智慧、智者和智慧文学1 一、何谓智慧 大致说来，在《旧约》中， “智慧是追求成功的艺术，是为了获得所期望的 结果而制定正确计划的艺术” 。 就其深层性质而言，智慧是宇宙存在的基本原理， 若离开它，世界和人生都将失去意义。在以色列人看来，智慧不仅是理论性的， 更是实践性的。所罗门登基后，先求智慧。 按照《旧约》所记，智慧常常表现为实用性技术，如制作。 。 。 。智慧还表现 为心智的
能力，如“善唱哀歌的妇女”能使人眼泪汪汪； 耶 9：17） ；术士和博 士能给人解梦，军师能为国王出谋划策。
God give Solomon very great wisdom, discernment, and breath of understanding as vast as the sand on the seashore, so that Solomon’s wisdom surpassed the wisdom of all the people of the east, and all the wisdom of Egypt. He was wiser than anyone else… he composed three thousand proverbs, and his songs numbered a thousand and five. He would speak of trees, from the cedar that is in the Lebanon to the Hyssop that grows in the wall; he would speak of animals, and birds, and reptiles, and fish. 由此可见，智慧还包括文学创作的才能，以及对自然万象的广博了解。 这一组箴言不再是初期单纯的对句，也不再是四行诗，而是作为“智慧”化身的 一位教师向年轻人做的一系列的讲座，是诗的演说或韵文的讲义。 听吧， “智慧”在街市中呼唤， 在空旷的地方高声呐喊， 在城门口扬声高呼， 在大庭广众之中喊叫： 愚昧的人呀，你们喜欢愚昧 要到什么时候为止呢? 赶快回心转意，接受我的忠告， 我要倾吐心意，叫你们明白。 我呼唤，你们却充耳不闻； 我招呼，你们却不加理睬。 你们既漠视我的教导， 又不肯接受我的劝戒； 当暴风雨来临，恐怖进迫，
你们掉进灾难的狂风里， 被愁苦患难侵扰的时候， 就轮到我嗤笑你们了。 那时呼求我，我也不回答， 恳切寻找我，却又找不到。 你们厌恶知识，不愿敬畏亚卫， 不肯接受忠告，拒绝规劝， 因此，你们自食其果，自招灭亡； 愚昧又自满，终必毁了自己。 Wisdom cries out in the street; in the squares she raises her voice. At the busiest corner she cries out; at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:
寻求智慧的人有福了，3:13-20 得到悟性的人有福了； 因为智慧比银子更为有用， 比精金更有价值。 智慧比珠宝远为可贵， 珊瑚玛瑙都不能同她相比。 智慧使你长寿， 也使你富贵荣华。 智慧使你过愉快的生活， 领你走平安的道路。 聪明人有福了， 智慧要给他生命。
Happy are those who find wisdom, and those who get understanding,
for her income is better than silver, and her revenue better than gold. She is more precious than jewels, and nothing you desire can compare with her. Long life is in her right hand; in her left hand are riches and honor. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace. She is a tree of life to those who lay hold of her; those who hold her fast are called happy. 本段以优美的文字对智慧的重要性做出进一步述说。 明言智慧能带来人生最 重要的平安、长寿和富贵。
God’s wisdom in creation 3:19-20 The Lord by wisdom founded the earth; by understanding he established the heavens; by his knowledge the deeps broke open and the clouds drop down the dew. 亚卫以他的智慧创造世界； 他以聪明安设天空。 他的知识使江河涌流； 他使密云降下甘霖。1：20-
The Lord created me at the beginning of his work, the first of his acts of long ago.
Ages ago I was set up, at the first, before the beginning of the earth, when there were no depths I was brought forth, when there were no springs abounding with water. Before the mountains had been shaped, before the hills, I was brought forth---when he had not yet made earth and fields, or the word’s first bits of soil. 亚卫在亘古，远在创造 万物之前，就造了我。 在太初，大地未形成之前， 我早就被单独造成了。 在海洋还未出现之前我就生下了， 那时还没有水泉喷涌汪洋。 在大山还没有被安置下来， 小山还未生出时，我就存在了。 那时，他还没有创造陆地湖泊， 连第一块泥土也还没有造出。
如此一位法力无边的角色， 源于何时又来自何处呢？说明智慧先于天地万物 而存在。非但如此，就连上帝的创世壮举也须以智慧为“工师” 。 When he established the heavens, I was there, when he drew a circle on the face of the deep, when he made firm the skies above, when he established the fountains of the deep, when he assigned to the sea its limit, so that the waters might not transgress his command, when he marked out the foundations of the earth, then I was beside him, like a master worker; and I was daily his delight,
rejoicing before him always, rejoicing in his inhabited world and delighting in the human race. 他还没有张设天空，还没有 在海面划地平线，我已经存在。 当他在天空布置云彩， 在海底建筑水闸， 为海水划定界限， 不使它越出范围， 为大地固定根茎时， 我每天在他身边， 做他的伴侣，使他快乐， 在他面前跳跃游玩； 当他完成大地时，我在上面嬉戏， 我喜爱他造的世界，特别是人。
孩子们，因此你们要听从我， 听我的话，就有快乐。 照所受的教训去做， 增长智慧，不可以拒绝。 照我的教训去做，就有幸福； 守在我的门口，在那里等候， 找到我，就是找到生命， 并且赢得亚卫的慈惠， 没有找到我的，便戕害自己， 恨恶我的就是喜爱死亡。
这种拟人化的写法，让“智慧”的化身作演讲，是希伯来智慧文学发达以后的产 物。 三、何谓智慧文学
智慧文学显示出独到的类型特色。 （一）哲理性 （二）世俗性 《箴言》是希伯来人各种日常生活经验的汇编，该书所反映的社会生活，涉 及希伯来历史上的游牧活动、 定居迦南后的农耕生产和巴比伦囚虏之后的商业活 动， 由此可推测该书是在漫长的年代中陆续积累而成的，是历代民间人士或专门 的“智者”的经验总结。 相对律法书和先知书而言， 《箴言》所表达的思想在世俗性上有所增强，而 在宗教性上有所淡化。智者的很多关于伦理道德、婚姻家庭、人际关系、修身养 性的格言都来自于现实生活，并用以指导实际人生。但过于强调《箴言》的世俗 性而忽略它作为 《圣经》 之一篇所固有的宗教性， 则会造成对此书研究的片面性。 细读全书，我们可以发现，智者所宣扬的智慧言化，隐含着两种很不相同的人生 哲学。 第一种我们可称之为现实主义的人生哲学，这也是《箴言》中世俗性很强的 部分。持这种哲学观点的智者，认为人生的成功、财富、幸福生活来自于理性的 判断、睿智、良好的生活方式和勤劳等等个人品质、能力方面的因素，这些因素 也便成为智慧的内涵。在这里，个人生活的成功和智慧的概念，与上帝均无必然 的联系。 这一派的智者主要通过对日常生活的敏锐观察，总结了许多规律性的东 西，形成为生活的艺术，其内容涉及言谈举止，道德规范，人际效一、处事方法 乃至于对待陌生女人的正确态度等等，比如： A wise child makes a glad father, but a foolish child is a mother ’s grief. 智慧之子使父亲欢乐； 愚昧之子使母亲担忧。
A slack hand causes poverty, but the hand of the diligent makes rich. 手懒的，要受贫穷； 手勤的，却要富足。 （第 10 章 4 节）
Those who spare the rod hate their children
but those who love them are diligent to discipline them 不忍用仗打儿子的，是恨恶他； 疼爱儿子的，随时管教。 （第 13 章 24 节） Better is a dinner of vegetables where love is than a fatted ox and hatred with it. 15:17 素莱淡饭而彼此相爱， 胜过酒肉满桌而彼此相恨。
Plans are established by taking advice; wage war by following wise guidance. 20:18 有计划的事必然成功； 无策略的仗切不可打。 Do not wear yourself out to get rich; be wise enough to desist. When your eyes light upon it, it is gone; for suddenly it takes wings to itself, flying like an eagle toward heaven. 不要为财富而整天劳碌奔波， 要学聪明点，要有克制； 因为财富转瞬便消逝， 象空中的老鹰展翅而飞。 Wise warriors are mightier than strong ones, and those who have knowledge than those who have strength; for by wise guidance you can wage your war, and in abundance of counselors there is victory. 智慧胜过力气， 知识强似权势； 因为胜战必需策略，
Where there is no guidance a nation falls
but in an abundance of counselors there is safety 无智谋，民就败落， 谋事多，人便安居。
like a gold ring in a pig’s snout
is a beautiful woman without good sense. 妇女美貌而无见识， 如同金环佩戴在猪鼻上
The false attraction of adultery
My child, keep my words and store up my commandments with you; keep my commandments and live, keep my teachings as the apple of your eye; bind them on your fingers, write them on the tablet of your heart. Say to wisdom, “you are my sister.” And call insight your intimate friend., that they may keep you from the loose woman, from the adulteress with her smooth words.
For at the window of my house I looked out through my lattice, and I saw among the simple ones I observed among the youths, a young man without sense, passing along the street near her corner, taking the road to her house in the twilight, in the evening, at the time of night and darkness.
Then a woman comes towards him, decked out like a prostitute, wily of her heart. She is loud and wayward; her feet do not stay at home; now in the street, now in the squares, and at every corner she lies in wait. She seizes him and kisses him, and with impudent face she says to him: “I had to offer sacrifices, and today I have paid my vows; so now I have come out to meet you, to seek you eagerly, and I have found you! I have decked my couch with coverings, colored spreads of Egyptian linen; I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon. Come let us take our fill of love until morning; let us delight ourselves with love. For my husband is not at home; he has gone on a long journey, he took a bag of money with him; he will not come home until full moon.
With much seductive speech she persuades him; with her smooth talk she compels him. Right away he follows her, and goes like an ox to the slaughter, or bounds like a stag toward the trap until an arrow pierces its entrails. He is like a bird rushing into a snare, not knowing that it will cost him his life.
proverb 31 A capable wife who can find? She is far more precious than jewels. The heart of her husband trusts in her, and he will have no lack of gain. She does him good, and not harm, all the days of her life. She seeks wool and flax, and works with willing hands, she is like the ships of the merchant, she brings her food from far away. She rises while it is still night and provides food for her household and tasks for her servant-girls. She considers a field and buys it; with the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard. She girds herself with strength, and makes her arms strong. She perceives that her merchandise is profitable. Her lamp does not go out at night. She puts her hands to the distaff, and her hands hold the spindle. She opens her hand to the poor, and reaches out her hands to the needy. She is not afraid for her household when it snows, for all her household are clothed in crimson, she makes herself coverings; her clothing is fine linen and purple. Her husband is known in the city gates, taking his seat among the elders of the land. She makes linen garments and sells them; she supplies the merchant with sashes.
Strength and dignity are her clothing, and she laughs at the time to come. She opens her mouth with wisdom and the teaching of kindness is on her tongue. She looks well to the ways of her household, and does not eat the bread of idleness. Her children rise up and call her happy; her husband too, and he praises her: “many women have done excellently, but you surpass them all.” Charm is deceitful, and beauty is vain, but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised. Give her a share in the fruit of her hands, and let her works praise her in the city gates. 理想的妇女形象! 别人的赞扬很重要。名声。女人的工作只是家里，不！ 她的丈夫感觉如何，至福！骄傲！自豪！感恩！(英国作家哈代在<苔丝>中,克莱 的父亲在灯下将这段箴言读给家人,哈代以此反讽苔丝的美德不为他人理解. Three things are too wonderful for me; four I do not understand: the way of an eagle in the sky, the way of a snake on a rock, the way of a ship on the high seas, and the way of a man with a girl. This is the way of an adulteress: she eats, and wipes her mouth, and says, “ I have done no wrong.” 我所测不透的奇妙有三样, 连我所不知道的共有四样, 就是鹰在空中飞的道, 蛇在磐石上爬的道, 船在海中行的道, 男与女交合的道. 淫妇的道,也是这样， 她吃了把嘴一擦,就说: “我没有行恶.” Proverb 30
Four things on the earth are small, yet they are exceedingly wise: the ants are a people without strength, yet they provide their food in the summer; the badgers are a people without power,
yet they make their hoes in the rocks; the locusts have no king, yet all of them march in rank; the lizard can be grasped in the hand, yet it is found in kings’ palaces. 地上有四样小动物,却甚聪明: 蚂蚁是无力之类， 却在夏天预备粮食; 沙番是软弱之类, 却在磐石中造房; 蝗虫没有君王, 却分队而出; 守宫用爪抓墙, 却住在王宫. 三）片段性 （四）文学性 他将抽象这里寓于为普通读者喜闻乐见的自然万象中， 不能使人于艺术美 的鉴赏中潜移默化地深受其益。 （五）教训性 中东智慧文学传统 智慧文学除了一些格言、谚语外，还有寓言、谜语，在古代是重要的文艺 作品。如谜语，在我们看来好象是一种游戏；但在古代则是一种严肃的考查人才 和教育青少年的方法。格言谚语的说服力量有时比法律还大。 古代中东的智慧者探求人生的最终意义并将其运用于实践中，那就是哲 学。希腊文哲学(philosohia)就是“爱好智慧”的意思，可见希腊的哲学家也十分 重视古传智慧者的金言玉语。