一. 定语从句的基本定义 1.放在名词或代词后面，由关系代词或关系副词引导的修饰该名词或代词的从句叫定语从 句。被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词。 eg. The boy who is reading is Tom. 关系代词 先行词 eg. Hospital is a place where a doctor works. 先行词 关系副词 2.先行词和关系词
的关系 1.A plane is a machine that can fly. 2.The boy who broke the window is called Tom. 3.The boy whose parents are dead was brought up by his grandfather. 4.The school where I study is far from my home. 关系代词实际上是先行词的复指 the machine = that the boy =who 关系词 whose 实际上是先行词的所有格 the boy’s =whose 关系副词实际上是介词＋先行词 in the school = where 3.关系代词的实质 将下列句子合并成一个句子 1. A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is the machine/a machine that /which can fly. 2.The lady is Green. We saw her yesterday. . 关系代词实际上代替的就是先行词 二. 关系词的分类 1. 关系代词
关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语，常用的关系代词有：that, which, who,
whom, whose 2. 关系副词
关系副词在定语从句中作状语，常用的关系副词有：when, where, why
三. 关系代词的基本用法和注意点 1. 关系代词的基本用法 关系代词 指代的先行词 who 人 whom 人
充当从句的成分 主语、宾语 宾语
which that whose
物 人或物 人或物 who, whom
主语、宾语 主语、宾语、表语 定语
① who 指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时，可省略。 The man (who) I talked with is our teacher. A person who steals things is called a thief. ②whom 指人,在定语从句中作宾语，可省略。 The man (whom) I nodded to is Mr. Li. which ③ which 指物，在定语从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时，可省略。 These are the trees which were planted last year. This recorder （which） he is using is made in Japan. that ④that 指人或物，在定语从句中作主语或宾语。作宾语时，可省略。 A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about. whose ⑤whose 指人或物, 在定语从句中作定语 。不可省略。 This is the little girl whose parents were killed in the great earthquake. We live in a house whose windows face south. 2. 关系代词的用法注意点 (1) that 和 which 都可以指物，但以下 5 种情况只能用 that 不能用 which。 ①当先行词中有人又有物时。如： Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ②当先行词为不定代词 all, one, few, little, no, some, any, everything, nothing, nobody, none 等时。如： This is all that I want from the school. ③当先行词被 only, just, very, right, last 等修饰时。如：
This is the very book that I am looking for these days.
④当先行词被最高级修饰时。如： The TV tower is the highest building that has been built in this city.
⑤当先行词被序数词修饰时。如： The first lesson that I learned will never be forgotten. (2) that 和 who 都可以指人，但下面两种情况，多用 who。 ①先行词为 all, anyone, one, ones 等时。如： All who heard the news were excited. ②先行词为 those, he 和 people 时。如： Those who want to go please sign your names here. He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man. (3) whose 引导的定语从句注意点 ①whose 引导定语从句，其后应紧跟名词，构成名词短语。 ② whose 与它所修饰的名词一起可以作介词的宾语。如： The boss in whose department he worked had heard the news.他工作所在部门的老板已经听说了
③ whose 引导的定语从句，其先行词既可以指人也可以指物。 ④whose 的先行词指物时，可用 of which 代替，但语序不同，即 whose+名词 = the+名词+of which，或= of which + the + 名词。如：
The novel whose title (= the title of which 或 of which the title) is Red and Black is very interesting.
⑤whose 的先行词指人时，可用 of whom 代替，但语序不同，即 whose+名词 = the+名词+of whom，或= of whom + the + 名词。如：
The boy whose mother (= the mother of whom 或 of whom the mother) is a doctor is my friend.
Those who are against the plan put up your hands. Tom is one of the students who were praised by the teacher yesterday. Tom is the only one of the students who was praised by the teacher yesterday.
巩固练习： 1. 用定语从句合并句子 (1) The scientist is very famous in the world. We met her yesterday. The scientist who /whom/ that / 省略 we met yesterday is very famous in the world. (2) The dress is new. She is wearing it. The dress which / that / 省略 she is wearing is new. (3) He is the kind person. I have ever worked with him. He is the kind person who /whom/ that / 省略 I have ever worked with. (4) This is the best film. I have ever seen this film. This is the best film that / 省略 I have ever seen.
who, that, whom, which, whose
? ? ? ?
who/ that (which/ that) whose which/ that
I have a friend ___________ likes listening to the classical music. Yesterday Emily was wearing the new dress _____________ I gave her. The man ______ leg broke in a match used to be a good football player. Kate is reading a book ____________ is too difficult for her.
巩固练习： 用适当的关系词填空 1.The girl ______is standing next to our teacher is her daughter. 2. The girl ________our teacher is talking with is a famous singer. 3. The girl_____mother is a teacher can speak English very well. 4. I can’t find the book ______is borrowed from the library. 5. I can’t find the book ______you lent to me. who/that who/whom/that whose which/that that/which ? The family ______ I’m staying with lives in town. ? I know the student ______ article was published. ? Betty, _____ has never been abroad, is studying English very well. ? My parents live in a house ______ is more than 100 years old. ? The boy with _____ John spoke is my brother. ? Luckily none of the people ______ I know were killed in the earthquake. which/ that whose who which/ that whom that 3.介词+whom/which 如何判断介词 (1).根据从句中的动词搭配 This is the book for which you asked.
注意：动词短语不能拆，即介词不提前 ? 我照顾的那个老人好多了。
The old man after whom I am looking is better. The old man whom I am looking after is better. (2).根据从句中的形容词搭配 He told me some reference books with which I am not very familiar. This is our classroom, in the front of which there is a teacher’s desk. (3).根据先行词与介词搭配
介词 + 关系代词 = 关系副词 My grandpa was born in 1939 ________ the World WarⅡ broke out. in which /when Kun Ming is a beautiful place _______ flowers are seen all the year round. in which/where Exercise ? The song, ________ we are interested will be broadcast tonight. ? He is the hero ________ we are proud. ? This is the college ________ we’ll visit a famous actor. ? The earth ________ we live is a big round ball. in which of whom in which on which 4.介词+关系代词的使用 on which ? Do you like the book ________ she spent $10? ? Do you like the book ________ she paid $10? ? Do you like the teacher __________ she learned a lot? ? Do you like the teacher ___________ we are talking has gone abroad? ? He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, most ________ hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. for which from whom about whom of which 5. 先行词为 the way，关系词的使用 先行词是 the way，意为“方式，方法”时，引导定语从句的关系词用 that/ in which 或 省略。 I didn't like the way _______________ she talked to me. （that/in which） The way _________________he teaches English is interesting.（that/in which） 6. 关系代词 as 引导
(1).先行词与 such, the same 连用或先行词本身就是 the same, such 时，要用 as。 Such people as you describe are rare nowadays. Would you like to buy the same pen as I have? (2).代替整个句子，在从句中作主语，而从句位于句首时，要用 as。 As is well known, the earth goes around the sun.
as 的使用 The earth is round, ___ we all know. as /which ___ is known to all, the earth is round. As ___ is known to all that the earth is round. It 定语从句在句首时只能用 as，as 具有正如之意，动词一般较固定
Being a volunteer is such a privilege ____ we all want to have. Being a volunteer is such a privilege ____ we all want to have it. 四. 关系副词的基本用法 关系副词 when, where 和 why 的用法 关系副词 指代的先行词 when 表时间的名词/名词词组 where 表地点的名词/名词词组 why 表原因的名词 1. when
充当从句的成分 时间状语 地点状语 原因状语
用关系副词 when 时，先行词指时间，when 在定语从句中作时间状语，when 可换成“介词 +关系代词” 。如： I still remember the day when (= on which) I first came to Nanjing. My father was born in the year when (= in which) World War Ⅱ broke out. 2. where 用关系副词 where 时，先行词指地点，where 在定语从句中作地点状语，where 可换成“介 词+关系代词” 。如： This is the farm where (= on which) we worked when we were young. The school where (= in which) his mother teaches is in the west of the city. 3. why 用关系副词 why 时，先行词指原因，why 在定语从句中作原因状语，why 可换成“介词+关 系代词” 。如： There are several reasons why (= for which) the boys should be punished. Tom couldn’t give the teacher the reason why (= for which) he was late for school. 4. 关系副词的用法注意点
(1)当先行词为 time，表示“次数”时，应用关系词 that 或省略。如： This is the first time (that) the president has visited the country.
(2)当 point, situation, case 等词作先行词表示 “情况， 境地， 场合” 等意思时， 其后常由 where 引导定语从句，where 在句中作状语。如： Can you think of a situation where this phrase can be used? 巩固练习：用适当的关系词填空 1) October 1, 1949 was the day______( ____) China was founded. 2) Beijing is the place ______ (____ ______) I live. 3) Is this the reason ____ (___ _____) he didn’t want to see me? 4) Is this the room ______(__ _____)we were living last winter? 5) The days are gone _____(______ ______) we used “foreign oil”. 6) Yesterday, we had a meeting ______(_ _ ______) we discussed many problems. When/on which Where/in which Why/for which
Where/in which When/during which Where/at which 对比练习：用适当的关系词填空 1. The room ___________________ he once lived is still there. where/in which The room ___________________ I have to clean every day belongs to my mother. (that/which) 2. I will never forget the day_______________ I met you. when/on which I will never forget the day ______________ we spent together. (that/which) 3. The reason ________________ I don’t know the thing is that I was not there at that time. why/for which The reason _____________ I don’t know is known to him. (that/which) I’ll never forget the days _____________ we worked together. I’ll never forget the days __________ we spent together. I went to the place ______________ I worked ten years ago. I went to the place __________ I visited ten years ago. This is the reason _____________ he was late. This is the reason __________ he gave. when/ in which (that/which) where /in which (which/ that) why /for which that/ which 六. 非限制性定语从句 1. 非限制性定语从句的定义 非限制性定语从句是对被修饰部分进行附加说明，如果去掉，主句的意思仍然完整或清楚。 它和主句之间的关系比较松散，因此常用逗号隔开。不用 that 引导 My watch, which is very old, stopped again. 2.限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 (1)限制性定语从句和主句的关系十分密切，若省去，主句的意思就不明确。主从句之间不用 逗号隔开。而非限制性定语从句则不然。试比较： This is the best book that I have read. This is a good book, which is easy to understand. (2)限制性定语从句的先行词总是一个名词或一个代词，而非限制性定语从句的先行词可以是 一个词，也可以是部分或整个主句的意思。此时，一般用关系代词 as 或 which 引导。 (3)限制性定语从句可以用关系代词 that 引导，而非限制性定语从句则不能。 (4)在非限制性定语从句中，不能省略关系代词，而在限制性定语从句中则可以。 (5)关系代词在非限制性定语从句中作介词的宾语时，介词前可以有被介词短语所修饰的词。 如：
He has two daughters, the elder of whom is married. (6)在非限制性定语从句中，关系代词还可以作介词的宾语。 He is ill, in spite of which he keeps on studying. 3. 关系代词 as, which 引导非限制定语从句时的区别 (1)as 和 which 都可指主句的整个意思，而不是主句中的某一个词。as 引导的非限制性定语从 句，既可在主句前，又可在主句后，有时还可插入主句中；而 which 引导的非限制性定语从 句一般置于主句之后。如： The weather turned out to be very good, which was more than we could expect. As is known to all, the moon travels round the earth. (2) as 多用于下列习惯用语中 as anybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样 as is well known = as is known to all 众所周知 as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样 as often happens 正如经常发生的那样 as has been said before 如上所述 as is mentioned above 正如上面提到的 4. “介词+关系代词”结构引导非限制性定语从句，一般有以下几种结构：
(1)名词+介词+关系代词： They live in a house, the door of which faces south. (2)代词+介词+关系代词： There are four students in the classroom, all of whom are working hard. (3)数词+介词+关系代词： Last Sunday I bought a book from the bookstore, three of which were English novels. (4)形容词比较级/最高级+介词+关系代词： China has thousands of islands, the largest of which is Taiwan.
巩固练习 1. ① I still remember the days _____ I worked with the farmers. ② I still remember the days _____ I spent with the farmers. A. which B. on which C. when D. what 2. ① We were on the way _____ it began to rain. ② I don’t like the way _____ you speak to your parents. A. when B. that C. how D. which 3. ① The teacher didn’t know the reason ____ she was absent yesterday. ②The teacher couldn’t accept the reason ____ she explained yesterday. A. how B. why C. that D. who 4. ① Is this school _____ you ever visited? ② Is this the school _____ you ever studied? ③ Is this the school in _____ you ever studied? A. where B. which C. that D. the one 5. ① This is ____ he said at the meeting yesterday. ② This is all ___ he said at the meeting yesterday. A. that B. which C. what D. how
6. ① ____ is reported in the newspapers, they have beaten all the other teams. ② ____ is reported in the newspaper that they have beaten all the other teams. ③ ___ is reported in the newspaper is that they have beaten all the other teams. A. It B. As C. Which D. What 7. ① It was such an easy question ____ they could answer. ② It was such an easy question ____ they could answer it. A. that B. as C. which D. what 8. ① That is the house, _____ windows hasn’t been cleaned for months. ② That is the house, _____ the windows hasn’t been cleaned for months. ③ That is the house, but _____ windows hasn’t been cleaned for months. A. it’s B. its C. whose D. of which 9. ① John said he’d been working in the office for hours, ____ was true. ② John said he’d been working in the office for hours, but _____ is not true. A. he B. it C. which D. who 10. ① A few people were caught in the big fire, ____ died. ② A few people were caught in the big fire, ____ dead. A. two of who B. two of whom C. two of them D. two of they 11. ① It was 1945 ____ the World War II ended. ② It was in 1945 ____ the World War II ended. A. that B. which C. when D. at which 12. ① Do you know the girl ____ calling herself Miss Forgetful? ② Do you know the girl ____ calls herself Miss Forgetful? A. who B. whom C. she D. / 13. ① Don’t talk about such things ____ you are not sure of. ② Don’t talk about such things, of ___ you are not sure. A. which B. what C. as D. those 14. ① He wrote the best composition, ____ surprised all of us. ② He wrote the best composition ____ we all read just now. A. that B. which C. it D. in which 答案：CAABBCDABCABADBACDBCBBCCADACABA
? Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them come from Class Two. ? My mother has a good book, which cover looks terrible. ? This is the very pen which you gave it to me before. ? The weather turned out to be very good, that was out of our expect. ? I will do all what I can to help you. whom whose that which that \ ? ? ? I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me. Cathy is the only one of us who have been to America. Is that factory which your father once worked in?
? It is known to all, China is a beautiful country. ? It was in this school where I had studied for 3 years. which has the one As That