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高中英语基础写作专项训练(文体)


技巧点拨 高考中,说明文常见的话题有:产品介绍、地点描述、 方位描写、变化分析、购物指南和操作说明等。 1.时态常用一般现在时,当然若是介绍其历史时,要用 一般过去时;语态可能用到被动语态;若是介绍地点、 环境等,要善于运用there be结构。 2.人称;用第二人称或第三人称

对比类写作是说明文的一种. 1. 常用时态:用一般现在时,一般过去时 和现在完

成时,被动语态也较常用. 2.两种方式:集中比较或对比;逐点比较或对比 常用的关联词:compared with, be different from,
on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, used to do…but now, In the same way, similary , no longer, in the past, opinions are divided on sth, everything has two sides等

作文步骤: 1. 点题概括. 用一二句话将主题概括性的导出. 2.具体对比阐述. 古今对比的写作要注意突出过 去与现在的差异,同时注意对比关联词的使用. 3.正反观点对比的写作要注意客观介绍两方观 点.

练习:人们对学生网上交朋友持不同意见。请你用 英语写一篇学生网上交朋友的短文,介绍人们不 同的看法,并表达自己的观点。
赞同的理由 ①②
广交朋友

反对的理由 ③ ④
浪费时间

你的看法



可自由表达思想
利于外语学习

影响学习
可能上当受骗

Should students make friends online? Some people say yes and they think the Internet helps make many friends. By chatting online, students can express their feelings and opinions more freely,and even get help with their foreign language studies. Others, however, believe students should not make friends online, saying making friends online is a waste of time, which should be spent more meaningful on study. Besides, some students get cheated online. Personally, students should place study, health and safety before other things and as for friendship, we can readily find it among our classmates and other people around us.

中秋节

庆祝方法

过节前:准备食物;商店拥挤, 有些商店为了满足需求24小时营 最重要的传 业; 统节日之一 过节时:家人欢聚,吃月饼, 赏 明月,送祝福。 (古代) 人们载歌载舞,庆祝水果、 蔬菜、 丰收的日子 谷物的丰收。

The Mid-Autumn Festival, which is one of the most important traditional festivals in China, falls on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month. When it’s coming, shops are full of people who want to prepare food and some shops have to work around the clock to meet the demands. On the day, families get together, having meals, eating mooncakes, looking at the bright moon and wishing each other good luck. In ancient times, it was also considered as a harvest festival since fruits, vegetables and grain had been harvested by the time. People would sing and dance to celebrate the harvest.

高考英语基础写作 复习系列

图表类说明文的类型 一是以表格形式,将 统计的数据或被 说明的事物直接 用表格形式体现 出来,即统计表 (table) 。
Item
Food

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
65% 60% 48% 42% 35% 8% 3% 9% 5% 12%l 15% 17% 7% 8% 10%

clothing
Recreation Others Total

24% 26% 33% 35% 38% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

矩形的竖行和横行进行排列的表格

二是以图形形式 A 表示数据变化的曲线图( graph );

表示两组数的关系-通常为函数关系图

B 表示数据的大小或数量之间的差异 的柱状图( bar chart / graph );

C 表示总体内部结构变化的扇形图 ( pie chart )

3.

具体写作步骤:

Part 1: General idea (conclusion/ tendency) (图表反映的问题或总体趋势) Part 2: Facts: (to support the idea) (具 体数据或事实) Part 3: Reasons (原因分析) Part 4: Solutions/suggestions (解决问题
的办法或建议) 在写作时, 不一定包括这四个部分, 应根据 写作要求或具体情况而定。

第一步(part1):
开门见山地点明本图表所反映的主题, 即conclusion. 常使用的词汇有:

(图表/数据): table, chart, graph,figure(数据)… ; 动词:describe, tell, show, represent …

、常用句式 开头常用套语 . From the graph/table/ chart above, it tells that/we can see that ... 从上表我们 可以看出?? As can be seen from the graph,….

第二步:分析数据间的主要差异及趋势,然后描写 (在描写数据间变化及总趋势特征时,可采用分类式 或对比式以支持主题,并阐明必要的理由)。注意层 次。 即 facts and reasons(part2 and part3)
增长/减少的表达: 表示上升的动词: rise,increase,,go up , …; 表示上升的名词: rise,increase, …; 表示下降的动词: fall,,decrease,drop,go down, decline …; 表示下降的名词: fall,decline,decrease,drop, …; 表示平稳: remain steady/unchange…

其它: account for 30% of the total占总 量的30%, at the same rate以相同的速 率, average平均的, annual每年的, the figure数字, number数字, amount数量, percentage百分比

4. 叙述数据时要避免过多重复使用 百分比,可以用约数、倍数等来表 达。强调“少”可用only (只有)等, 强调“多”可用as many/much as (多达)。

常用句子

1.There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop in…

2.The rate dropped slightly from 38%in…to 31%in…
3 . It shows a 20% rise/reduction in traffic accidents compared with last year. 4. The population increased by 10% in 1999.

倍数的表达:
five 7.The number of … istimes as many as of…. =The number in 1999 is times four than in 2000…(比...多4倍 ) more

that

第三步:阐明原因

原因分析的常用套语(Reasons)
1 There are two reasons that account for this phenomenon/problem. 2 A number of factors could account for (lead to /result in) the change /increase

3 The reason for this is that ..., ……的原因是……

常用表达:归纳总结或发表评论。(part4) 1 In summary, it is important to … 2We can draw the conclusion that…. 3 we can predict that… 4There is no doubt that … 5 I suggest that … 6 In my opinion , ….

第四步:

句型模板

1 From the graph/ figure\ table above, we can see that great changes in car ownership have taken place in China in the past ten years.(图表得出结论)1句 2 The number of cars increased slightly from 31%in 1998 to 38% in2000. (图表反映数据) 3 There are two reasons that account for this phenomenon. (原因) 4 In my opinion , ….(观点)1句

范文剖析 ---- 07年高考基础写作
[写作内容] 根据以上数据,写一篇短 文,包括以下内容: 1.调查时间,调查问题,以 及调查对象; 2.男女生在以明星为偶像 方面的差异; 3.”父母”在男女生偶像 中的排序差异; 4.男女生在以伟人为偶像 方面的异同; 5.你的偶像及理由。

范文剖析
a. Conclusion/fact/reason/your opinion? b.数据的表达?
Conclusion Last week,we did a survey among 2, 1.________ 600 students on “Who is your idol”. 2._____ The Fact survey shows that half of the girls choose film and TV stars as idols,while 48% of the boys favor sports stars. 3._____ Fact As the data shows, “parents” rank the second for the girls, but the fourth for the boys. 4._____ Fact However, the percentage of the boys choosing “great figures” is the same as that of the girls. 5.________ Your opinion As for myself, Thomas Edison is my idol, because his inventions have greatly changed our life.

: 实践演练
下图是我国近10年私人 汽车拥有情况,反映了 人们生活水平的变化. [写作内容] 99 请根据以上数据,写一篇 短文,包括以下内容: 1. 近10年我国私人汽车 拥有量增加了5倍多; 2. 增加的理由是:经济 增长快;节约时间。 3. 你对此现象的看法。

00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

[写作要求] 1. 只能使用5个句子表 达全部内容; 2. 标题 :Car Ownership in China。

写作指导
人称: 第三人称 时态: 现在完成时& 一般现在时 要点: 1. 近10年我国私人汽 车拥有量发生了巨变; 2. 2009年私人汽车拥 有量比1999年增加了5 倍多; 3. 理由1:经济增长快; 4. 理由2:节约时间; 5. 你对此现象的看法。
99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09

篇章结构: 1.Conclusion 2.Facts and reasons 3.Your own opinion/ suggestions

Possible Version:
As can be seen from the graph, great changes in car ownership have taken place in China in the past ten years. The number of private cars increased more than 5 times from nearly 3 million in 1999 to over 15 million in 2009. It’s mainly because the economy of China has developed so rapidly that many Chinese people want to own private cars. Besides, in modern society, many Chinese need a car to do business so as to save time. In my view, as the car ownership constantly increases year by year, a large number of social problems, such as traffic jams, will turn up in nearly every city throughout China.

四、超级仿写 下列两个图表显示了在过去的10年间大 学生过暑假的方式变化。

[写作内容] 请根据这两个图表, 用英语写 一篇短文, 内容包括: 1. 简单描述图表中变化明显 的项目; 2. 简要分析变化的原因; 3. 由表格内容得出的结论。

As can be seen from the two charts, great changes in the travelling way for the college students during summer vacation have taken place in the past ten years . The college students who go traveling and make social investigations during summer vacation have increased greatly while those who stay at home have decreased a lot.

There are two main reasons for the changes. For one thing, with the development of economy, many people have become rich, which makes it possible for students to get financial support from their parents in traveling.

And for another, the government has been encouraging college students to make social investigations on the rapid development in both cities and villages. From the changes in the charts, we can predict that more and more college students will make their summer vacation colorful and meaningful by going to the outside world instead of staying at home.

技巧点拨 作者对某一问题持有一种看法,为了使读者同意,提出 若干理由,试图说服他人 1. 找出论点、论据及其之间的相互关系,即找出要点; 2. 合理安排材料的顺序, 3. 议论文常用一般现在时,但述说过去的事实时,可用 过去时态;预测将来时,要用将来时态;也经常使用被 动语态;有时假设一种虚拟情况时,还需要用虚拟语气。 4.人称; 第三人称,表达自己意见时用第一人称.

夹叙夹议类写作 1.先叙后议 2用一般现在时与一般过去时合用,一般现在时贯
穿全文

常用的关联词:
In my opinion, as far as I’m concerned, from the story above, disagree with, with the development of…, more and more …, all in all, In short, above all, besides, furthermore等

作文步骤: 1内容叙述 对现象或故事进行描述 2观点表达 对所提供的现象或故事发表议论 (议论与叙述内容要相关). 3.总结(并提出建议)

练习:假如你是李华,你班同学参加了报社组 织的一场讨论,主题是:城市内是否可以养宠 物.请根据下表提供的信息给报社写信,介绍 讨论情况,说明自己的观点或建议.
反对饲养宠物的同学认为 支持饲养宠物的同学认为 造成环境污染 有吵闹声,甚至伤人 安慰孤寡老人 人和动物和谐相处,增添 生活情趣

Dear Editor, Recently we have had a heated discussion on whether people should keep pets in cities. Some students think it a good idea to keep pets, because pets can give company to many old people who live alone at home. Besides, getting along well with animals will make our life more interesting. On the contrary, the other students who are against the idea believe that if too many people keep pets, it will do harm to the environment. What’s worse, pets may make too much noise and even attack people. I like animals, so I don’t think it’s bad to keep pets, but we must take some measures to prevent them from polluting our environment. Your truly, Li Hua

技巧点拨 应用文主要有书信、通知、海报、请柬、请假条、便条、 日记、启事、祝辞、履历表等 1.时态,如日记常用过去时态,通知、请柬通常要用将 来时态,而履历表用过去式或现在时态。 2应用文的写作往往有一些特定的习惯语句或套话,这 些语句在考试中可能会考查到,所以要重点掌握。

1. 留言条:给房东写留言条 假定你是李华,正在英国接受英语培训,住在一户英国 人家里。今天你的房东Mrs. Wilson 不在家,你准备外 出。 [写作内容] 请按要求给Mrs. Wilson 写一张留言条,主要内容包括: (1)外出购物,下午5:00才回来; (2)替房东去市图书馆还书; (3)Tracy 在下午1:00来电话留言: ①咖啡屋(Bolton Coffee)见面取消;②此事已告知 Susan;③尽快回电。

范文 1. 留言条:给房东写留言条 Mrs. Wilson, I’m going out shopping, and won’t be back until about 5:00 pm. I have taken with me the two books you asked me to return to the City Library. At about 1 o’clock this afternoon, Tracy called, saying that she couldn’t meet you at Bolton Coffee tomorrow morning as she has something important to attend to. She felt very sorry about that, but said that you could set some other time for the meeting. She has already told Susan about this change and wanted you to call her back as soon as you are home. Li Hua

高考英语作文话题二:书信作文

? 1. 书信开头表达: ? A. I am writing to you to apply for admission to your university as a visiting scholar. ? B. I read an advertisement in today’s China Daily and I apply for the job... ? C. Thank you for your letter of May 5. ? D. How happy I am to receive your letter of January 9. ? E. How nice to hear from you again.

? [2. 口头通知或介绍情况:

? A. Ladies and gentlemen, May I have your attention, please. I have an announcement to make. ? B. Attention, please. I have something important to tell you. ? C. Mr. Green, Welcome to our school. To begin with, let me introduce Mr. Wang to you.

? 3. 演讲稿: ? A. Ladies and gentlemen, I feel very much honored to have a chance here to make a speech on the subject -- A Balance Diet and Health. ? B. Good morning everyone! Allow me, first of all, on behalf of all present here, to extend our warm welcome and cordial热忱的greeting to our distinguished guest.

主题: 举办“中学生才艺大赛”的通知

Notice A “High School Students Talent Show” will be held in Guangzhou Television Station on May 1. There will be eight kinds of talents, including speeches, songs, dances, and musical instruments playing etc.

One 1st prize, three 2nd prizes and five
3rd prizes for each type of talent will be

offered at the show. If you’d like to have
a try, please go to the TV station to sign up before April 30. It’s a good chance for you to show your special talent. The Students Union

通知是一种安排活动或布置工作时使 用的文体,包括了口头通知 (announcement, 包括广播通知)和书面通 知(notice)。口头通知是当面向有关人员口 授有关活动的信息, 而书面通知是以布告 的形式把事情通知给有关人员。通知的要 素是时间、地点、对象、事件、事项等。 书面通知还应写明通知时间和组织者

一、句式模板 1. 口头通知要有称呼语:Ladies and

gentlemen, Boys and girls 2. 口头通知常用开头语:May I have your attention, please? I have something important to tell you. 3. 口头通知常用结束语:That’s all. Thank you.

4.其他套用语: Everyone is asked to be there on time. 要求大家按时到达那里。 Be sure not to be late.一定不要迟到。 Please take your notebooks with you and be sure to be on time.请带上笔记 本, 按时到达。

Those who are interested in it are warmly welcome.欢迎对此有兴趣的人参加。
注意:用将来时态。

The match will be put off to next week.该
比赛将推迟至下周。

We are going to hold a meeting to discuss the problem.我们将开会讨论这个问题。

二、超级仿写 1.书面通知 (2000年春季)为了丰富外国留学生的生活, 你校学生会将举办一次音乐周活动。 [写作内容] 请你以组织者的身份写一个书面通知书,有 关内容如下: 时间:5月第1周 活动: 1.演唱歌曲:流行歌曲; 2.器乐演奏:古典和民间音乐;

3.音乐比赛: 听歌曲片断, 然后猜出处; 地点: 届时通知, 参加者请于4月20日 前报名; 4.通知格式已为你写好。
生词: 古典classical 民间folk

Dear students, The Students Union has decided to organize a music week, which will be held in the first week of May. There will be different kinds of activities, including singing pop songs and playing classical and folk music as well as a music contest.

And in the contest the students will listen to part of a song or a piece of music, and then guess where it comes from. If you’d like to take part in the music week, please come and sign up for it before April 20th.The place for the activities will be announced later. Come to the great fun! The Students, Union

2.口头通知。 有一批英国学生在广州旅游,住白天鹅宾馆。 请你用英语为他们拟一个参观广州动物园的口 头通知,通知的内容如下: 参观时间: 11月11号,星期天 集合时间: 星期天早上7点,行车50分钟 集合地点: 白天鹅宾馆大门口 广州动物园的简介: 有50年左右的历史,有各 种各样的动物,还有稀有的大熊猫,扬子鳄等 注意事项: 自带食物,穿舒服的鞋子

参考词汇:
扬子鳄 Chinese alligators 白天鹅宾馆 White Swan Hotel

Hi, everyone. May I have your attention please? On Sunday, October 11th, we will visit the Guangzhou Zoo, which has a long history of 50 years or so. There we can see all kinds of animals, including some rare animals such as pandas, Chinese alligators and so on.

Those who want to go please gather at the gate of the White Swan Hotel at 7: 00 on Sunday morning. It will take us 50 minutes to get to the zoo. Be sure to take some food with you and wear comfortable shoes because we will do a lot of walking. That’s all. Thank you!

记叙文
记叙文顺序作文步骤: 1.首先用一句话点题,点明文章的时间、地点、 人物、事件. 2.写出事件的起因,发展和经过 3.先客观描述事件的结果,再用一二句话概括 你的看法或感想

写作模板

All the members of Loving Heart Society at our school gate at 7:30 a.m this morning, and then we went by bike to the North Lake Park to plant tree(点题)… we looked at the trees standing in line, and felt very happy. (感想)

对比类说明文 作文步骤: 1. 点题概括. 用一二句话将主题概括性的导出. 2.具体对比阐述. 古今对比的写作要注意突出过 去与现在的差异,同时注意对比关联词的使用. 3.正反观点对比的写作要注意客观介绍两方观 点.

写作模板

Should students make friends online?(主题概括)… Some people say yes and they think … Others, however, believe students should not …(正反观点对比).

图表类说明文步骤:
1.Conclusion 点明本图表所反映的主题 2.facts and reasons 分析并描写图表所示的具体信息 3.Your own opinion/suggestion 归纳总结或发表评论。 常用句型模板: 1.The graph/chart/table above shows …

2.There was a great /slight increase /rise in…
(Statistics show a 20% rise/reduction in traffic accidents compared with last year.)

3 The reason why …is that… 4.There is no doubt that attention must be paid to…

写作模板
a. Conclusion/fact/reason/your opinion?
Conclusion Last week,we did a survey among 2, 1.________ 600 students on “Who is your idol”. 2._____ The Fact survey shows that half of the girls choose film and TV stars as idols,while 48% of the boys favor sports stars. 3._____ Fact As the data shows, “parents” rank the second for the girls, but the fourth for the boys. 4._____ Fact However, the percentage of the boys choosing “great figures” is the same as that of the girls. 5.________ Your opinion As for myself, Thomas Edison is my idol, because his inventions have greatly changed our life.

夹叙夹议类写作

作文步骤: 1内容叙述 对现象或故事进行描述(一二句话) 2观点表达 对所提供的现象或故事发表议论 (议论与叙述内容要相关). 3.总结(并提出建议)

写作模板

Recently we have had a heated discussion on whether people should keep pets in cities(对现象进行描述.) Some students think …On the contrary, the other students…(发表 议论) I like animals, so I don’t think it’s bad to keep pets… (总结)

技巧点拨 应用文主要有书信、通知、海报、请柬、请假条、便条、 日记、启事、祝辞、履历表等 1.时态,如日记常用过去时态,通知、请柬通常要用将 来时态,而履历表用过去式或现在时态。 2应用文的写作往往有一些特定的习惯语句或套话,这 些语句在考试中可能会考查到,所以要重点掌握。

书信写作
作文步骤: 1称呼 2正文 既信的内容 (第一句先用较为礼貌的一个 句子开头) 3.结尾语 (祝贺语) 一般写在正文 的下面. 4.结束语 写在结尾语的下面. 5. 署名 写在结束语的下面.

写作模板 Dear friend, I have the honor to invite you to my party. __________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ I’m looking forward to your coming . Yours Zhang Hua

通知写作
作文步骤: 1标题 2发布日期 3.正文 4 落款

写作模板 Notice May 10, 2008 It has been decided that all the students will have a meeting on… ____________ __________________________________ __________________________________ Please attend on time! The Student Union


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