A (2014· 安徽省合肥市第二次教学质量检测)
Eyeglasses correct many different types of sight problems，including nearsightedness， farsightedness or astigmatism
( 散光 ) ． Trying to understand those different numbers on an optometry prescription (验光单) requires understanding the measurements optometrists (验光师) use when fitting you for corrective lenses (镜片)． Diopters (屈光度) The numbers on your prescription are given in diopters whose short form is “D”．It is used to measure the focusing power，or amount of correction. O．S.and O．D. Optometrists use the Latin short form O ． S.and O ． D.to distinguish between your eyes.O.S.refers to your left eye，while O．D.refers to the right eye. Generally， your prescription will show a number for O． S.and O． D.(given in diopters)． The farther this number is on a number line from zero，the more correction your eyeglasses should provide.A plus sign means the eye is farsighted，while a minus sign means the eye is nearsighted. Spherical Value This plus or minus number for each eye is called the spherical value， or the degree of nearsightedness or farsightedness you have.Its short form is “S”． Cylinder If you have an astigmatism ， the optometrist will also measure its degree.The higher the number (given in diopters) marked as the cylinder of astigmatism (its short form is “C” )，the more astigmatism there is in that eye. Axis An astigmatism is also measured in terms of its axis，which is a number between 0 and 180.The axis of the astigmatism does not relate to the amount of cylinder，just the location of the irregularity of the astigmatism on that particular eye. 语篇解读 这是一篇说明文， 作者介绍了眼镜的作用， 以及验光师给人们出具的验光单 上相关数据的含义，告诉我们怎么看懂验光单上的数据来判断自己是近视、远视、散光还是 视力正常。 1．According to the first paragraph，various sight problems________. A．should be understood by the patients
B．can be avoided by wearing corrective lenses C．should be tested by different optometrists D．can be corrected by wearing eyeglasses 解析： 细节理解题。第一段说了眼镜的作用，说它能矫正人的视力方面的各种问题， 根据该段的描述可知应选 D。注意本题易误选 B。我们要注意 avoid 与 correct 的区别。 答案： D 2．If you need a pair of corrective lenses，the optometrist will first value the numbers of________. A．diopters C．the cylinder B．the spherical value D．the axis
解析： 推理判断题。结合第一、二段和生活实际判断，配眼镜首先要验光，而验光单 是用屈光度来描述的，因此选 A。 答案： A 3．From the prescription above we can learn that Li Hua________. A．is farsighted C．has no astigmatism B．is nearsighted D．is normal in sight
解析： 推理判断题。从文章对 O.S.和 O.D.等相关内容的叙述以及表中数据看，李华 的 O.S.和 O.D.都没有加号，因此没有远视；spherical value 都为负值，因此有点近视；根据 Cylinder 中的内容及验光单上的数据可知，李华的眼睛散光，因此选 B。 答案： B 4．The text is probably taken from ________. A．an education report C．a local newspaper B．a school bulletin D．an encyclopedia (百科全书)
解析： 文章出处题。本文介绍了验光师的验光单的相关知识，普及了配眼镜的相关知 识，应来自“百科全书”，因此选 D。 答案： D B (2014· 河北省石家庄市高中毕业班第一次模拟考试) A tonedeaf (不会辨别音调的) teenager who suffered a concussion (脑震荡) has astonished his family by suddenly being able to play music effortlessly.Lachlan Connors， a high school junior from Denver，Colorado，now plays 13 instruments，even though he has never learned to read music.But he didn’t always have such a talent.As a younger student he loved sport，dreamed of a career playing lacrosse (长曲棍球) and had no passion for music. “He really had no talent，” his mother told CBS.“I would say，‘Can’t you hear what’s
next？’ with something like ‘Twinkle， Twinkle Little Star’ and he’d say ‘No’． When he was in the sixth grade，he was playing lacrosse when he fell backwards and knocked the back of his head against the ground，suffering a concussion.” “I remember getting up and feeling dazed，” he told CBS.“I didn’t realize something bad had happened.” The doctors told him he could return to the field， but he went on to suffer another couple of hard hits to the head， which sent him to hospital.As his condition worsened， doctors told him he should not play contact sports any more，but there was one strange good side effect：his newlyfound musical talent.He can now play 13 instruments，including piano，guitar，mandolin， harmonica and bagpipes.“Music is the thing that gets me up every morning，” he said.His doctor， Spyridon Papadopoulos， said that the concussions switched on part of Lachlan’s brain that had previously been dormant. The condition of suddenly developing a talent—musical ， artistic or mathematical—is believed to occur when the right brain compensates for an injury on the left brain. 语篇解读 少年 Lachlan 因祸得福，脑震荡后成了音乐天才。 5．What can we know about Lachlan Connors? A．He was born deaf but able to speak after an accident. B．He was not interested in music before the sixth grade. C．He has been dreaming of becoming a musician. D．He has never had a music lesson in his life. 解析： 推理判断题。根据第二段的内容以及第三段中的“As his condition worsened， doctors...newlyfound musical talent”可知，他在六年级受伤之前，对音乐不感兴趣。 答案： B 6．After the first hit to the head，the doctors advised Lachlan________. A．to go on playing lacrosse C．to give up contact sports B．to have a rest at home D．to be sent to hospital
解析： 细节理解题。根据第三段中的“The doctors told him he could return to the field” 可知，在第一次撞到头后，医生说他可以继续玩长曲棍球。 答案： A 7．The underlined word “dormant” can best be replaced by “________”． A．immature C．weak B．incomplete D．inactive
解析： 词义猜测题。Spyridon 医生说，脑震荡打开了 Lachlan 的大脑中某些一直休眠 的部分。故 D 项 inactive“不活动的”与其意思相近。 答案： D
8．Where is the text probably from? A．A fashion magazine. C．A news report. B．A biography. D．Science fiction.
解析： 文章出处题。从文章的结构和意思看，这篇文章符合新闻报道的特点，故选 C 项。 答案： C C (2014· 河南省郑州市高中毕业年级第二次质量预测) What would you do if you were a fifth grader facing a huge homework load every night，and you found that there was a machine that would do all the work for you？That’s the situation presented to Sam，Kelsey，Judy and Brenton in Dan Gutman’s entertaining new book for young readers，The Homework Machine. The four children， all fifth graders in Miss Rasmussen’s class at Grand Canyon School， are as different as any other 11yearold child could be，but they have one thing in connnon—all are somewhat separated from their classmates.Sam is a newcomer and has had his share of school trouble before；Kelsey quietly carries her pain at losing her father；Judy’s sense of justice always annoys others；Brenton is the smartest child in the school，and he is so smart that even his parents and teachers have trouble keeping up with him.When Brenton and his three classmates are put into the same study group by their teacher，the others discover that Brenton has made a timesaving gadget (小装置) to do homework for him.While the boy is perfectly able to do his homework himself，Sam，Kelsey and Judy can use the help. Having perfect grades is something new for these three，and as they meet every day to “do homework”，they find that they’re learning a lot about each other.Such a good thing can’t last though，and when a secret man starts trying to get in touch with them，they begin to get nervous.Soon there’s an even more frightening problem—why can’t the Homework Machine be turned off? Told in different voices as all the children make statements to the Grand Canyon Police，the story develops in an interesting fashion.Gutman is a gifted writer who has written dozens of children’s books，each with a funny and impressing tale that should be equally liked by boys and girls. 语篇解读 这是一篇说明文，主要介绍了新书《家庭作业机器》的相关故事情节。 9．What is one common thing that all the four children have to deal with at school? A．Getting along with their classmates. B．Doing their homework by themselves. C．Overcoming difficulties on their own.
D．Catching up with others to get good grades. 解析： 推理判断题。 由文章第二段中的“all are somewhat separated from their classmates” 可知，他们面临的共同问题是如何与同学相处。 答案： A 10．Which of the following words can best describe Brenton? A．Strange and nervous. C．Brave and special. B．Quiet and smart. D．Clever and helpful.
解析： 推理判断题。第二段说聪明的 Brenton 发明了一种做作业的省时小装置，学习 小组的另外三个人也可以用这个小装置帮助自己做作业，因此选 D，Brenton 聪明并且愿意 帮助人。 答案： D 11．Why did the children get frightened? A．They lost touch with each other. B．They were questioned by a strange man. C．They had no idea how to stop the machine. D．They were tracked down by the police. 解析： 细节理解题。由文章第三段中的 “Soon there’s an even more frightening
problem—why can’t the Homework Machine be turned off”可知，选 C。 答案： C 12. This passage most probably comes from________. A．a student’s diary C．a school report B．a book review D．a science story
解析： 文章出处题。本文介绍的是一本书的相关内容，应该是书评(a book review)。 答案： B