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语法复习一:句子成分;简单句、并列句和复合句


语法复习一:句子成分;简单句、并列句和复合句
一、句子成分
(一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子成分有主要成分和次要成
分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补足语和同位语。 (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。但在 there be 结构、疑问句(当 主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于

谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代词、 数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language.(it 作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式) (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主 语之后。谓语的构成如下: 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如:He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成。如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (2)由系动词加表语构成。如:We are students. (四)表语:表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态,它一般位于系动词(如 be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后。表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、不定式、动名 词、介词短语、副词及表语从句表示。例如: Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) 1

I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) 宾语种类: (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) ,例如:Lend me your dictionary, please.(2) 复合宾语(宾语+宾补) ,例如:They elected him their monitor. (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语, 才能使句子的意义完整。 带有宾语补足语的一般句型为: 某些及物动词 (如 make 等+宾语+宾补) 。 宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如: His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) (八)状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状 语。可由以下形式表示: Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句)

状语种类如下:
How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语) 2

练习一
一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:
1. The students got on the school bus. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. His job is to train swimmers. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 10. His wish is to become a scientist. 11. He managed to finish the work in time. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 13. He found it important to master English. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 20. The apples tasted sweet.

二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语(—)、谓语(=)、宾语(~):
I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden.

三、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语(—)、状语(=)、补语(~):
Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you 3

have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents.

四、选择填空:
( )1. ____ will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ) 2. The weather ____. A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ) 3. The apple tasted ____. A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet ) 4. He got up ____ yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter )5. The actor ______at the age of 70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. deaded )6. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we )7. He found the street much ______. A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly ) 8.I think _____necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is ) 9. The dog ____ mad. A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked )10.I will never forget the day ______ I joined the army. A. that B. when C. in which D. where

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二、简单句、并列句和复合句
(一)句子种类两种分类法
1、按句子的用途可分四种: 1)陈述句(肯定、否定) :He is six years old; She didn’t hear of you before. 2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意) :Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can’t she? 3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class 4)感叹句:How clever the boy is! 2、按句子的结构可分三种: 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语) 。 e.g. He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers. 2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(; )把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起 构成。 e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。 3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:名词性从句(主语从句、宾语 从句、表语从句和同位语从句) 、定语从句和状语从句等。 e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall.

(二)简单句的五种基本句型
1、主语+系动词+表语:e.g. He is a student. 2、主语+不及物动词:e.g. We work. 3、主语+及物动词+宾语:e.g. Henry bought a dictionary. 4、主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) :e.g. My father bought me a car. 5、主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) :e.g. Tom made the baby laugh. 注:其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展、变化或省略而构成。

(三)并列句的分类
1、表示连接两个同等概念,常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接。e.g. The teacher’s name is Smith, and the student’s name is John. 2、 表示选择, 常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等。 e.g. Hurry up, or you’ll miss the train. 3、 表示转折, 常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等。 e.g. He was a little man with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. 4、 表示因果关系, 常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等。 e.g. August is the time of the year for rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.

练习二、简单句、并列句和复合句
一、判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句:
1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? 5

4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn’t it? 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music.

二、判断下列短文中各句是简单句、并列句还是复合句: I hope you are very well( ). I'm fine, but tired( ). Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm( ). August is the hottest month here( ) . It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark.( ) Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors( ). We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat( ). We have a lot of machines on the farm( ) . Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him( ) . But he employs more men for the harvest( ) . My brother takes care of the vegetable garden( ). It doesn't often rain in the summer here( ). As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden( ). Every evening we pump water from a well ( ). It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden( ). Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time( ). These parties often make us very happy( ). We cook meat on an open fire outside( ). It's great( )! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion( ). Some of my friends drink beer( ). I don't, because I have to drive home after the party( ). In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States( ). There are five different time areas in the States( ). In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time( ). How many different time areas do you have in China( )? Well, I must stop and get some sleep( ). Please give my best regards to your parents( ). 三、选择填空:
1. Give me one more minute ____ I’ll be able to finish it. A. and B. or C. if 2. It’s the third time that John has been late, ____? A. hasn’t he B. isn’t he C. isn’t it 3. ____ joyful he was to meet his brother again! A. How B. What C. What a 4. Let us pass, ____? A. shan’t we B. shall we C. won’t we 5. I suppose he’s serious, ____ ? A. do I B. don’t I C. is he 6 D. so D. hasn’t it D. What an D. will you D. isn’t he

6. You had better not smoke here, ____? A. will you B. had you C. shall you D. have you 7. Train as hard as you can ____ you’ll win the swimming competition. A. then B. but C. and D. or 8. I’m sorry to have to say this, ____ you forgot to turn off the lights when you left the room last night. A. and B. but C. so D. because 9. John has not yet passed the driving test, and ____. A. Henry hasn’t too B. Henry also has not either C. neither Henry has D. neither has Henry 10. There are many sports lovers in his office. Some love climbing, ____ others enjoy swimming. A. or B. for C. while D. so 11. ---- Do you feel like going out ____ would you rather have dinner at home? ---- I’d like to go out. A. or B. and C. but D. so 12. ---- “____ is the temperature today?” ----“It’s 38 degrees.” A. Which B. How C. How hot D. How high 13. ---- Your uncle isn’t an engineer, is he? ---- ____. A. Yes, he isn’t B. No, he isn’t C. No, he is D. He is 14. ____ friendly ____ to everyone! A. How, is she B. What, is she C. How, she is D. What, she is 15. Mary went to bed early, ____ she felt very tired. A. or B. so C. for D. yet 16. Mother ____ a dress when she cut her finger. A. was making B. makes C. is making D. made 17. He lay in bed ____ read something borrowed from library. A. but B. and C. or D. yet 18. ---- I’d really like some lunch but I have so much work to do. ---- ____ what you want and I can get it for you. A. Tell me B. If you would say to me C. You will tell me D. If you tell me 19. As he is strong, ____ can lift one hundred pounds. A. yet he B. but he C. and D. he 20. ---- I thought you had an umbrella. ---- I had, ____ I’ve lost it. A. since B. but C. because D. so 21. ____ down the radio ---- the baby’s asleep in the next room. A. Turning B. To turn C. Turned D. Turn 22. ---- I don’t like chicken ____ fish. ---- I don’t like chicken ____ I like fish very much. A. and, and B. and, but C. or, and D. or, but 23. ---- Would you like to come to dinner tonight? ---- I’d like to, ____ I’m too busy. A. and B. so C. as D. but 24. Would you like a cup of coffee ____ shall we get down to business right away? A. and B. then C. or D. otherwise 25. She set out soon after dark ____ home an hour later. A. arriving B. to arrive C. having arrived D. and arrived 26. “Can’t you read?” Mary said ____ to the notice. A. angrily pointing B. and point angrily C. angrily pointed D. and angrily pointed 7

27. She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter. A. whom B. where C. which D. while 28. ____ it with me and I’ll see what I can do. A. When left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave 29. ---- Alice, you feed the bird today, ____? ---- But I fed it yesterday. A. do you B. will you C. didn’t you D. don’t you 30. ____ him and then try to copy what he does. A. Mind B. Glance at C. Stare at D. Watch

四、按要求完成下列句子:
1. He dares to tell the truth.(改为否定句) 2. They have lived here for more than ten years.(对画线部分提问) 3. There will be a sports meet at the end of this month, ____________?(完成反意疑问) 4. You must be careful with your pronunciation.(改为祈使句) 5. They went for a walk after supper yesterday evening.(改为一般疑问句) 6. It is an interesting story.(改为感叹句) 7. This magazine comes out(出版)every other week.(对画线部分提问) 8. They could hardly believe his words, ____________?(完成反意疑问) 9. The moon is shining brightly.(改为感叹句) 10.Our English teacher is always encouraging us to speak English in class. (对画线部分提问)

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