Europe (Galileo) and Russia (Glonass).

GPS 是一种全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)。GNSS 系统对位置或位置测定——所谓的 geopositioning[2]。使用一个特殊的接收器,一个 geoposition 在空间和时间的基础上可以计算 卫星信号的接收。美国的全球定位系统(GPS)是第一个可用的系统使用卫星定位技术(PDT)[2]。 其他 GNSSs 正在发展在欧洲(伽利略)和俄罗斯(格洛纳斯)。

GNSS is an essential Positioning Determination Technology for many fields of study. Although in recent years the system has undergone a significant ?modernisation? to improve its quality [2], the capability for geopositioning in the built-up (urban) environment is still one of its major weaknesses. In particular the availability of accurate indoor signals and with low speeds is limited. The future availability of Galileo is expected to increase the performance of GPS significantly [3]. New technology such as high-sensitive GPS receivers will improve the accessibility to GPS signals.

GNSS 技术是一个重要的定位确定为许多研究领域。虽然近年来系统进行了重要的“现代 化”,以改善其质量[2],geopositioning 的能力在组合(城市)环境仍然是它的一个主要弱点。 特别是 室内信号的可用性和较低的准确速度是有限的。未来的可获性伽利略预计将增加 GPS 的性能 显著[3]。新技术如高灵敏度 GPS 接收机将提高可访问性对 GPS 信号。
1.2. Seeing the Global Navigation Satellite System as Sensor Technology

The most general definition of a sensor is ?a device which detects or measures a physical property? (Compact Oxford English Dictionary). A more specific definition of a sensor is ?a device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control)? (Merrian Webster). Seeing GPS as a sensor requires use of the latter definition. Rather than a physical property it measures the location and motion of a GPS device and the person or object that carries it. The output is in the form of a track log with 3-dimensional spatial location coordinates and a time stamp. In an effort to characterize different types of sensors, Michahelles and Schiele [4] distinguish six sensing dimensions of which location, activity and interaction apply to GPS. Their analysis of sensor applications shows the appropriateness of placing GPS devices on both humans and objects. The experiments in this paper are limited to GPS devices carried by humans and the ?location? and ?activity? dimensions of sensing.

最通用的定义,一个传感器是一种检测装置,或衡量一个物理性质”(紧凑的牛津英语词典)。 一个更具体的定义的传感器是一种设备,对物理刺激(如热、光、声音、压力、磁性、或一个特 定的运动)和传送一个产生的脉冲(至于测量或操作控制)”(Merrian 韦伯斯特)。 看到 GPS 作为传 感器需要使用后者的定义。而不是一个物理性质这措施的位置和运动的 GPS 设备和人或物,携 带它。输出的形式是一个跟踪日志与三维空间位置坐标和一个时间戳。为了描述不同类型的传

感器,Michahelles 和 Schiele[4]区分六传感维度的位置、活动和交互应用于 GPS。分析传感器 应用程序显示的适当性,将 GPS 设备在人和对象。 实验在本文仅限于 GPS 设备由人类和“位置” 和“活动”维度的感知。
GPS is not the only technology for sensing location and activity of humans. For a few years already, mobile phone technology, RFID and Bluetooth can also provide easy-to-handle sensing data on location and activity. However, these technologies have their particular drawbacks with regards to the type of experiments described below. For more on those technologies see Shoval?s ideas about ?human

sensing? [5] and tracking pedestrians [1,6] and experiments such as those by Ratti et al [7] and Ahas et al. [8] using mobile phone data, Millonig and Gartner [9] using Bluetooth, Fu and Retscher [10] using RFID and Wayn et al. [11] using WiFi.

GPS 不是唯一的技术用于传感位置和活动的人类。了几年了,移动电话技术,RFID 和蓝牙 也可以提供容易处理遥感数据在位置和活动。 然而,这些技术有其特定的缺点关于下面描述的类 型的实验。更多关于这些技术的思想关于“舒瓦尔看到人类传感”[5]和跟踪行人[1,6]和实验如:拉 et al[7]和 Ahas et al。[8]使用移动电话数据,Millonig 和 Gartner[9]使用蓝牙,Fu 和 Retscher[10] 使用 RFID 和 Wayn et al。[11]使用 WiFi。
1.3. A Concise Overview of Literature

1.3 一个简洁的概述文学
With the increasing use of GPS and other tracking technologies, the number of scientific publications on these technologies and their application is also increasing. The aim of this paper is to add a new dimension to the evaluation of tracking studies, namely to evaluate the sensory qualities that GPS technology offers for researching measures of urban quality, where most research focuses on other fields of expertise.

越来越多地使用 GPS 和其他跟踪技术,科学出版物的数量在这些技术和他们的应用程序也 在不断增加。本论文的目的是增加一个新的维度评价跟踪研究,即评价的感官品质,GPS 技术提 供了研究城市质量的措施,大部分的研究主要集中在其他领域的专业知识。
Transportation science is a major field of research in which tracking studies have developed and on which tracking research builds [12]. Janelle and Gillespie [13] see ?trackability? as one of four major concepts in transportation sciences to understand the impact of new technologies in research, commercial practices, policy and broader society. Transportation planning is also the field where the rekindling of H?gerstrand?s theory on time-geography [14] is best illustrated [15]. Recent examples of tracking studies in transportation sciences can be found in [16] and [17]. Studies in this field show a preference for using tracking data as input for simulation and prediction models.

交通科学是一个主要领域的研究,跟踪研究开发,跟踪研究构建[12]。詹妮尔和 Gillespie[13] 看到的跟踪能力”四个主要概念之一在交通科学理解影响新技术的研究、商业实践、政策和更广

泛的社会。交通规划也是复燃的 Hagerstrand 领域的理论在时间地理学[14][15]是最好的说明。 最近的例子的跟踪研究在交通科学可以被发现在[16]和[17]。 在这个领域的研究偏爱使用跟踪数 据作为输入的模拟和预测模型。
Studies focussing on location based services (LBS), a relatively new field of study, form the major part of GPS technology-oriented research. In their opening article to the new Journal of Location Based Services, Raper et al. [2] set out to critically evaluate location based services and their potential. They conclude “that there is already a huge and sophisticated body of research on LBS. However, it is poorly integrated”. They define the following key issues for future research work:

研究集中在基于位置的服务(LBS),一个相对较新的研究领域,形成了科技研究的主要部分 GPS。在他们打开文章的新杂志的基于位置的服务,强奸犯 et al。[2]着手批判性评价基于位置 的服务和他们的潜力。他们的结论”,已经有一个巨大的和复杂的研究机构在磅。然而,它是不完 整”。他们定义下列关键问题为未来的研究工作:
? Envisage and embody ?blue sky? innovations;

? Explore user experiences and social implications outside commercial implementation;

? Tackle technical problems that lead to system developments without an early return.

In general, studies related to LBS strongly attach to the importance of data visualisation (see [18]), but geovisualisation in general is an upcoming area of interest. See for example [19]. Tracking (recording route and time) as a research technique did not arise from the advent of GPS and mobile communication technology. Hill provides an overview of early non-technological tracking studies that focused on pedestrians, of which he found the earliest examples in the 1960s [20]. Studies on pedestrians in particular demonstrate that GPS tracking needs to be connected to other research techniques to fully understand movement behaviour. Millonig and Gartner, for example, use acrossmethod triangulation, including shadowing, interviewing and counting [9]. Shoval and Isaacson use tracking technologies for urban analysis [1]. Other fields of application are environmental health

[21,22] and medicine [23-25].

一般来说,研究相关磅强烈附加到数据可视化的重要性(见[18]),但 geovisualisation 一般来 说是一个即将到来的感兴趣的区域。看到例如[19]。跟踪(记录路线和时间)作为研究方法既不是 来自 GPS 的出现和移动通信技术。 希尔概述的早期研究,侧重于非技术跟踪行人,他发现最早的 例子在 1960 年代[20]。 研究行人尤其是证明 GPS 跟踪需要被连接到其他研究方法,充分了解运 动行为。Millonig 和 Gartner,例如,使用方法,包括跨-三角跟踪、采访和计数[9]。舒瓦尔和艾萨 克森使用跟踪技术为城市分析[1]。其他领域的应用是环境卫生(21、22)和医学[23 - 24 日)。
Future studies are another popular field of study in which tracking technologies get attention. For example, Ahas and Ular [26] go as far as to predict a fundamental change in planning and public administration. Studies in this domain do tend to be biased towards a technological paradigm of societal change, while the use and application of tracking technologies does not depend on fully pledging to a technologically determined future. Practical, pragmatically set up applications can already carry far [27].

1.4. Problem Setting

1.4 问题设置
In general, many studies focus on technical issues regarding GPS, rather than on the application of knowledge derived from a tracking study. If they are knowledge-oriented, studies often focus on a singularly empiricist approach, rather than on application of knowledge. There is a tendency to fill the gap between empirics and application by collecting greater and greater data sets, since ?the more data the better you know what to do?. Although for some issues, like performing diagnostics on the level of a complete transportation system, this might be so; this argument does not always hold up. Still, handling large data sets is a significant problem that has to be dealt with in all but the smallest studies using GPS, so that automation of data processing will become ever more necessary. In addition, reduction of data complexity through data visualisation might offer complementary alternatives to data mining.

一般来说,很多研究关注技术问题关于 GPS,而不是应用程序的知识来源于一个跟踪研究。 如果他们是面向知识,研究往往集中在一个异常庸医的方法,而不是知识的应用。有一种倾向,将 填补这个差距 empirics 和应用程序通过收集越来越大的数据集,因为数据越多越好,你知道如何 去做的。尽管对于某些问题,如执行诊断水平的一个完整的交通系统,这可能是如此,这个观点并 不总是举起。不过,处理大型数据集是一个重要的问题,必须处理所有但最小的研究使用 GPS, 因此自动化的数据处理将变得越来越必要。 此外,减少数据的复杂性通过数据可视化可以提供互 补替代数据挖掘。
However, since the major focus in the body of literature on tracking is on progress of GPS technology, studies in the fields discussed above often lack attention to the particular problems regarding knowledge application in the field of planning [27]. If the application of knowledge is addressed, this often remains limited to modelling and predicting behaviour, which does not fully use the potential of tracking data as we show below. A particular field where this gap can be felt is urban planning and design, where a central concern is urban quality. A major determinant of urban quality is the so-called use-value of space [27]. This is the reason we focus in this paper on studies that use GPS to study aspects of urban quality. Possible indicators of urban quality in an existing environment are for example hotspots (attractions, destinations, landmarks); or their counterpart ?black holes? (nonattractive spaces, non-space, not part of the cognitive system).

然而,由于主要集中在文学的身体在跟踪进展情况,研究 GPS 技术在田野上面所讨论的往往 缺乏关注特定的问题对于知识应用领域中的规划[27]。如果知识的应用是解决,这往往仍局限于 建模和预测行为,这并不完全使用潜在的跟踪数据作为我们展示下面。一个特定的领域,这个差 距可以觉得是城市规划和设计,一个中央关心的是城市质量。 城市质量的主要决定因素是所谓的 使用空间[27]。这是我们之所以集中在本文在研究使用 GPS 研究方面的城市品质。可能的指标 在现有的城市环境质量例如热点(景点,景点,地标);或者他们的同伴“黑洞”(无吸引力的空间、非 空间,而不是认知系统的一部分)。
Although the sudden interest for patterns of use in tracking studies might suggest that research into use aspects of urban quality in urban design is new, there are interesting examples available based on other research techniques and approaches. For example, Gehl et al. developed interesting research techniques based on observation and counting [28]. Classic in the field is the work of Kevin Lynch [29] who focused on the physical characteristics of the urban environment as an experienced landscape. But most urban analysis focuses on the physical aspects of the urban environment per se such as morphology and types of buildings. GPS tracking offers to these kinds of studies a new layer which provides insight in processes and actual movement of people. In particular it adds an important temporal dimension to research in urban design primarily focussing on spatial patterns.

虽然突然兴趣模式的使用在跟踪研究可能表明,研究使用方面的城市在城市设计质量是新 的,有有趣的例子可以根据其他研究技术与方法。例如,格尔等人开发的有趣研究技术基于观察 和计数[28]。该领域的经典是凯文?林奇的作品[29]谁关注物理特征的城市环境作为一个经验丰 富的景观。 但大多数城市分析侧重于物理方面的城市环境本身如形态和类型的建筑。 GPS 跟踪 这些类型的研究提供了一个新的层提供洞察力在流程和实际运动的人。特别是它增加了一个重 要的时间维度来研究在城市设计主要关注空间模式。
Hence, it is interesting to look at the value of GPS as a research technique in the context of urban studies and in particular urban design and planning for two reasons: (1) it might add to the knowledge on the use value of urban spaces, (2) it offers an intriguing new technique which enables research possibilities not available with either traditional urban analysis techniques or low-tech research techniques for studying behaviour patterns in time and space. So the main question posed in this paper

is: what is the value of GPS as ?sensor technology? measuring activities of people, in particular in the context of studies regarding urban quality? By looking at two different research projects by TU Delft using GPS, this question is answered along three lines. Firstly, what is the contribution of GPS to traditional methods of urban research? Secondly, what is the performance of GPS as sensor instrument? Thirdly, in what ways can GPS-devices be deployed in urban settings?

因此,它是有趣的观察值的 GPS 作为研究技术在城市研究的背景下,特别是城市设计和规划 有两个原因:(1)它可能增加知识的使用价值的城市空间,(2),它提供了一个有趣的新技术使研究 的可能性,要么无法获得传统城市分析技术或低技术研究技术为研究在时间和空间的行为模式。 所以主要的问题是本文提出:什么是价值的 GPS 为“传感器技术的测量活动的人,在特定的上下 文中研究对于城市质量?通过观察两种不同的研究项目由涂代尔夫特使用 GPS,这个问题回答 沿着三行。首先,什么是 GPS 的贡献的传统方法,城市研究?其次,什么是 GPS 作为传感器的性 能工具吗?第三,可以通过什么方法来 gps 设备被部署在城市设置?

In this paper we will first describe the general process and database architecture and the particular approaches used in the different case studies. Next, we show how the empirical results in the different research projects provide insight into GPS as a sensor technology with relevance for studies on urban quality.

在本文中,我们将首先描述的一般过程和数据库体系结构和特定的方法用于不同的案例研 究。接下来,我们将展示如何在不同的实证结果研究项目提供洞察 GPS 作为传感器技术与相关 性研究城市质量。
2. Set up of GPS Experiments and Data Processing

2. 建立 GPS 实验和数据处理
2.1. Context of the GPS Experiments

2.1GPS 实验的内容
GPS devices have been used by TU Delft to track people in several experiments. The experiments, of which we describe two here, had different research aims and took place on different scales. In the first experiment described in this paper, GPS devices were deployed in the INTERREG IIIB Spatial Metro project to observe pedestrians visiting the historic city centres of Norwich (U.K.), Rouen (France) and Koblenz (Germany) [30,31]. In the second experiment described below, the technology was used to track the activity patterns of families in Almere (The Netherlands) [32]. In both cases the collection of spatial-temporal data took one whole week and was accompanied by a questionnaire, although there were some important differences in set-up of the field work (see Figure 1). The details of both experiments? set up are explained below in Sections 2.2 and 2.3.

GPS 设备被使用来跟踪人们涂代尔夫特在几个实验。实验中,我们描述了两个在这里,有不 同的研究目标和发生在不同的尺度。在第一个实验中描述本文 GPS 设备被部署在 INTERREG 希望空间地铁工程项目观察行人参观历史性城市中心的诺维奇(英国),鲁昂(法国)和科布伦茨 (德国)(30、 31)。 在第二个实验中下面描述,这项技术可以用来追踪活动模式的家庭在 Almere(荷 兰)[32]。在这两种情况下的时空数据的收集了一整个星期,伴随着一个问卷调查,虽然有一些重 要的不同设置的现场工作(参见图 1)。这两项实验的细节在下面解释建立在章节 2.2 和 2.3。
The GPS-experiments described in this paper were set up to tackle questions about urban quality in

the field of urbanism, i.e. the design and planning of urban areas. However, the application of data from GPS experiments in urbanism is not a matter of course. The expert meeting ?Urbanism on Track? in 2007 showed that GPS does not automatically bridge what can be called the applicability gap between empirical studies on behaviour and the making of an urban design [27]. Klaasen [33] lists the following potential problems, amounting to the applicability gap: (a) the tendency to collect more knowledge on restricted parts of situations, burdening the synthesising capacities of designers, (b) knowledge generated through empirical research not being geared towards the information need of designers – for example empirical researchers tending to communicate verbally, while designers tend to communicate visually, and (c) designers not formulating synthesis-oriented research questions for spatial scientists.

在本文中介绍了 gps 实验建立解决问题的城市质量领域的都市生活,即城市的规划与设计。 然而,应用程序的数据从 GPS 实验在都市生活中不是理所当然的事。专家会议的都市生活正 轨”2007 年表明,GPS 不会自动桥可以称为适用性实证研究之间的差距在行为和制定城市设计 [27]。Klaasen[33]列表下面的潜在问题,总计适用性差距:(a)倾向于收集更多的知识在限制的部 分情况,加重了合成能力的设计师,(b)知识生成通过实证研究不是针对信息需要设计师——例如 实证研究人员倾向于口头交流,而设计师往往传达视觉和(c)设计师不是制定面向合成空间科学 家研究问题。
Despite these limitations, GPS is an interesting new instrument to map and measure urban quality in new ways. The particular cases in this paper refer to different types of urban quality that can be studied using GPS. Spatial Metro is a research program which focuses on urban quality from the perspective of pedestrians. The aim of the program is to find new and exciting ways of improving city centres for pedestrians. GPS was used as an instrument to analyse both individual routes (so called trajectories or tracks [2]) and collective, aggregate patterns of use. In addition to the Spatial Metro program, TU Delft carries out research on new towns, i.e. cities, towns, or communities that were carefully planned from its inception and are typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area. Rather than on pedestrians only, this case focused on week-long activity patterns of families and in particular on how sensing these activities gives a diagnosis of the structural quality of the framework of streets, roads and paths in new towns. In the case described in this paper, it was important to look for the discrepancy between the top down planned urban frame and the individual spatial circuits of everyday use, related to the time-space budget of individuals and families.

尽管有这些限制,GPS 是一个有趣的新工具和衡量城市质量地图的新方法。特殊情况在本 文参考不同类型的城市品质,可以研究使用 GPS。地铁是一个研究项目的空间,关注城市质量的 角度,从行人。这个计划的目的是找到新的和令人兴奋的方式改善城市中心为行人。GPS 作为 一个工具来分析个人路线(所谓的轨迹或跟踪[2])和集体,骨料使用方式。 除了空间地铁项目,代尔 夫特进行研究上涂新城镇,即城市、乡镇或社区计划从一开始很仔细,通常建于一个以前未开发 的地区。而不是只对行人,这种情况下集中在为期一周的活动模式的家庭,特别是对这些活动给 诊断传感结构质量的框架的街道,道路和路径在新的城镇。对于本文中描述的,它是重要的去寻 找的差异自上而下城市规划框架和个人空间电路的日常使用,相关的个人和家庭预算的时空。

Figure 1. Approach to the field work.

2.2. General Set up and Process Architecture

2.2 一般设置和流程架构
In general, the GPS experiments developed by TU Delft contain two main parts. Firstly, spatialtemporal data and background information is collected during field work. Secondly, the collected data is retrieved and processed.

一般来说,GPS 实验开发的代尔夫特包含两个主要部分涂。 首先,空间-时间数据和背景信息 被收集在现场工作。其次,收集到的数据检索和处理。
The field work consists of the following four phases (see Figure 1): (a) preparation of the experiment, (b) deployment of the devices, (c) use of the devices by participants and (d) the return of the devices. The preparation of the experiment is an essential phase to determine the goals and to invite and select potential participants. Clear communication with potential participants is essential to get into contact with people and to persuade people to participate. During the deployment phase two protocols are important. On the one hand, the participants are instructed to use the protocol on the use of the devices, e.g. charging, switching on/off, waiting for position fixation. On the other hand, it is important for research assistants to use a protocol for deployment and instruction, since at deployment (as well as on returning the device) the participants get interviewed using questionnaires and because data quality also depends on proper use of the device. In the following phase, the devices are carried by the participants during the period set for the experiment. In this phase, the spatial-temporal data is being collected. The devices are a ?black box? for the participants that stores the data without participants being able to use all interactive functions of the device, both to reduce the burden for participants and to diminish the influence of carrying the device on the behaviour to be observed. In the final phase of the field work, the devices are returned and a post-hoc questionnaire is taken.

该领域的工作包括以下四个阶段(见图 1):(一)制备的实验中,(b)部署的设备,(c)使用的设备 由参与者和(d)返回的设备。准备实验是一个重要的阶段确定目标和邀请并选择潜在的参与者。 清晰的沟通与潜在参与者必须进入与人接触和说服人们去参与。在部署阶段两个协议是很重要 的。一方面,参与者被指示要使用协议的使用设备,如充电,打开/关闭,等待位置固定。另一方面, 它是重要为研究助理使用协议,用于部署和指令,因为在部署(以及在返回设备)参与者得到使用 问卷调查和采访,因为数据质量还取决于设备的正确使用。在接下来的阶段,设备是由参与者在 此期间设置的实验。在这个阶段,目前收集的数据的时空。这个设备是一个“黑盒”的参与者,存储

数据没有参与者能够使用所有互动功能的装置,既可以减少负担和减少参与者携带设备的影响 被观察的行为。在最后阶段的现场工作,设备返回和事后采取调查问卷。
Following the field work the data is retrieved from the GPS devices and processed for further analysis. Figure 2 summarises the steps in the process. The processing of the data eventually leads to analytical drawings and maps that visualise the conclusions drawn from the data collection. In the first phase of data handling, the data is retrieved from the devices and from the questionnaires into, respectively, track log files and an Access database. The track logs contain the trajectories. After retrieval, the validity and integrity of the data is checked and both track logs and database are cleaned and filtered. After the validation process, only the valid data is used for spatial and temporal analysis.

田野工作后的检索数据从 GPS 设备和加工进行进一步分析。图 2 总结了流程中的步骤。 数据处理的过程最终导致分析图纸和地图,想象得出的结论的数据收集。 在第一阶段的数据处理, 数据获取设备和从问卷调查到,分别跟踪日志文件和一个访问数据库。这个跟踪日志包含轨迹。 检索后,数据的有效性和完整性检查和跟踪日志和数据库都是清洗和过滤。在验证过程中,只有 有效的数据用于时空分析。
During the processing phase the valid trajectories are converted into three types of ?shape files? (.shp: point, line and area) using GPSU batch utility. These shape files can be linked in ArcGIS using the Data Interoperability Tool (DIT). In ArcGIS the layers containing the trajectories are merged and connected to the Access database using a unique trip ID.

在加工阶段有效的轨迹转换成三种类型的形状文件”(。shp:点、线、区)使用 GPSU 批处理 工具。这些形状文件可以链接在 ArcGIS 使用数据互操作性工具(DIT)。在 ArcGIS 图层包含轨 迹合并和连接到访问数据库使用一种独特的访问 ID。
The Access database containing the interview data and some characteristics of the trips are converted into SPSS for frequency, cross-table and cluster analysis. In ArcGIS, several actions are undertaken: data is selected (query) based on the combination of SPSS and GIS and analysed using filtering, layering and calculations, such as density analysis. A distinction between two types of density calculations can be made: point density (time corrected) representing the total time spent on a location and line density representing the number of people.

访问数据库包含面试数据和一些特点的旅行是转化为 SPSS 对频率、交叉表和聚类分析。 在 ArcGIS,几个操作:数据被选中承担(查询)基于 SPSS 和 GIS 相结合,分析了使用过滤、 分层和 计算,如密度分析。 区分两种类型的密度计算可以:点密度(时间修正)代表总时间花在一个位置和 线密度代表的人的数量。
In the ?visualisation & interpretation? phase the results of the analysis phase are exported to static and dynamic file formats leading to illustrated temporal maps (e.g. .ai or .pdf) and animated temporal maps (e.g. .mov or .swf). Based on interpretation of the results, conclusion maps are drawn. The final versions of these maps are produced in an iterative process by exporting new output from ArcGIS.

在可视化和解释的阶段分析阶段的结果是出口到静态和动态文件格式导致颞地图插图(例 如。。人工智能或 pdf 格式)和动画时间地图(如。。mov 或 swf)。基于解释的结果,结论地图绘 制。最终版本的这些地图是一个迭代过程中产生的新的输出从 ArcGIS 出口。

Figure 2. General data processing scheme for GPS experiments.

2.3. Approach in the Spatial Metro Cases

2.3 在空间地铁情况下的方法
For the Spatial Metro project the GPS tracking devices were distributed continuously during daytime over a period of one week at two parking facilities in each of the three cities [30,31]. These locations form the access points to the city centre for many people and is the location where these people start their journey on foot. People were asked to participate in the experiment when leaving the car park to enter the city. A flyer was used to explain the project, the experiment, the way of working and how privacy issues were dealt with. An operative GPS device was handed over to the participant to record their ?trip? (see Figure 3). The burden for the participant was limited to incidental check of the reception of a proper satellite signal, a ?fix?. In the Spatial Metro project the GARMIN MAP60Cx GPS receiver was used. This is a 20-channel high-sensitive receiver based on Sirfstar III hardware. The GPS device logged position information at a frequency of five seconds. The track log was stored in the internal memory (10,000 waypoints) and automatically saved to a .gpx-file on the internal MicroSD card.

为空间地铁工程 GPS 跟踪设备分布不断白天在一段一周两个停车设施在每三个城市(30、 31)。这些位置形成接入点到城市中心对于许多人,这些人的位置开始他们的旅程步行。人们被 要求参与实验当离开停车场进入城市。一个传单被用来解释这个项目,实验工作的方式,以及如 何处理隐私问题。一个有效的 GPS 设备被移交到参与者来记录他们的“旅行”(参见图 3)。的负 担参与者仅限于附带检查前台的合适的卫星信号,“修复”。地铁项目在空间的 MAP60Cx GARMIN GPS 接收机使用。这是一个 20 通道高灵敏度接收机基于 Sirfstar 三世硬件。GPS 设 备记录位置信息的频率五秒。这个跟踪日志被存储在内部存储器(10000 路点),并自动保存到。 内部 gpx-file MicroSD 卡。
Figure 3. Principle of deployment of GPS devices in the Spatial Metro case. Each trip contains the complete, walked pattern of that day for one participant and is delimited by leaving the car park (location A or B) and returning to it.

图 3。部署原则的 GPS 设备在空间地铁案例。每个行程包含完整的,那天走的模式为一个 参与者和分隔离开停车场(位置 A 或 B),并返回它。

A questionnaire was filled out on return at the access point. No sensitive, private information revealing the identity of the participant was collected. Data collection was limited to trip-related data and general characteristics of the visitors. Data collection was limited to daytime use. The distribution and collection locations opened at 10 am and closed at 6 pm. Tracking data that was stored on the GPS device was extracted in office at a later stage.

一个问卷填写在返回的访问点。不敏感,私人信息暴露身份的参与者收集。数据收集仅限于 旅行相关的数据和一般特征的访问者。数据收集仅限于白天使用。分配和收集地点开了 10 点 和下午 6 点关闭。跟踪数据存储在 GPS 装置提取在办公室在稍后的阶段。
In the next phase the spatial-temporal data was processed by evaluating, cleaning and validating the raw data. After that, the valid tracking data layers were projected in a Geographic Information System. In the following phase two types of drawings were made. The first type of drawings combines spatialtemporal data with e.g. an aerial image, access routes and arrival points, commercial activities, points of interest and investments. These drawings result in a visual analysis of the local spatial conditions in relation to actual behaviour of the tracked sample. The first type based on projection of the data on top of other geographical information and the second one based on density analysis of the data determined by the themes of the questionnaire.

在下一阶段的时空数据的处理评价,清洗和验证原始数据。在那之后,有效的跟踪数据层被 投影在一个地理信息系统。在接下来的阶段两种类型的图纸了。第一个类型的图纸结合空间时间数据与如空中图像、访问路线和到达点,商业活动的兴趣点和投资。这些图纸导致视觉分析 当地的空间条件与实际行为的追踪样品。第一类基于投影的数据放到其它地理信息和第二个基 于密度分析的数据确定主题的问卷。
The second type of drawings delivers a set of specific spatial patterns based on the aspects of origin, familiarity, purpose and duration [30,31] and age, gender and group type. These maps offer the possibility to visually compare spatial patterns for specific subgroups of participants.

第二种类型的图纸提供一组特定的空间模式基于方面的起源、熟悉,目的和持续时间(30、 31)和年龄、性别和组类型。这些地图提供视觉上的可能性空间模式进行比较具体的子组的参 与者。

2.4. Approach in the Case of Almere

2.4. Almere 方法
After a request from TU Delft, the municipality approached families in three neighbourhoods of the new town of Almere. Each family asked to participate in the research consisted of a father, a mother and one or two children in the age range of 16-18. This family constellation was chosen for the expected wide range of activity and movement patterns within one family unit. Initially, fifteen families agreed to participate. In the end, 40 participants of 13 families carried GPS devices for one week. The field work (see Figure 1) started with a meeting at the participant?s home to fill in a questionnaire, to give instructions about carrying the device and to hand over the GPS devices – one for each member of the family - and battery chargers (see Figure 4).

一个请求后从屠代尔夫特,市政当局在三个地区接近家庭的新城镇 Almere。每个家庭要求 参与研究由一个爸爸,一个妈妈和一个或两个孩子在这个年龄 16 - 18。这个家庭星座被选为预 期的广泛的活动和运动模式在家庭单位。最初,15 个家庭同意参与。最后,40 名学员进行 GPS 设备的 13 个家庭为一个星期。 现场工作(参见图 1)启动会议参与者的家来填写一个问卷,给指令 装载设备并交出 GPS 设备——一个为家庭的每个成员,和电池充电器(参见图 4)。
During the week of data collection all tracking data was stored in the memory of the GPS device. The spatial-temporal data was stored at an interval of two seconds. On the eighth day after distribution, the devices were collected again during which a second interview took place and maps were drawn filling in blanks when devices were forgotten by participants. Hereafter, processing of both spatialtemporal and personal data started. The first step of processing was evaluation and cleaning. The second step was to split up tracks into trips based on each round trip from home. The third step was to enter the data in a database according to the developed protocol (see Figure 2). Once the data was entered, a range of layers in GIS could be selected and connected to the Access database and vice versa to answer queries, to perform analyses, e.g. point or line density analysis in GIS or to do other quantitative analysis using SPSS.

在一周的数据收集所有跟踪数据是存储在内存的 GPS 装置。利用数据是存储在一个时间 间隔为 2 秒。 第八天分布后,设备再收集期间第二次面试发生和地图被吸引填写空白当设备被遗 忘了的参与者。以后,处理双方的空间——时间和个人数据开始。)。第一步的处理是评价和清 洗。第二步是要分手的追踪到旅行基于每个往返从家里。第三步是将数据输入到数据库根据开

发协议(参见图 2)。 一旦数据输入,一系列的层在 GIS 可以选择和连接到访问数据库,反之亦然回 答查询,执行分析,如点或线密度分析在 GIS 或做其他定量分析使用 SPSS。
In Almere each member of 13 families was tracked for one week, covering several hundred trips. The data provides information about use of the network over periods of 24 hours, including starting and end time and length of a trip or activity, speed and transport modes of transportation, the radius from home or from activity locations. As expected, data collection encountered several problems that led to incomplete data: a lag in time to first fixation (fix) after leaving home, insufficient charging of

batteries, forgetting or switching off GPS devices by participants. But a significant set of valid data remained for visual and quantitative analysis.

在每个成员的家庭 Almere 13 是跟踪一个星期,占地数百旅行。 数据提供了信息网络的使用 周期超过了 24 小时,包括起始和结束时间和长度的旅行或活动,速度和交通运输方式,半径从家 里或从活动地点。正如预期的那样,数据收集遇到几个问题,导致不完整的数据:一个滞后时间第 一固定(修复)离开家后, 电池充电不足、遗忘或关闭 GPS 设备由参与者。但一个重要的组有效 数据仍为视觉和定量分析。
Figure 4. Principle of deployment of GPS devices in the Almere case. Each trip is delimited by leaving the home ?base? and by returning to it.

图 4.部署原则的 GPS 设备在 Almere 案例。每次旅行分隔离开家的基地”,被返回它。
3. Study Areas and Empirical Results

3. 研究领域和实证结果
3.1. The Value of GPS as Sensor Technology

3.1 作为传感器技术的 GPS 的价值
In this section we show how the theory behind and the empirical results from the different research projects provide insight into the value of GPS as a sensor technology in urban studies. For both cases, the particular problem setting is described, followed by an explanation of analytical methods used in the context of that problem and how GPS tracking fits. Both case descriptions provide insight in the main measurements to be performed on GPS data to be relevant for that particular problem setting.

在这一节中,我们展示如何背后的理论和实证结果从不同的研究项目提供洞察 GPS 的价值 作为一个传感器技术在城市研究。对于这两种情况下,特定的问题设置是描述,其次是一个解释 的分析方法中所使用的问题和如何适合 GPS 跟踪。两例描述提供洞察力在主测量系统上执行 GPS 数据相关的特定的问题设置。

3.2. Spatial Metro: Norwich, Rouen, Koblenz

3.2. 空间地铁:诺维奇,鲁昂,科布伦次的街景
Norwich, Rouen and Koblenz are relatively small cities (100,000-130,000 inhabitants) located in the United Kingdom, France and Germany, respectively. Each city has a historical centre and functions as a regional attractor serving a large hinterland. Concerned about future retail developments, the administrations of these cities struggle to keep up the vitality of their urban core as the central shopping district and in particular as an attractive place for living.

诺维奇,鲁昂和科布伦茨相对小城市(100000 - 130000 居民)位于英国、法国和德国,分别。 每一个城市都有一个历史中心和功能作为一个区域吸引子为一个大的腹地。担心未来的零售业 的发展,这些城市的政府努力保持活力的城市核心商业区的中心,特别是作为一个具有吸引力的 地方生活。
The aim of the overall Spatial Metro project is to make investments in public space happen; in particular to improve the city centres for pedestrians. In this light, the role of TU Delft was to develop tools to measure the effects of the investments in for example city beautification, street furniture, lighting and information systems [30]. Based on the outcomes of the studies, further plans and strategies to improve the city centres for pedestrians were drawn.

整体空间的目的是使投资地铁项目在公共空间发生;特别是改善城市中心为行人。 在这种情 况下,代尔夫特的作用是开发工具涂来衡量投资的影响,例如在城市美化、街道家具,照明和信息 系统[30]。基于这些研究结果,进一步规划和策略来改善城市中心对行人被吸引。
TU Delft developed and used two tools: (1) street interviews to collect information about the experiences of visitors (used in 2005 and 2006) and tracking technologies (GPS tracking) to collect data on actual movement and routing (used in 2007). Sixty-six people were interviewed in 2005. The interviews resulted in maps of great public spaces: ?great to shop?, ?great to enjoy?, ?great to discover? and ?the greatest?. Further it resulted in an indication of gender, frequency of visit, age, origin, time spent, money spent, access mode and purpose.

代尔夫特涂开发和使用两个工具:(1)街头采访来收集信息的经验,对游客(用于 2005 和 2006)和跟踪技术(GPS 跟踪)收集的数据在实际运动和路由(用于 2007)。六十六人在 2005 年

接受了采访。 在面试后的地图很大的公共空间:“伟大的购物”、 “伟大的享受”、 “伟大的发现”和“最 伟大的”。它导致了进一步表明性别、访问频率、年龄、来源、时间、经费、存取方式和目的。
Using the GPS devices, in total 1,300 pedestrians were tracked and interviewed. On average 60% of the data was valid. The remaining 40% was not usable due to problems with fixation, batteries, blur (clouds of points) and fragmentation. The origin of these issues is clear: the signal reception in dense urban areas is weak; signals reflect on buildings, people tend to go into buildings, and pedestrians move relatively slowly (see also [2]). Also, the data collected using GPS must be seen as only representing the behaviour of visitors starting from those specific access points where GPS devices were distributed. Nevertheless, a substantial amount of data remained to map significantly differing and meaningful spatial patterns based on the social/demographical characteristics of participants and based on trip aspects.

使用 GPS 设备,总计 1300 名行人被跟踪和采访。平均 60%的数据是有效的。剩下的 40% 没有可用的,因为问题与固定、电池、模糊(点云)和碎片。这些问题的起源是明确的:信号接收在 密集城区是弱;信号反映在建筑,人们倾向于进入建筑,和行人移动较为缓慢(参见[2])。同时,收集 的数据使用 GPS 必须被视为只代表访问者的行为从那些具体的访问点,GPS 设备分布。然而, 大量的数据仍然是显著不同的和有意义的映射空间模式基于社会/ demographical 特征的参与 者和基于旅行方面。
Most insight gained from the experiment came from the spatial-temporal data adding another layer of information to the interview data and to the spatial analysis, providing in particular more insight in daily processes in the city. The combination with information exogenous to the GPS data, such as morphological maps, provides a technique to discover anomalies and to draw conclusions about qualities of public space. Density analyses offer a tool to discover ?hotspots? of use in the city based on actual movement, not on perception and post-hoc questionnaires. The use of a questionnaire offers a method to distinguish between trajectories on several different aspects, providing unique thematic maps and the ability to compare different aspects based on SPSS cross-tabulations. Finally, the use of dynamic maps for data visualisation offers temporal diagrams. These show not only trajectories, but also directions and flows of movement..

从实验方法获得的大部分来自时空数据添加另一层信息,面试和空间分析的数据,提供特别 在日常过程中更加深入地了解这个城市。 结合信息外生的 GPS 数据,比如地图,提供了一种技术

形态,发现异常并得出关于品质的公共空间。密度的分析提供一个工具来发现“热点”的使用在城 市基于实际的运动,而不是对感知和事后的调查问卷。 使用问卷调查提供了一种方法来区分轨迹 在几个不同的方面,提供独特的专题地图和能够比较不同方面基于 SPSS 交叉表格。最后,使用 动态地图数据可视化提供了时间图。这些节目不仅轨迹,而且方向和流动的运动。
Both static and dynamic ways of visualisation offer tremendous insight in pedestrian behaviour, leading to conclusions about differences in urban quality between places and about opportunities for improving the local situation, which can be applied in planning practice.

静态和动态方法的可视化提供巨大的洞察在行人的行为,导致在城市质量的结论差异之间 的地方,关于机会提高当地的情况,可以应用于规划实践。
To get the full picture, data collected using GPS should be used in combination with data on the location of programs, activities and points of interest, morphology and quality of public space, and

with counting data. Placing counting devices in the right locations might provide a system to extrapolate the GPS sensor data.

得到完整的图像、数据收集应该使用使用 GPS 结合数据项目、活动和位置的兴趣点、形 态和质量的公共空间,与计数数据。将计数设备在正确的位置可能会提供一个系统来推断 GPS 传感器数据.
Figure 5a. GPS tracking results from L? hrcenter (parking for 1,400 cars) and from Gorresplatz (parking for 386 cars) in Koblenz: superimposition of one week of data collection from both locations. All track points are logged at 5 seconds frequency on devices carried by pedestrians that on the same day access the city centre from the car park and return to their car.

图 5a.从 Lohrcenter GPS 跟踪结果(停车 1400 辆汽车)和从 Gorresplatz(停车 386 辆汽车) 在科布伦茨:添上一个星期的数据收集从两个位置。 所有的轨迹点被记录在 5 秒频率在设备由行 人,当天访问城市中心的停车场,回到他们的车。

Figure 5b. GPS tracking results from L? hrcenter in Koblenz (parking for 1,400 cars) superimposed on location of commercial functions.

图 5 b.从 Lohrcenter GPS 跟踪结果在科布伦茨(停车 1400 辆汽车)叠加在商业功能的位置。

Figure 5c. GPS tracking results from Gorresplatz in Koblenz (parking 386 cars) superimposed on location of touristic attractions

图 5 c.从 Gorresplatz GPS 跟踪结果在科布伦茨(停车 386 辆汽车)叠加在旅游景点的位置。

3.3. Diagnostics of New Towns: Almere

3.3. 诊断新城镇:Almere
New towns have a number of generic characteristics. The plan to develop a new town is generally derived from an unambiguous socio-economic paradigm. The spatial layout and stratification of the circulating system, using subsystems of different speeds, is based on avoiding risk and conflict between transport modes and inhabitants. Most new towns lie within the influence sphere of an old, central city and often depend on it functionally. The plan for a new town often projects a particular life style, which projection is supposed to solve the social and spatial problems of the dominant central city. In general, new towns are built up in a short time with a simple or particular physical structure. The construction of housing in new towns conforms to market principles and relies on a fast and efficient building process for large groups of inhabitants that mostly originate from the central, dominant city. Almere is a morphologically polynuclear new town in the reclaimed land of the Flevopolder. The town exists of spatially separated suburban neighbourhoods. New towns in general and Almere in particular has attracted heavy criticism in the last decades with regard to mobility issues and quality of living, the need for renewal of some its parts, the (re)development of a city centre and

the continuing planning tasks of housing construction.

新城镇有许多通用的特点。计划开发一个新的小镇通常来自一个明确的社会经济模式。空 间布局和分层的循环系统,利用子系统的不同的速度行驶,是基于避免风险和运输方式和居民之 间的冲突。大多数新城镇躺在影响范围的一个老、中心城和通常依靠它的功能。计划一个新的 城镇经常项目特定的生活方式,投影应该解决社会和空间问题的主要中心城市。一般来说,新城 镇建立在很短的时间内用一个简单的或特定的物理结构。住房建设在新的城镇符合市场原则和 依赖于快速和高效的构建过程,大量的居民大多来源于中央,占主导地位的城市。Almere 是形态 学多核新城镇在复垦土地的福。小镇的郊区存在空间上分开。新城镇一般和 Almere 尤其吸引 了沉重的批评在过去几十年关于流动性问题和生活质量,需要更新它的一些部分,(重新)城市发 展中心和持续的规划任务的住房建设。
Over the last decade TU Delft developed and applied several spatial-analytical methods [34-37] to analyse the functioning of the city and the relation between the different parts. The resulting theory of functional-spatial structure is the basis for the GPS study on Almere described in this paper. Firstly, this theory explains how a city is constituted of (a) ?frame?, i.e. the network of highways, roads, streets and paths, (b) ?pattern?, i.e. the spatial distribution of programs and place qualities in a city, and (c) ?circuit?, i.e. the paths people take to get around the city. It works from the assumption that a complete and healthy frame compiles flows and social encounters into meaningful and productive public spaces [35]. The structure of the urban frame of a city is a precondition for the way users of public space of

the city have access to the city as a whole and to the interconnected neighbourhoods. It facilitates the circuits of movement in the city related to retail centres and urban ?anchor points? like parks and other places of activity in the urban landscape. The theory states that the completeness of the urban frame is in fact a precondition for the identity and liveliness of the city as a whole.

在过去的十年里开发和应用 TU Delft 几个空间分析方法[34 37]分析城市的功能和不同部件 之间的关系。由此产生的理论的功能空间结构研究的基础上描述 Almere GPS 在本文。首先, 这个理论解释了一个城市构成的(一个)“框架”,即网络的高速公路,道路,街道和路径,(b)“模式”,即 空间分布的项目和地方在一个城市,和品质(c)“电路”,即人们采取的路径让周围的城市。 它的工作 原理的假设一个完整而健康的框架和社会遇到编译流成有意义的和富有成效的公共空间[35]。 城市的结构框架的一个城市是一个先决条件的用户公共空间的城市访问整个城市和地区的互 联。 它促进了电路在城市的运动与零售中心和城市“锚点”像公园和其他地方的城市景观的活动。 该理论指出,城市框架的完整性,实际上是一个先决条件的身份和活泼的城市作为一个整体。
Secondly, this theory explains how the process of planning and construction of cities can be related to the physical structure of the urban frame. In particular, the factor time in the process of planning has a strong influence on the structure of public space, i.e. the structure of the urban frame and of parks and squares in the city. The theory distinguishes between urban systems that are organized as a ?parallel? system or as a ?serial? system [34,38] (see Figure 6). The planning discourse during the period of the first new town developments dictated the planning of cities as a ?serial? process of making decisions. Therefore, in contrast to the ?parallel? process of long-term development in ?grown? cities, the initial set-up of rationally planned, rapidly developed new towns is generally ?serial? in nature. And as a consequence, new towns have become cities with a ?serial? spatial urban frame. This second part of the theory, states that a truly urban life needs a ?parallel? organised urban frame.

其次,该理论解释了这个过程的规划和建设城市可以与相关的物理结构的城市框架。 特别是, 因子时间规划的流程有一个强烈的影响结构的公共空间,如城市框架的结构和城市公园和广场。 这个理论区分城市系统,组织成一个“平行”系统,或者作为一个“串行”系统[34 岁,38](参见图 6)。 规划话语期间的第一个新城镇发展规划城市的决定是“串行”的决策制定过程。因此,与“平行”过

程的长期发展在“成长”城市,初始设置的合理规划,迅速发展新城镇通常是“串行”在自然。 和结果, 新城镇已成为城市“串行”空间城市框架。 第二部分的理论指出,一个真正的城市生活需要一个“平 行”组织城市框架。

So far, methods of analysis in Almere have focused on analysing the spatial structure, layout and process of planning. The GPS tracking experiment, part of ongoing studies on Almere, produces a new

layer adding a mapping of actual behaviour to this analysis. This could contribute to substantiating or falsifying the theory on ?parallel? and ?serial? systems constructed of ?frame?, ?pattern? and ?circuit?.

到目前为止,在 Almere 分析方法主要集中在分析空间结构、布局和规划的过程。GPS 跟踪 试验,正在进行的研究的一部分,将带来一个新的 Almere 层添加一个映射的实际行为,这种分析。 这可能有助于充实或伪造该理论对“平行”和“串行”系统由“框架”、“模式”和“电路”。
The problem for which GPS is used in the example of Almere is the following. In a ?serial? spatial urban frame there is often only one way to connect points of origin and destination, to connect the sequence of activities during a day. But, quality of life and the accommodation of multiple life styles demand a wider range of choice of possible routes, differing in time and space. The quality of urban life derives from coincidences, i.e. of ?parallel? use of the spatial urban frame, a condition for being related with others and other places in time and space. One possible measure of urban quality then is the degree to which round trips use the same route back and forth (see Figure 7).

其中 GPS 用于 Almere 的的问题例子如下。在一个“串行”空间城市框架通常只有一种方式 连接的起源点和目的地,连接的顺序在一天的活动。但是,生活质量和生活方式需求的多个住宿 一个广泛的选择可能的途径,不同的时间和空间。 城市生活的质量来源于巧合,即“并行”的使用空 间城市框架,一个与他人相关的条件和其他地方在时间和空间。 一个可能的衡量城市质量然后是 在多大程度上使用相同的路线往返来回(参见图 7)。
Figure 7. Two ?extreme? types of GPS tracks from the Almere experiment: degree of match between both ways on a return trip. Background map is based on the Almere street pattern.

图 7.两个“极端”类型的 GPS 追踪 Almere 实验:之间的匹配程度两方面在回程。 背景图是基 于 Almere 街模式。

Another interesting measure made possible by tracking research is accumulated length of trip for particular purposes. The GPS tracking project in Almere made clear that in spite of an extensive pedestrian network and cycling network, parents transport their children to sport facilities during the week largely by car. Preliminary data analysis and extrapolation suggests that this might add up to a staggering total weekly amount of 800,000 to 1,200,000 km just for the city of Almere [32]. Such data is hard to get through other research approaches, while such measures can be relatively easily deducted from GPS data. This gives rise to the development of new hypotheses in urban studies on new towns, such as the possibility of cognitive dissonance with regard to the choice for transport by car.

另一个有趣的测量成为可能,跟踪研究是累计长度用于特殊目的的旅行。GPS 跟踪项目在 Almere 明确表示,尽管一个广泛的步行网络和循环网络,家长接送孩子去运动设施在这个星期主 要由汽车。 初步的数据分析和推断表明,这可能增加一个惊人的总数量的 800000 年到 1200000 年每周只是为了城市的公里 Almere[32]。 这些数据很难通过其他研究方法,而这些措施可以相对

轻松地扣除 GPS 数据。这就产生了新的假说的发展在城市研究新的城镇,如认知失调的可能性 对选择汽车运输。

In the case of Almere, there seems to be a partial paradox between the ?serial? process of planning the town resulting in a hierarchical structure of the urban frame and the crisscross way in which people use this urban frame by living in it day and night (see Figure 8). However, initial results of the tracking experiment also seem to show that the ?serial? frame limits inhabitants considerably in their choices for moving around town. While mapping traces of use is fascinating by and for itself, making it possible to see in maps how people really use the available network is extremely important for communicating about quality of urban life in relation to possible future developments with stakeholders in planning, including politicians.

对于 Almere,似乎有一个部分之间的悖论“串行”过程的规划该镇导致一个层次结构的城市 框架和交错的方式,人们使用这个城市逐住在这日夜(参见图 8)。然而,初始结果的跟踪实验也似 乎显示“串行”框架限制居民在他们的选择大大移动小镇。虽然映射的痕迹是迷人的,且对使用本 身,使其能够在地图上看到人们如何使用可用的网络是非常重要的沟通质量的城市生活与未来 可能的发展与利益相关者在规划,包括政客。
4. Discussion

TU Delft used GPS tracking technologies in two experiments on different scales and in different ways of device distribution. In this paper we aimed to assess the value of GPS as a sensor technology. The two different research projects described in this paper provide some insight there. The main question in this paper was: what is the value of GPS as ?sensor technology? measuring activities of people, in particular in the context of studies regarding urban quality? By looking at two different research projects by TU Delft using GPS, this question is answered in this section along three lines.

代尔夫特使用 GPS 跟踪技术涂在两个实验在不同尺度和不同的设备分布。本文旨在评估 价值作为传感器技术的 GPS。 这两个不同的研究项目描述本文提供一些了解那里。 本文的主要 问题是:什么是 GPS 的价值是“传感器技术的测量活动的人,在特定的上下文中研究对于城市质 量?通过观察两种不同的研究项目由涂代尔夫特使用 GPS,这个问题是回答在这部分沿着三行。

Firstly, what is the contribution of GPS to traditional methods of urban research? Secondly, what is the performance of GPS as sensor instrument? Thirdly, in what ways can GPS-devices be deployed in urban settings?

首先,什么是 GPS 的贡献的传统方法,城市研究?其次,什么是 GPS 作为传感器的性能工具 吗?第三,可以通过什么方法来 GPS 设备被部署在城市设置?
Traditional methods of research in urban design and planning are mostly visual in nature, such as morphological analysis, functional-spatial analysis, exploration of design alternatives, superimposition of thematic maps, etcetera. Although the interest in actual use of, in particular, public space has been present since the birth of the profession of urban planning, the actual use of methods studying it have remained limited. In the field of geography, the study of temporal-spatial patterns of use has developed, in particular in the field of time geography [14], but has largely failed to translate this into applicable knowledge for urban design and planning. One reason for that is the quantitative, rather than visual, nature of most studies in that field, but also the lack of accuracy in measuring variables relevant to the design of public space and the structure of public spaces in cities might have played a role. Another factor is the difficulty of bringing together many different strands of information in urban design and planning as required for solving the type of problems akin to the field.

传统的研究方法在城市设计和规划大多是视觉性的,如形态分析、功能空间分析,探索设计 替代方案,叠印的专题地图,等等。虽然兴趣的实际使用,特别是公共空间一直以来存在的职业的 诞生的城市规划,实际的使用方法研究它仍然有限。在现场的地理,研究时空模式的使用已经发 展,特别是在时间地理学领域[14],但大都没有把这个翻译成适用的知识对于城市设计和规划。 原 因之一是定量的,而不是视觉,大自然的大多数研究在这一领域,但还缺乏准确测量变量相关的设 计公共空间和公共空间的结构在城市可能在其中发挥了作用。另一个因素是很难汇集了许多不 同种类的信息在城市设计和规划所需解决问题的类型类似于字段。
So, the contribution of GPS to traditional methods of urban research can be valued from these three angles: visualisation, accuracy and the validation of other research techniques. Visualisation plays a very important role in dealing with tracking data. In the processing stage it is important in case of manual validation of data. In the interpretation and analysis stage it is important as a tool for analysis. And last, but not least, visualisation is instrumental in communicating research results from tracking studies both to experts across disciplinary boundaries and to non-experts such as politicians or

civilians. The visual nature of tracking information makes it more akin to other research techniques in urban planning and design than previous research techniques to analyse people?s behaviour patterns in space and time. So, on the one hand the easily visualisable tracking data connects directly to the visual data used in urban planning and design – it can be literally layered on top of each other - while on the other hand it brings previously numerically and verbally oriented fields of knowledge into the language domain of urban planning and design. With regard to accuracy, GPS is proving to be significantly more accurate for registering routes and activity locations than post-hoc mapping or diary taking by participants. Moreover, research based on GPS tracking, and possibly in the future complete ?urban sensor systems?, gives not only the possibility to visualise real-time behaviour. More important, it assists professionals in understanding and validating the performance of traditional urban analyses.

因此,GPS 的贡献的传统方法,城市研究可以从这三个角度的价值:可视化、 准确性和验证其 他的研究技术。可视化中起着非常重要的作用在处理跟踪数据。在加工阶段它是重要的对于手 动验证的数据。在解释和分析阶段是重要的工具进行分析。最后,但并非最不重要,可视化有助 于交流研究成果从跟踪研究双方专家和非专家跨越学科界限,比如政治家或平民。 自然的视觉跟 踪信息的可以使它更类似于其他研究方法在城市规划和设计比以前的研究方法来分析人们的 行为模式在空间和时间。所以,一方面容易 visualisable 跟踪数据直接连接到可视数据用于城市 规划与设计——它可以随便之上彼此,而另一方面它将以往面向数值和口头语言领域的知识域 的城市规划和设计。 关于准确性、 GPS 被证明是更准确的路线和活动地点登记比事后的映射或 日记通过参与者。此外,研究基于 GPS 追踪,并可能在未来完成“城市传感器系统,不仅能使可能 想象实时行为。更重要的是,它帮助专业人士理解和验证分析性能的传统的城市。
Looking at these three angles on the value of GPS in relation to other methods of urban research, most important is that this knowledge provides new – visual, accurate and combinable - arguments and as such a new evidence base for projecting and predicting future urban developments.

看着这三个角度的价值与其他方法的 GPS 城市研究,最重要的是,这些知识提供了新的视觉 的,准确的和可以化合的——参数和当这样一个新的证据基础预测和预测未来城市发展。
The performance of GPS as sensor instrument depends on a number of factors, both related to the technology and to factors outside the technological features. We highlight the importance of

technological improvements, the scale of tracking studies, and the role of the experiment protocols.

GPS 作为传感器的性能工具取决于许多因素,包括相关的技术和外界因素的技术特性。我 们注重技术改进,跟踪研究的规模方面的作用,以及实验协议。
Technically and practically GPS tracking still has its problems and for research purposes further technological development is necessary. Increased quality of GPS-receivers and, for example, integration with other technologies such as the mobile phone system, is important to improve the quality of spatial-temporal data collection. Important technical issues are battery life time, time to (first) fix, accuracy of reception and avoiding blur and fragments. In addition to hardware

improvements, software - such as scripts and data-mining algorithms - needs to be improved to further raise the quality and to speed up data processing.

技术上和实际 GPS 跟踪仍然有问题,为研究目的进一步技术开发是必要的。 提高质量的 gps 接收器,例如,集成与其他技术如移动电话系统,是重要的素质提高时空数据收集。重要的技术问 题是电池寿命时间,时间(第一次)修复、 准确性的接待,避免模糊和碎片。 除了硬件改进,软件—— 比如脚本和数据挖掘算法——需要改善,进一步提高质量和加快数据处理。
The experiments confirm the findings in Schaick and Spek [12] that scale limitations are a determining factor in the set up of tracking experiments. Three types of scale and the relations between them are important: (a) spatial delimitation of the experiment, (b) temporal delimitation of the experiment and (c) the number of participants. For example in the Spatial Metro case, it is a matter of concern that the total number of participants leads to a small number of trajectories per subgroup. Practically, the distribution and collection of devices limited the deployment of the technology to a pre-defined environment since this process is time consuming and limits the type of participants. The experiments did not allow for compensating for so-called ?observer effects? [9].

实验证实这项发现在 Schaick 和 Spek[12]这种规模的限制是一个决定性因素的建立跟踪实 验。三种类型的规模和它们之间的关系是很重要的:(一)空间划界的实验中,(b)颞划界实验和(c) 参与者的数量。例如在地铁空间的情况下,它是一个令人担忧的问题,总数量的参与者导致少量 的轨迹/子群。实际上,分发和收集设备有限的部署技术一个预定义的环境,因为这个过程是费时 和限制类型的参与者。实验结果并没有允许补偿为所谓的“观察者效应”[9]。
The cases show that data quality is not only dependent on the technical performance of the global positioning system. In the set up described in this paper, data quality very much relies on the parties involved. More than in the case of Spatial Metro, data quality in the Almere case is dependent on the involvement of the participants, as well as their commitment to and understanding of what they are doing. In comparison, data quality in the Spatial Metro case was heavily dependent on commitment and understanding of the experiments by research assistants. In the former the use protocols were most important, while in the latter the distribution protocol was essential to uphold data quality in the end, both with regard to technical issues as well as diminishing the risk of unusual routes taken by participants as a result of participating in the experiment. The extended time period in the Almere case

enabled further support during the experiment such as a manual, a quick user guide and a 24/7 service desk).

这个案例表明,数据质量不仅依赖于技术性能的全球定位系统。在本文中描述的设置,数据 质量非常依赖于当事人。超过对于空间地铁,数据质量在 Almere 案例是依赖于参与者的参与, 以及他们的承诺和理解他们在做什么。 相比之下,数据质量在空间地铁案件严重依赖的承诺和理 解实验的研究助理。前使用的协议是最重要的,而在后者分布协议必须维护数据质量的最后,两 个关于技术问题以及减少风险所采取的不同寻常的路线参与者由于参与实验。延长时间的情况 下启用 Almere 进一步支持在实验过程中如一个手册,快速用户指南和一个 24/7 服务台)。
Our third criterion for valuing GPS as sensor technology is the possibilities it offers for deploying GPS-devices in urban settings. Technically, the experiments show – confirming the literature - GPS is not ideal in dense urban environments, for example because of loss of signal and reflections of the surfaces in urban environments. Furthermore, data completeness and accuracy suffers from people going in and out of buildings. Since GPS experiments are still dependent on distributing GPS devices that are carried by people or vehicles, urban environments do offer places such as car parks to control distribution of devices in a controlled setting, but the logistics of experiments are a limiting factor. Although these issues lead to a decreased amount of possibilities for carrying out tracking experiments, data validation still leaves a good portion of data. However, due the type of errors caused by deployments in urban settings, data processing in the experiments has proven to be a time consuming process.

我们的第三个准则对 GPS 作为传感器技术是它提供的可能性为部署 GPS 设备在城市设 置。从技术上讲,这个实验证明——证明了文学- GPS 不是理想在密集的城市环境,例如因为信 号损耗和反射的表面在城市环境。此外,数据完整性和准确性遭受人们进出建筑物。因为 GPS 实验仍依赖于分布 GPS 设备,是由人或车辆、城市环境等场所提供停车场控制分配的设备在控 制设置,但物流的实验是一个限制因素。尽管这些问题导致减少数量的可能性进行跟踪实验,数 据验证仍然有相当一部分数据。然而,由于造成的错误的类型部署在城市设置,数据处理的实验 已经被证明是一个耗时的过程。
In general we conclude that GPS offers a widely useable instrument to collect invaluable spatial-

temporal data on different scales and in different settings adding new layers of knowledge to urban studies, but the use of GPS-technology and deployment of GPS-devices still offers significant challenges for future research. In both cases the GPS delivered spatial-temporal data next to background information gathered by a questionnaire. The spatial-temporal data delivered a new layer of information on top of other geographical information. The strong feature of the method is the combination of spatial-temporal data (behaviour in space and time), spatial conditions, socialdemographic information of the participants and characteristics of the trips. This enables to split up patterns based on personal and trip related aspects. The methods, as developed by TU Delft, add information to the traditional ways of analysis and do therefore not a priori replace existing ways of

collecting information, such as counting and observing. Still, the current experiments only show a small range of applications in comparison to what is possible, in particular to further study the qualities of public space in particular and of urban systems in general.

一般我们认为 GPS 提供了一个广泛的可用的工具来收集宝贵的空间-时间数据在不同尺度 和不同的设置添加新层的知识城市研究,但使用 GPS 技术和部署的 GPS 设备仍为未来的研究 提供了重要的挑战。在这两种情况下 GPS 交付旁边的时空数据的背景信息收集的问卷调查。 时空数据的交付一个新的信息层上的其他地理信息。 强大的功能的方法是结合的时空数据(行为 在空间和时间)、空间条件、社会-人口信息的参与者和特征的旅行。这使分拆模式基于个人和 旅行相关的方面。这个方法,因为发达的代尔夫特,添加信息图的传统方法分析和做所以没有先 验取代现有的方法收集信息,如计数和观察。不过,目前的实验只显示一个小范围的应用程序相 比,什么是可能的,特别是要进一步研究公共空间的品质在特定和一般的城市系统。
5. Conclusions and Outlook

To conclude this paper we would like to indicate a number of future developments in light of the experiments by TU Delft. We want to highlight the following developments: (1) the almost ubiquitous availability of geopositioning data in a nearby future, (2) the combination of positioning sensors with other types of sensors, (3) automation of data collection and processing, (4) the evaluative capacities of tracking technologies, and (5) the increased relevance of multiple, visual environments to communicate results from tracking studies.

结论本文我们想显示一个号码的未来发展光的实验通过涂代尔夫特。我们想强调以下进 展:(1)几乎无处不在 geopositioning 数据的可用性在附近的一个未来,(2)定位传感器的组合与其 他类型的传感器,(3)自动化的数据采集和处理,(4)的评价能力,跟踪技术(5)增加的相关性的多个 视觉环境沟通的结果从跟踪研究。
Firstly, the above section showed that the scale of experiments is limited considerably because of logistical and data processing concerns when using the current generation of available GPS devices. If GPS would be available wider and people could just share their tracks, the only thing needed is a

platform and a set of protocols to upload spatial-temporal data. This would enable open-source collection of spatial-temporal data and therefore feature GPS as a worldwide applicable sensor technique collecting spatial-temporal data, quantitative information and qualitative information.

首先,上面部分显示,实验的规模是有限的,因为后勤和显著的数据处理问题当使用当前一代 的可用 GPS 设备。如果 GPS 会更宽、人们可以仅仅可以分享他们的痕迹,唯一需要的是一个 平台和一组协议上传的时空数据。这将使开源收集的数据,因此时空特性 GPS 作为全球适用的 传感器技术采集的时空数据,定量信息与定性信息。
Secondly, we foresee that combining GPS with other types of sensors, such as those measuring air quality, and sensory and emotional experiences of people would enable a next generation of tracking research to offer more directly applicable knowledge to the field of urban planning and design. This would require the development of new process architectures that combine several different data sets and the connection of data flows from stationary and mobile sensors.

其次,我们预测,结合 GPS 与其他类型的传感器,如测量空气质量,感觉和情感体验,人们会使 下一代的跟踪研究提供更多的直接适用的知识领域的城市规划和设计。这就需要发展新的流程 架构,结合几种不同的数据集和连接的数据流从静止和移动的传感器。
Thirdly, automatic recognition of individual track aspects is necessary to enlarge the scale of tracking experiments. Important variables with regard to individual tracks for which automation of data processing might be valuable are: (a) destination (e.g. location, duration, activity), (b) route (e.g. track type (spatial pattern), direction), (c) exit and access and direction with regard to a delimited research locale. With regard to the automatic recognition of collective, aggregate variables would be relevant: (a) flows of masses of people and (b) emerging shared destinations (e.g. ?hot spots?, activity, duration).

第三,自动识别个人跟踪方面有必要扩大规模的跟踪实验。重要的变量对于单曲,自动化的 数据处理可能是有价值的是:(一)目的地(如位置、持续时间、活动),(b)路线(如跟踪类型(空间模 式)、方向),(c)退出和访问和方向对于分隔的研究场所。关于自动识别的集体,骨料变量将相 关:(一)流动的群众和(b)新兴共享目的地(例如。“热点”,活动,持续时间)。
Fourth, experts in tracking research and urban planners interested in these instruments foresee that GPS tracking can be used as a tool for evaluating the effects of interventions, i.e. the transformation of

urban areas, or for continuous monitoring instrument of urban areas [12]. However, since on the one hand this requires a longer term commitment to a tracking study from involved parties this, and on the other hand tracking technologies are relatively new, this type of study has not been set up yet.

第四,专家在跟踪研究和城市规划者有兴趣这些仪器预见到 GPS 跟踪可以用来作为一种工 具来评价干预措施的效果,即转换的城市地区,或连续监测仪器的城市地区[12]。然而,由于一方 面这需要一个长期致力于跟踪研究从相关方,另一方面跟踪技术是相对较新的,这种类型的研究 还尚未建立。
Lastly, in addition to the need for increasingly sophisticated data handling on the quantitative side of GPS-data analysis, visualisation remains in our view at the heart of the strength and relevance of using tracking technologies in urban studies. With this outlook, we see tracking studies evolving from the experimental stage to a full blown research instruments in a wide range of knowledge domains.

最后,除了需要日益复杂的数据处理进行了定量分析,一边的 gps 数据可视化仍然在我们看 来的核心力量和相关性使用跟踪技术在城市研究。 这个前景,我们看到跟踪研究从实验阶段发展 到一个完全成熟的研究工具在一个广泛的知识领域。

Spatial Metro was co-funded by the European Union Interreg IIIb initiative. Special thanks goes to the Cities of Norwich, Rouen, and Koblenz for cooperating and making the research possible. The research team consisted of Stefan van der Spek, Frank van der Hoeven, Conrad Kickert, Robbert Jan van der Meer, Koen de Boo, Remco de Haan, Frank den Hartog and Glenn Kustermans

LastSpatial 地铁是由欧盟共同 Interreg 希望倡议。特别要感谢诺维奇的城邑,鲁昂,科布伦 茨合作,使研究成为可能。该研究小组由斯蒂芬·范德 Spek,弗兰克·范德胡芬,康拉德 Kickert,Robbert Jan 范德梅尔,柯恩 de 嘘,Remco de Haan 称,弗兰克 den Hartog 和格伦 Kustermans
The GPS research in Almere was co-funded by the International New Town Institute (INTI) and the City of Almere. The research team consisted of Peter de Bois and Remco de Haan, with advice from Stefan van der Spek and Jeroen van Schaick.

GPS 研究 Almere 是由国际新城共同研究所(印锑)和城市 Almere。 该研究小组由彼得·德·博 伊斯和 Remco de Haan 建议下,斯蒂芬·范德 Schaick Spek 和珀斯范。
The research work by Jeroen van Schaick on the application of knowledge on activity patterns of people in urbanism is funded by the Delft Centre for Sustainable Urban Areas.

研究工作 Schaick 珀斯范在知识的应用上活动的人在都市生活模式是由可持续城市中心代 尔夫特。

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