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一.句子成分及结构


句子成分及结构
你知道吗? 英语的句子结构组成是与汉语有着很大区别的。 我们在学习的时候, 很多同学受母语的 影响太大, 在英文写作时完全按照汉语的顺序将英文进行堆砌, 这是因为我们对于英文句子 的构成尚未掌握或掌握得不熟练,没有形成英语语言习惯。

一.学了这么久的英语了,你对英语的句子成分真的清楚,理解吗? 1.主语:______________

__________________________ 1)Mr. Chen is a great scientist. ( 2)Smoking is harmful to the health. ( 作主语) 作主语)

2.谓语:__________________________________________ 1)The new term begins on September 1st . 2)She seems tired. 3.宾语:__________________________________________ Wang Ling lent me a novel. (代词 me 作________;名词 a novel 作___________) 4.宾语补足语:____________________________________ 1)They call me Lily sometimes. ( 作宾补) 作宾补)

2)He asked her to take the boy out of school. ( 5.表语:_____________________________________ The baby is asleep. (

作表语,说明主语的状态是“睡着的”)

6.定语:_____________________________________ 注意:

1)He is reading an interesting book. 2)I have something important to tell you. 7.状语:_____________________________________ He came here to see you.

1 enthusiasm! Something great will be achieved with

热情成就伟业!

1

课堂习题(你知道下列句子 划线部分 在句子当中是充当什么成分吗?) 1. The students got on the school bus. 2. They went hunting together early in the morning. 3. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 4. They are working on the farm now. 5. Seeing is believing. 6. His wish is to become a scientist. 7. To catch the train, I got up early yesterday. 8. Would you please tell me your address? 9. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 10. He noticed a man enter the room.

二.了解了句子成分了之后,我们再来学习一下句子类型: 根据语法形式, 即句子的结构, 英语的句子可分为___________、 _________ 和 __________。 1 简单句____________________________________________ 你能举例子吗?

简单句的基本句型:简单句有以下 5 种基本句型。 -----(复杂一些的句子无不是由这些简 单句演变而来的。 ) 1)例句: 1. The sun was shining. 2. The moon rose. 3 We all breathe, eat, and drink. 4. They talked for half an hour. 总结:__________________________ 2)例句: 1. She smiled her thanks. 2. He enjoys reading. 3. I met John in the street yesterday. 4. They enjoy the play.
2 enthusiasm! Something great will be achieved with 热情成就伟业!

2

总结:_______________________________ 3)例句: 1. This is an English-Chinese dictionary. 2. The dinner smells good. 3. Everything looks different. 4. His face turned red. 总结:_________________________________ 补充:常见的系动词有:__________________________________________ 注:这类型的句子没有___________语态 ① Because the fruit ________ very delicious, it ________ very well. A. is tasted; sells B. tastes; is sold C. tastes; sells ② ________ very reasonable, the idea was widely accepted by us. A. Sounded B. To sound C. Sounding 4)例句: 1. She ordered herself a new dress. 2. He brought you a dictionary. 3. I showed him my pictures. 4. I gave my car a wash. 总结:____________________________ 常见的双宾语结构: bring sb. sth (bring sth to sb). leave sb. sth (leave sth.to sb) return sb. sth (return sth to sb) tell sb sth (tell sth to sb ) 5)例句: 1. The war made him a soldier. 2. New methods make the job easy. 3. The teacher asks the students to close the windows. 4. I saw a cat running across the road. 总结:____________________________ 注意:当宾语意思表达不完整时,需要补充说明宾语的状态、性质等。用作宾语补足语的通
3 enthusiasm! Something great will be achieved with 热情成就伟业!

D. is tasted; is sold D. Sound

give sb. sth (give sth to sb.) pass sb sth (pass sth to sb) show sb sth (show sth. to sb.)

3

常有名词、形容词、动词不定式等。当谓语动词为 see, hear , watch, feel 等感官动词或者 let, have , make 等使役动词时,如果不定式作宾语补足语,必须省略 to。

2.并列句 _______________________________________________ 其基本结构是:简单句+并列连词+简单句。 注意:并列句中的各简单句意义同等重要,相互之间没有从属关系,是平行并列的关系。 它们之间用连词连结。 举举例子呢:

3. 复合句 ________________________________________ 注意:1. 并列句和复合句都是以简单句为基本单位的,但并列句中的各个简单句都是同等 重要的,没有主次之分。而复合句中的各个组成部分并非同等重要,其中总有一个独立小句 (或称“主句”) ,和一个或一个以上的从属小句(或称“从句”) ,主句往往可以独立存在。 复合句可分为: 1).____________________________ 2).____________________________ 1 ________________ 2 ________________ 3 ________________ 4 _________________ 5 __________________ 6 __________________ 7 _____________________ 8. ___________________ 3)._____________________________ 1. ________________ 2. .________________ 3. ___________________ 4. ____________________
4 enthusiasm! Something great will be achieved with 热情成就伟业!

4

判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句 1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 3. There is a chair in this room, isn’t there? 4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 7. What he said at the meeting is very impor tant, isn’t it? 8. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 单项选择 1. I'm sorry, _______ can you tell me how to get to the school? A. for A. so B. and B. and C. but C. but D. then D. 不填 2. Just because they make more money than I do, _______ they seem to look down on me.

3. Although he had only entered the contest for fun, ______ he won first prize. A. but B. and C. even D. 不填

4. If wishes were horses, ______ beggars would ride. A. and A. so A. / B. so B. then B. but C. or C. and C. still D. 不填 D. or D. yet

5. Work harder, _____ you will lose your job in this company. 6. He has been working hard recently, and ______ I don’t think he can make it. ※7. The point is not who said the words, ________ they are true or not. A. but whether A. whom B. and whether B. where C. which B. Being ill D. He was ill C. his C. his D. which D. which
热情成就伟业!

C. but how D. while

D. and how

8. She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter. 9. ___________, so he didn't come to school last night. A. Although he was ill C. Having been ill A. them A. them B. books B. books

10. He bought a lot of books; most of ______ are about agriculture. 11. He wrote a lot of books, but none of _______ were popular.

5 enthusiasm! Something great will be achieved with

5


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