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1. 关系代词用来指代先行词是人或物的名词或代词 句子成分 用于限制从句或非限制性从句 只用于限制性从 句

代替人 主语 主语 宾语 Who Whom Whose (=of whom)

代替物 which which Whose (=of which)

r />代替人或物

that that

例1:This is the detective who came from London. 例2:The book which I am reading is written by Tomas Hardy. 2.关系代词的用法 (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none 等不定代词,关系代词一般只用 that,不用 which。例如: All the people that are burst into tears.(所有人都迸出眼泪。) (2) 如果先行词被形容词最高级以及 first, last, any, only, few, most, no, some, very 等词修饰,关系代词常用 that,不用 which, who,或 whom。 (3) 非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。 There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom、 are well educated. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整 体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中,which 可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情况下 意思是与 and this 相似,并可以指人。 例如:He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. (5) that 可指人或物, 在从句中作表语 (指人作主语时多用 who) 仅用于限制性定语从句中。 (6) which 可作表语, 既可指人, 以可指物。 指人时, 一般指从事某种职业或是有某种特征. 品 性或才能的人。Which 引导的定语从句可以是限制性的,也可以是非限制性的。 (7) 如果作先作词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各个 成员,则用 who。

(8) 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用 that。 (9) 如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,关系代 词应该用 who 或 whom,不用 which。例如:Is there anyone here who will go with you? (在这的所有人中谁和你一起去?) 3.“介词+关系代词“是一个普遍使用的结构 (1) “介词+关系代词“可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。“介词 +关系代词“结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等,关系代词只可用 whom 或 which,不可用 that 。 (2) from where 为“介词+关系副词“结构,但也可以引导定语从句。例如: We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town.. (3) 像 listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of 等固定短语动 词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。 例如:This is the boy whom she has taken care of.

1.关系副词也可以引导定语从句 关系副词在从句中分别表示时间. 地点或原因。 关系副词 when 在从句中充当时间状语, where 充当地点状语,why 充当原因状语。 2. that 可引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因 That 有时可以代替关系副词 when, where 或者 why 引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因, 在 that 引导的这种定语从句中,that 也可以省去。

1.二者差异比较 限制定语从句紧跟先行词,引导词同先行词之间一般不加逗号,仅修饰先行词,可以由关系 代词.关系副词或 that 来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明,用逗号与主句隔开, 既可修饰先行词,又可修饰整个主句,不可用 that 引导。 2.关系代词和关系副词的选择依据 (1) 弄清代替先行词的关系词在从句中作什么成分,作状语的应选用关系副词, 作主语. 宾 语或表语的可选用关系代词。 3. 先行词与定语从句隔离 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后, 但定语从句与先行词之间有时也会插入别的成分, 构成先 行词与定语从句的隔离。 例如:This is the article written by him that Is poke to you about..

四、As 在定语从句中的用法
1. 引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句

(1)as 多与 such 或 the same 连用,可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。 (2)as 也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于 which。 例如:The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. (3)the same… that 与 the same …as 在意思上是不同的。 2.As 引导的非限制性定语从句的位置 as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面.中间或后面,一般用逗号与 主句隔开,但 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。 例如:As is expected, the England team won the football match.

1.I think you’re got to the point_______ a change is needed, otherwise you’ll fail. A. when B. that C. where D. which

2.The hours _______ the children spend in their one-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people. A. when B. that C. in which D. on which

3.Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes________ people were eaten by the tiger. A. that B. by which C. which D. in which

4.There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that

5.______ is often the case,we have worked out the production plan. A. Which B. When C. What D. As

6.______ is reported in the newspaper,talks between the two countries are making progress. A.It B.As C.That D.What

7.There are many people_________ only on-line activity is sending and receiving e-mails. A.who B.that C.which D.whose

8.Bay,Amazon and Wall Mart are popular websites_______people can sell goods to each other. A.where B.which C.when D.whose

9.On his 10th birthday.Marty manages to escape from the zoo and gets onto the subway, _____he believes that he can go to the wild. A.which B.from what C.through which D.that

10.I hope________the little _____I have been able to do has been of some use. A.that;that B./;by which C.what;what D./;with which

11.The farmers use wood to build a house______to store grains all the year around. A.with which B.to which C.which D.in which

12.This was a film_________ Spielberg used real actors instead of toys. A.which B.when C.in which D.there

13.The thought of going home to his family was all kept him happy while he was working abroad. A.that B.what C.those D.which

14.A container weighs more after air is put in_____proves that air has weight. A.as B.it C.that D.which

15.—Can you tell me where Peter lives? —Over there.The two storey house, _____there is a garden. A.near it B.from which C.in front of it D.in front of which

16.Miss Green took up the story at the point______the thief had just made off with the jewels. A.where B.which C.as D.when

17.—Why does she always ask you for help? —There is no one else_______ ,is there? A.who to turn to turn B.she can turn to D.for her to turn C.for whom to

18.The year before last,part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods,from _____effects the people are still suffering. A.that B.whose C.those D.what

19.Nowadays teenagers like to go to fast food restaurants, ___ as the name suggests,eating doesn’t take much time. A.who B.where C.which D.what

20.Later I want to return home but couldn’t find a company ________I could use_____I had learned. A.where;that D.that;that B.where;what C.when;what

21.Government reports,legal papers and most business letters are the main situations ________ English is used.





22.We hope the measures to control house prices,__________ are taken by the government,will succeed. A.as B.when C.since D.after

23.The boy the teachers considered _______ failed in the final exam, surprised them very much. A.to be the best;which C.to have been studying well;it B.as the best student;that D.such as a good student;which

24.The president,together with his bodyguards, _______ to the nuclear station _______ there was an accident 20 minutes ago. A.have come;which C.has come;where B.came;in which D.come;in which

25.Is there a gas station around____________________ I can get some petrol? A.which B.what C.where D.that

26.There was_________ time________ I hated to go to school. A.a;that B.a;when C.the;that D.the;when

27.It was in the very house _______ was built with stones _______ he spent his childhood. A.that;that that B.that;where D.which;where C.which;

28.These wild flowers are so special I would do ______I_______ them. A.what;can save C.what;can to save B.all what;can to save D.everything;can save

29.I shall never forget those years _______I lived in the country with farmers,________has a great effect on my life. A.that;which B.when;which that D.when;who C.which;

30.Just like a voyage at sea,our life journey, _______ days are limited,is full of difficulties. A. that B. which C. it D. whose
11-15、DCADD 16-20、ABBBB

参考答案:1-5、CBDAD 6-10、BDACA 21-25、DAACC 26-30、BACBD 高考题答案:1—5、ACBBB 6—10、DACAC


2011 年高考定语从句
1.(2011·天津卷)10. The days are gone _______ physical strength was all you needed to make a living. A. when B. that C. where D. which 2. ( 2011 · 江 西 卷 ) 34.She showed he visitors around the museum, the construction______ has taken more than three years. A. for which B.with which C. of which D.to which 3.(2011·四川卷)17.The school shop, _______customers are mainly students,is closed few the holidays. A.which B.whose C.when D.where 4.(2011·北京卷)26. Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others, _______, of course, made all the others upset. A. who B. which C. what D. that 5.(2011·陕西卷)11.I walked up to the top of the hill with my friend, _______we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake A.which B. where C. who D.that 6.(2011·全国 II)7. Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt,______is a stupid thing to do in such weather. A. this B. that C. what D. which 7. 2011· ( 江苏卷) Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, ______ the 24. audience can buy ice-cream. A.When B.Where C.that D.which 8. 2011· ( 全国新课标卷) The prize will go to the writer _______story shows the 31. most imagination. A. that B. which C. whose D. what 9.(2011·浙江卷)8.English is a language shared by several diverse cultures ,each of____ uses it somewhat differently . A. which B. what C. them D. those 10.(2011·浙江卷)10.A bank is the place ____they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain . A. when B. that C. where D. there 11. 2011· ( 湖南卷) 25.Julie was good at German, French and Russian, all of ____ she spoke fluently A who B whom C which D that 12.(2011·安徽卷)28. Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator , _____ it will keep for two or three weeks. A. when B. which C. where D. while 13.(2011· 山东卷)32.The old town has narrow streets and small houses _____are built close to each other. A. they B. where C. what D. that 14. (2011· 福建卷) She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students ____ 24. allows them to communicate freely with each other. A. which B. where C. what D. who

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