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高一英语知识点总结及难点解析Unit15-16


高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析 Unit15-16
☆重点句型☆ 1. There is no doubt that ... 2. It is dangerous or bad for your health. 3. I would rather not tell you. 4. Pierre and I did have a good time at the ball. 5. It was worth five hundred francs at most. 6. The money would be better spent building more roads or railways in other parts of China. 7. Fasten a key to the end of the long string. ☆重点词汇☆ 1. recognize / recognise v. 认出;识别 2. surely adv. 确实 3. franc n. 法郎 4. lovely adj. 好看的;可爱的 5. debt n. 债务;欠款 6. besides prep. 除……之外;adv.此外 7. outline n. 轮廓;要点 8. alien adj. 外国的;n. 外星人 9. earn v. 赚得;挣得 10. prove v. 证明 11. quality n. 质量;品质 12. tear v. 撕扯 13. advantage n. 优点;优势 14. disadvantage n. 不利;弊端 15. charge v. 使充电;控告;攻击 16. successful adj. 成功的;胜利的 17. experiment n. 实验;试验 18. continue v. 继续 19. attend v. 出席 20. shock v. 打击;震动 21. doubt n. 怀疑 22. comfort n. 舒适;安慰 23. positive adj. 肯定的;积极的 24. economy n. 经济 25. unnecessary adj. 不必要的 26. sharp adj. 锐利的;锋利的 27. foot n. 英尺,足 feet(复数) 28. electrical adj. 电的 29. precious adj. 贵重的;宝贵的 30. cruel adj. 残酷的 ☆重点短语☆ 1. bring back 拿回来;使恢复 2. come up with 想出或提出(答案、办法) 3. pay off 还清;付清 4. test on 在……(身上)做实验
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5. take up 从事于;占据(时间或空间) 6. protect...from... 保护;免受 7. make use of 利用 8. pay for sth 付……钱;受到惩罚 9. break the laws 犯法 10. make a list of 列出 11. in my opinion 依我之见 12. pick out 辨别出;挑出 13. stop sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人做某事 14. a great deal of 大量的;很多的 15. protect...from... 保护……免受…… 16. play a role 扮演角色 17. pull...from 从……拉/拖 18. fall asleep 入睡 19. get killed 丧命;被杀 20. a waste of 浪费…… ☆交际用语☆ 1. It can't be tree. 2. I would rather not tell you. 3. Does that matter? 4. It is good for the economy. 5. It can help many people in the future. 6. It is clean and does not pollute the air. 7. It is important for science. 8. It brings people comfort. 9. It is too expensive. 10. It is dangerous or had for your health. ☆单词聚焦☆ 4. attend vt. 出席,参加;照顾;注意 attendance n. 出席 attendant n. 服务员 They attended our affairs during our absence. 他们在我们不在时管理我们的事务。 So many people attended the meeting. 很多人出席了这次会议。 The old lady has a good nurse attending her. 这位老太太有一位好护士照顾她。 He attended my every word in class. 上课时他倾听我的每一句话。 【考点 6】attract 的用法 ▲构词: ①attraction n. 吸引,吸引力,吸引人的事物 ②attractive adj. 吸引人的,有魅力的 ③attractively adv. 动人地,迷人地 ▲ 搭配:attract sb's attention 引起…注意
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【考例 6】[2004 全国 IV] Finally, I was ____ by his lively sense of humor. A. disturbed B. moved C. attracted D. defeated [考查目标]本题考查 attract 的词义。 [答案与解析]C 句意是“我被他的幽默感所吸引”。 3. besides prep. 除……之外(还有) adv.此外 besides 具有附加性质,用于否定句中可以与 except, but 换用。 Besides English, he knows three other languages. 除了英语之外,他还懂三种语言。 Nobody knows it besides / except / but me. 除了我以外,准也不知道那件事。 5. chargev. 充电;索价;攻击;控诉 Does your car battery charge easily? 你的车电池充电容易吗? How much do you charge for your old car? 你的旧车要价多少? Suddenly the tiger charged at me. 突然老虎向我冲过来。 John was charged with murder. 约翰被控犯谋杀罪。 相关词组:free of charge 免费的 in charge of 负责;掌管 in / under the charge of 由……管理 【考点 4】charge 的用法 ▲ 搭配: ①charge sb. some money for 为……向某人索取/收取 多少钱 ②charge oneself with 承担(工作),接受(任务) ③at one's own charge(s) / expenses 自费,用自己的钱 ④put…down to sb's charge 把……记在某人账上 ⑤in charge 主管,负责;在拘留中 ⑥in charge of 负责,经管,照顾 ⑦in / under the charge of sb 由某人负责,由某人照料/管理 ⑧take charge (of) 负责,照料,保管等;掌管,接办 12. conductn. 行为,操行 the rules of conduct 行为准则 foolish conduct 愚蠢的行为 He was scolded because of his bad conduct. v. 引导,管理,指挥,售票 Copper conducts electricity better than other materials do. 铜比其它材料要容易导电。 She's conducted on buses for 10 years. 她在公共汽车上当了 10 年售票员。 【考点 3】conduct 的用法 ▲ 构词: ①conduction n. 传导,导电;输送,传播,引流 ②conductor n. 领导者,经理,乐队指挥,(电车或公共汽车) 售票员,列车员 ▲ 搭配:conduct oneself well 行为端证 ▲ 辨析:conduct;guide;lead 三者作为动词比较一般的含义是“领”、“导”或“引”。conduct 具体名词 conductor (①向导②公共汽车等的 “售票员”);表示“指导”、“引导”时含有明显的主从关系,即被引导者不服从是不可以的。例如: The policeman eventually had his hands tied up and conducted him to a shelter. 警察最后把他的双手绑了起来并把他带到一个 防空洞。 guide (抽象名词 guidance,具体名词 guide “向导”) 是通用词,可以用于“为别人带路”、“指导别人的学习、品行 修养”,它的内涵是避免走弯路或遇到危险。例如: Thousands of lanterns slowly drift out to sea guiding the dead on their return journey to the other world. 数干只灯笼慢慢向大海漂去,给死人返回阴间指明道路。 He is now studying under the guidance of ProfessorGreen. 他现在正在格林教授的指导下学习。 lead (抽象名词 leadership “领导”,具体名词 leader “领袖”、“领队”)可以表示“领导”、“带路”,但它总含有领 导者走在前面.而把被领导者控制在自己的权威之下,或被领导者处于秩序井然的状态中的意思。例如:
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Our guide led us through a series of caves. 我们的向导带领着我们穿过一个接一个的洞穴。 【考例 3】[NMET 2003〃完形] ...when I'd have predic- ted the score to be about 9 to 1 in my favor, it was in-stead 7 to 9 -- and Ed was ____. A. leading B. coming C. waiting D. counting [考查目标]本题考查 conduct 以及近义词的用法。 [答案与解析]A leading 在本句中有形容词性,意思是“领先的”。 【考点 2】continue 的用法 ▲构词: ①continuous adj. 连续的.持续的 ②continuously adv. 不断地,连续地 ▲ 搭配: ①continue doing sth / to do sth 继续做某事 ②continue (with) sth 继续做某事 ▲ 辨析:continue,last 都含“继续”、“延续”的意思。 continue 指“持续而无终止”,通常强调“不间断”。例 如:continue one's work 继续工作 last 指“持久”、“延续”。例如: The rain will not last long. 这雨不会持续很久。 【考例 2】[2003 北京春招] They ____ to see each other around school, had lunch together once or two, and then both ended up from the same high school. A. continued B. agreed C. forced D. offered [考查目标] 本题考查 continue 的词义。 [答案与解析]A continue 的宾语多种多样,它的意思是“继续”。 【考点 7】control 的用法 ▲ 构词: ①controlled adj. 受约束的.克制的 ②controller n. 管理员,控制器 ▲ 搭配: ①in control (of) 控制 ②under control 受控制 ③out of control 失控,不能操纵 ④have / keep control (of / over) 可以控制 ⑤lose control (of) 失去(对……的)控制 ⑥take controls (of) 管辖,管理,控制 【考例 7】[2004 重庆] Everyone was too afraid to go in because the fire was ____, so I went in. A. out of control B. under control C. in control D. over control [考查目标] 本题考查 control 搭配的用法和意思。 [答案与解析]A out of control 的意思是“失去控制”。 16. doubt n. 怀疑 vt. 怀疑 [拓展] doubtful adj. 令人生疑的 I don' t doubt that he'll come. There is no doubt that you'll succeed. [搭配] without (a) doubt 毫无疑问地,确实地 in doubt 感到怀疑 no doubt 无疑;很可能 【考点 5】doubt 的用法 ▲构词: ①doubtful adj. 怀疑的,疑心的;不能确定的,可疑的 ②doubtfully adv. 怀疑地,含糊地
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③doubtless adj. 无疑的,确定的 adv. 无疑地.确定地 ▲ 搭配: ①beyond / past (all) doubt (常作插入语)毫无疑问 ②cast / throw doubt on... 对…产生怀疑,使人对…产生怀疑 ③hang in doubt 悬而未决。还不能确定 ④in doubt 感到怀疑,拿不准;被怀疑,悬而未决 ⑤no doubt 无疑地,很可能 ⑥without (a) doubt 无疑地 ⑦be / feel doubtful of / about... / that-clause 怀疑 ▲友情提示:doubt 常表示“怀疑”,其后接名词从句时,主句为疑问句和否定句时,从旬常用连词 that, but that。主句为旨定句从句一般用连接词 whether, if what, when 等。如主句为肯定句而从句用连词 that, 则往往表示“非常怀疑、不相信”。 【考例 5】(2005 广东)Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ____ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether [考查目标] doubt 的用法。 [答案与解析]B no doubt 后为同位语从句,that 作为引导词,不充当句子成分。 2. earn vt. 赚得;挣得;赢得 I had not earned one penny with it up to the moment. 到目前为止我还没有赚到一分钱。 His victories in the wars earned him the title of "The Great". 他百战百胜赢得了“常胜将军”的称号。 [拓展]earn one's living 谋生 earnings 赚得的钱 She earned a living by singing in a night club. 她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。 14. prove vt. 证明,证实 How did you prove that he was the thief? The finger prints on the knife can prove him the murdurer. [注意] prove 还常用作系动词,意为“证明是,结果是”。 The drug proved (to be) highly effective. What he said proved (to be) true. 1. reeognise vt. 识别,认出;承认,认可 reeognisable adj. 可认出的;可识别的 recognition n. 认识,认出;承认 I recognized her by her red hat. 我根据她的红色帽子认出了她。 He recognized his lack of qulifacation for the post. 他承认了自已不够条件承担那个职务。 I recognise him to be cleverer than I am. = I recxgnise that he is cleverer than I am. 我承认他比我更聪明。 【考点 1】recognize 的用法 ▲ 构词:recognition n. 赞誉,承认,重视,公认,赏识,识别 ▲ 搭配: ①recognize sb as / to be... 承认/公认某人…… ②beyond / out of recognition 完全改了模样,面目全非 ③escape recognition 使人认不出 【考例 1】[2002 北京] One of the processes of growing uD is being able to ____ and overcome our fears. A. realize B. remember C. recognize D. recover [考查目标] 本题考查 recognize 的意思。 [答案与解析]C 在本句中 recognize 的意思是“认清”。 13. shock n. 打击,震惊,震动 vt. 使震惊,使惊愕
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[拓展] shocking adj. 令人震惊的 She was white with shock. The news of her husband's death was a terrible shock to her. It shocked me to see how my neighbours treated their children. 见到邻居们这样对待孩子,我吃了一惊。 [注意] be / get shocked Mr Smith got shocked when he touched the wire. 史密斯先生触到电线时遭到电击。 15. tear (tore,torn)vt. & vi. 撕碎 He tore the letter into pieces. She was so angry that she tore the picture in half. This cloth tears easily. [搭配] tear sth. down 拆除;拆毁 tear sth. up 撕碎 【考点 8】worth 的用法 ▲构词: ①worthless adj. 无价值的,无益的 ②worthwhile adj. 值得做的.值得出力的 ③worthy adj. 应得某事物;值得做某事;有价值的,可敬的,相称的 ▲ 搭配: ①be worth notice / the trouble (抽象名词)值得注意/费点事 ②be (well) worth doing 某事(很)值得一做 ▲ 友情提示:此时 worth 后的动名词的主动式具有被动的含义。 ③It's (well) worth doing sth 做某事是(很)值得的 ④worth it 值得花费时间/精力,值得一千,有必要 【考例 8】[2005 北京西城模拟] -- How much is the T-shirt ____?-- 65 dollars. A. worth B. cost C. worthy D. paid [考查目标] 本题考查 worth 的基本用法。 [答案与解析]A 加 worth 的后面可以接表示价格的名词,就可以用 how much 来提问。 [牛刀小试 1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空: (recognize, continue, conduct, charge, control, at— tract, worth, doubt) 1. I meant to buy the clock, but the seller ____ too much. 2. You have cut your hair so short that I can hardly ____ you. 3. ____ by the beauty of nature, they stayed in Hangzhou for another three days. 4. They are too weak. I ____ whether they can bear the bad climate. 5. The plane out of ___, crashed in the valley at last. 6. I will ask Mr. Brown to ____ our company in- stead of my uncle. 7. Nobody knows how much the portrait is 8. We two left but the meeting still ☆词语比较☆ 1. because, since, as, for, now that 它们都可以被用来引导原因状语从句,其中 (1) because 语气最强,一般指事情发生的直接原因,回答提问,一般放在主句之后。 Because he was ill, he was late for school.他生病了,所以迟到了。 We must stay at home because it rained. (2) since 较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原因,泽为“既然”,侧重主句,从句表示显然的或已知 的理由。 Since you don't like it, I'll put it away. 既然你不喜欢,我就把它放在一边。 (3) as “由于,鉴于”,指客观事实,常与 since 互换使用。 As there was no answer, I wrote again.鉴于没回复,我又写了一封信。
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(4) for 是并列连词,不说明直接原因而是对某种情况加以推断,其引导的分句前常有逗号。 He must be ill, for he is absent today.他…定是生病了,因为他今天没来。 (5) now that 用来说明一种新情况,然后加以推论。 Now that you are ready, we'll start at once.既然你已经准备好了,我们马上开始。 2. continue, go on 两者都有“继续”的意思。 (1) continue to do / doing sth. 表示“不停地做某事”, go on to do sth. 则表示“接着做另一件事情”,go on doing sth. 表示“继续做同一件事情”,它可指中断后 的继续,也可指不中断的继续。 (2) continue 后可直接跟名词,而 go on 后须加介词,才能接名词。 (3) continue 可用作系动词,go on 不可。 (4) continue 后可接介词短语,表示仍在某地或某个职位,而 go on 不可。 The baby continued to cry / crying all night.这个婴儿哭了一夜。 It's time for class. Let's go on learning Lesson 5.上课了,我们继续上第五课。 He continues a good friend of mine.他仍是我的一个好朋友。 [拓展] to be mntinued 待续(用于报刊上连载的文章等) 3. worth, worthy, worthwhile 这三个形容词在使用时,容易混淆,worth 只能作表语,后面常跟名词、代词或动名词的主动 形式,worthy 的意思是“值得的”“配得上的”“可敬的”,作表语或定语,作表语时,构成以下词组:be worthy of being done / be worthy to be done。worthwhile 作“值得的,合算的”讲,只能作表语。这个问题值得讨论。 The problem is worth discusaing / discussion. The problem is worthy of being discussed / to be discussed. The problem is worthy of discussion. It is worthwhile to discuss / discussing the problem. 【短语归类】 10. act...out 把……表演出来;把……付诸行动 Everyone laughed when he acted out the episode. 当他绘声绘色描绘那件事时,大家哄堂大笑。 They actually acted out their ideal.他们确实把自己的理想变成了行动。 act against 违反 act as 担任;充当 act on 奉行;对……起作用 act up 出毛病;捣乱 7. after all 毕竟;终究 这个词组有两个含意:“要知道……”;“别忘了 ……”,表示说话人对别人的态度,用来说服或提醒 对方,引出听话人似乎忘记了的某个重要的论点或理由,在表这个意思时,一般把 after all 放在句首。 该词组还表示“终究”,在表示这层意思时,after aIl 一般放于句末。 I think we should let her go on holiday alone. After all, she is fifteen and she isn't a child any more. 我想应该让她独自去度假,(要知道)她毕竟已经 15 岁,不再是小孩了。 Mathilde thought it was a diamond necklace, but it wasn't a real one after all. 玛蒂尔德原以为那足一条钻石项链,但那终归不是真的钻石项链。 11. at (the) most 最多;至多 I can pay only fifteen pounds at the most. 我最多只能付 15 英镑。 This is worth 3000 yuan at the most. 这个最多值 3000 元。 [拓展] at (the) least 至少;最少 8. bring back 拿回来;使恢复 If you are going shopping, please bring back a tube of toothpaste? 要是你上街,请买一支牙膏回来。 His words brought the whole event back. 他的话使人想起了整个事件。 bring out 生产;制造 bring up 养育;教育 bring about 引起;致使
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bring down 使落下 6. call on / upon 访问,看望,拜访,要求,号召 Last night I called on Mr. Black and had a long talk. 昨晚我拜访了布莱克先生,并同他作 r 长时间谈话。 The salesman called on our company twice a month. 这位推销员每月来我们公司两次。 Mr. Read called on us to learn from Peter. 雷德先生号召我们向彼得学习。 与 call 相关的词组: call after 以……的名字而命名 call at 访问,拜访 call for 要求;需求 call out 大声喊叫 call up 提醒 9. pay off 还清(债务);付清 It took us six years to pay off that judgment. 我们花了六年才还清债务。 I'll certainly pay you back for what you did to me. 你那样对待我,我一定要回敬你的。 【考点 3】pick 构成的短语 ①pick out 挑出,辨认出 ②pick up 拾起,捡起,(用车)接,恢复(健康),中途搭载 ③pick off 摘下来 ④pick at 少量地吃,老是挑剔(某人) ⑤pick & choose 挑三拣四 [例句] My sister is going with me to help me pick out a new suit. 我姐姐要陪我去挑一件新衣服。 They showed their displeasure by continually picking at her. 他们不断挑剔她,表明了他们不满。 Henry's been ill, but he's picking up again now. 亨瑞病了,但是很快又恢复了健康。 【考例 3】(NMET 1997) She ____ his number in the phone book to make sure that she had got it right. A. looked up B. looked for C. picked out D. picked up [考查目标] 此题主要考查四个短语的用法。 [答案与解析]A look up 向上看,查找,查寻;look for 寻找;pick out 挑出来;pick up 拾起。本句话的意思为 “她在电话簿中找电话号码以便确信她是对的”。 17. pick out 挑出;辨别出;使显眼 I can pick out my sister in the crowd. 我能在人群中认出我妹妹。 The houses in the painting were picked out in white. 画中的房子在白色衬托下愈发突出。 [注意]与 pick 搭配的词组有:pick up 拿起,拾起,恢复;pick over 检查 【考点 1】含“介词 at + (冠词) + 名词短语” ①at the head of 在……最前头 ②at midnight 在半夜 ③at present 现在,目前 ④at once 立刻,马上 ⑤at breakfast 早餐时 ⑥at first 起先,首先 ⑦at school 在学校,在上学 ⑧at home 在家 ⑨at night 在晚上 ⑩at the moment 此刻 ⑩at the end of 在……结尾.到……尽头 ⑩at the same time 同时 ⑩at times 有时,偶尔 ⑩at all 一点也不 ⑩at last 最后,起码
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⑩at sea 在海上,茫然.奠名其妙 ⑥at the age of 在……岁数时 ⑩at the beginning of... 起初,开始 ⑩at (the) most 至多 ④at a time 每次 ①at one time 过去有段时间,曾经 ◎at work 在工作 ④at a loss 茫然 ⑨at hospital 住院 ④at (the) least 至少 [例句] A policeman drove at the head of the procession. 一名警察在游行的队伍前开着车。 At first he was a little shy in class, but now he acts more naturally. 起初在班里他有点害羞.但是现在自然多了。 If you find anything not to your liking you will tell me at once? 如果你发现你不喜欢的东西,马上告诉我好吗? At one time 1 used to play a lot of sport, but I seem to have lost interest now. 我曾经喜爱运动,但是现在好像失去了兴趣。 I feel a little nervous at times. 有时我的确感到有些紧张。 The meal came to an end at last, and Mr. Li rose. 这顿饭终于吃完了,李先生站了起来。 I don't understand politics: I'm at sea when people talk about the government. 我不懂政治,当人们谈论政府时,我就茫然了。 【考例 l】(NMET 1994) Don't all speak at once! ____ please. A. Each at one time B. One by one time C. One for each time D. One at a time [考查目标]此题主要考查 time 短语的用法。 [答案与解析]D at a time 每次;one at time 每次一个;“一个接一个”应该用 one by one, 不可以在后面加 lime;at one time 过去有段时间,曾经。本句话意思是“不要都同时讲话,一个一个的说!” 【考点 2】与“数量”有关的短语 ①a few 一些,几个 ②a series of 一连串的。一系列 ③a bit (of) 少量的,一点,也不 ④a pairr of 一对,一双 ⑤a bottle of 一瓶 ⑥a glass of 一杯 ⑦a piece of 一件 ⑧a kind of 一种 ⑨a little 一点 ⑩a lot of / lots of 许多 ⑥plenty of 许多,大量的 ⑥a number of 许多 ⑩the number of... …的数量 ⑩a great deal of 许多,大量 ⑩a basin of 一盆 ⑩a bowl of 一碗 ⑥a basket of 一篮 ⑩a bucket of 一桶 ⑩a handful of 一把 ⑩a mouthful of 一口 [例句] A series of rainy days spoiled our vacation. 一连串的阴雨天破坏了我们的假期。 There lay a pair of glasses on the desk. 在课桌上放着一副眼镜。 There was plenty of work for girls of her age. 对于她这个年龄的女孩来说,有很多工作。 A great number of civilians were murdered in the war.大量的平民在战争中被杀害。 She thought that her friend must have been through a great deal of trouble. 她想她的朋友肯定经历了许多麻烦事。
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【考例 2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited ____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were [考查目标] 此题主要考查主谓一致。 [答案与解析]C “the number of + 复数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式;“a number of + 复数名词”作 主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 [牛刀小试 2] 根据所给汉语句子的意思完成英语句子,每空只填一个词。 1. 她费尽力气想看懂那些说明文字,却全然不知所云。 She tries to understand the instructions,but she was ____ ____ ____. 2. 不要什么事情都一块儿干,要一次做一点儿。 Don't try to do everything ____; take it a bit ____. 3. 这家出版社出版了一套新的英语学习读物。 The publishing house has published ____ ____ ____ ____English learning materials. 4. 这裤子花了 30 美元,比预料的要贵得多。 These trousers ____ $30 ____ ____, which was much more expensive than ____. 5. 病人在医院住了好长一段时间,人们建议他去海边恢复健康。 . After staying in hospital for long, the patient was ____ to go to the seaside to ____ ____ his health. ☆句型诠释☆ 1. 英语句型中的否定前移 在英语中,如果主句的动词是 think, suppose, expect, believe, imagine 之类的动词,而且主语又是第一人称,宾语从句要 表达否定,其否定形式应迁移到主句。但是,如果构成反意疑问句时,要把否定形式再迁移到从句中去,以从句为准。 I don't think you're right.我认为你不对。 I don't suppose I shall be back until 9 o'clock.我想几点以前我回不来。 I don't think your answer is right, is it?我认为你的回答不对,是不是? 2. 助动词 do 强调谓语动词的用法 在肯定句中,助动词 do 可用来强调谓语动词,带有感情色彩,可译成“真的,的确”。 You do look nice today.你今天看起来真漂亮。 We did need help those days.在那些日子里我们的确需要帮助。 3. be (was / were) to do 此结构表示安排、命令、职责、义务、目的、用途、可能性、命中注定等。 You are to be baek bv 11 o'clock.你得在 11 点钟前回来。(命令) I am to inform you that the meeting will be held in Hangzhou. 我谨通知你会议在杭州举行。(职责) A knife is to cut with. 刀是用来切割的。(用途) They were never to meet again. 他们注定以后永远不会见面。(命中注定) If there is to be peace, we must try in every way to prevent war. 要和平,就得想一切办法制止战争。(可能性) 4. 祈使句+ and + 陈述句结构 在这种句子结构中,祈使句表示条件,陈述句表示结果,它相当于 If you..., you will...,另外,祈使句+ or + 陈述句结构 表示:If (not)..., you will,有时候,祈使句中的动词可省略。 Work harder, and you'll find it not difficult to learn.再用功一点,你就会发现它不难写。 Hurry up, or you will be late.快一点,否则你会迟到。 More effort, and you can finish it in time.再加把劲,你会按时完成它。 【句型归纳】 【考点 1】Pierre and I did have a very good time at the ball. 皮埃尔与我确实在舞会上玩得很开心。 该句中的 did 为助动词,加强谓语动词 have 的语气。在“助动词 do / does / did + 动词原形”结构中,助动词 do / does / did 意思是“确实,的确,一定”。常常用在肯定句或祈使句中,起加强语气的作用。有人称和时 态的变化。例如: Do send me e-mail immediately you arrive at Beijing. 你一到北京,一定要给我发电子邮件。
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He does smoke two packs of cigarettes every day. 他确实每天抽两包烟。 The company earned much more this month than it did last month. 公司本月赚的钱要比上个月多得多。 【考例 1】(NMET 2000) An awful accident____,however, occur the other day. A. does B. did C. was to D. had to [考查目标] 对句子中谓语的强调。 [答案与解析] B 助动词 do (does 用于第三人称) 用于对现在时态的强调;did 用于对过去时态的强调,后面 均接动词原形。 【考点 2】In the eighteenth century, Benjamin Franklin conducted a number of experiments in which he showed what electricity is. 18 世纪。本杰明〃富兰克林做了一系列的试验,以证明电是什么。 注意:该句子中的 a number of 作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。例如: A number of children play video games online. 很多的孩子在网上玩电子游戏。 a number of 意思是“许多,数目”,作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。the number of 意思是“数量”,作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式。例如: A number of people prefer to sending e-mail each other t0 writing letters. 许多人更愿意发电子邮件,而不愿意写信。 The number of milu deer is increasing year by year. 麋鹿的数目在逐年增加。 【考例 2】(NMET 1996) The number of people invited ____ fifty,but a number of them ____ absent fnr different reasons. A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were [考查目标] 主谓一致。 [答案与解析] C 根据以上的解释,应该选 was;were。 【考点 3】Having realized that I could use a kite to attract Iightning, I decided to do an experiment. 意识到可以用 风筝引来闪电之后,我便决定做个实验。该句中的 having realized 是 v-ing 形式的完成式在句中 作状语。v-ing 形式在句中的主要作用是作状语,having done 表示非谓语动词的动作先于渭语动词的动作,而且要注 意非谓语与句子主语之间存在着主动关系时,用 hav—ing done;非谓语与句子主语之间存在着被动关系时,用 having been done;其否定形式是在 v-ing 前加 not。例如: Having finished his homework, the boy decided to playfootball for a while. 做完了作业.他决定去踢一会儿球。 Not having cleaned the classroom, they couldn't go home. 还没有打扫完教室,他们还不能回家。 Having been praised in class, the girl felt very happy.那个姑娘在班上得到表扬,感到很高兴。 【考例 3】 (2001 上海春招) ____ from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes. A. Suffered B. Suffering C. Having suffered D. Being suffered [考查目标]非谓语动词 v-ing。 [答案与解析]C v-ing 形式的逻辑主语是 Professor White,Professor White 和 suffer 之间存在着主动关系,而且根据,for years,表示 suffer 的动作持续换了多少年,所以用 v-ing 完成式表示原因。 [牛刀小试 3] 1. He ____ to the railway station, only to find the train had been away for 5 hours. A. did go B. had gone C. had to go D. has gone 2. ____ careful while crossing the street. A. Your being B. To be C. Do be D. Being 3. ____ of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people are persuaded to eat more fruit and vegetables. A. The number 15. A number C. A lot of D. Many 4. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom sudden- ly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (2004) A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 【交际速成】 【考点 1】Asking for permission 征求许可 (2004 广东) Do you mind if I open the window?… I feel a bit cold. A. of course not. B. I'd rather you didn't. C. Go ahead. D. Why not? [答案与解析]B 本题考查对征求许可的应答用语。
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根据所提供的情景“I feel a bit cold”,说明对方不愿意把窗户打开,所以 B 项符合语境。 【归纳】英语中常见表达征求许可的用语有: ①Could We / I...? ②May / Can I...? ③Shalll / we...? ④Is it possible...? ⑤Do / Would you mind...? ⑥Is it all right if l sit here? ⑦I wonder if I could smoke here. 应答用语有: ①Yes, please. ②Sure / Certainly. ③That's all right. ④Of course, you can / may. ⑤Please do. ⑥Go ahead, please. ⑦I'm sorry, it's not allowed. ⑧I'm afraid not. ⑨You'd better not. 【考点 2】Giving instructions 发出指令 (2004 湖北) ____ follow the instructions given at the top of the page. A. You're sure B. Be sure to C. Sure to D. Sure about [答案与解析]B 本题考查表达指令的功能意念。此句 Be sure to do 意为“务必做……”,所以 B 项正确。 【归纳】英语中发出指令时常用祈使句式,例如: A. ①Build the frame of the kite by making... ②Tie the corners of the handkerehief to the points of the cross... ③Add a tail to the frame and tie a Iong string to the cross... ④First, fix a sharp piece of metal...Second, fasten a key to the end of the long string...Third, tie a silk ribbon to the string... ⑤Fly the kite when... B. Don't touch anything unless your teacher tells you to. 【考点 3】Discussing and evaluating pros and cons 讨论和评估赞成与反对 -- It's more expensive to live in the city than to live in the country, I think. -- ____. Living in the city brings people more con— venience, though. A. You're wrong B. I'm sorry to hear that C. I couldn't agree more D. That's all right [答案与解析]C 本题考查讨论和评估赞成与反对的功能项目。根据所提供的情景“living in the city brings people more convenience, though.”,时话一方首先赞成另一方的观点,同时表述了自己的看法。所以 C 项符合语境。 【归纳】讨论和评估赞成与反对时,英语中使用下列说法,例如: 阐述优点(advantages) 时: ①It's good for the economy. ②It can help many people in the future. ③It is cleaning and does not pollute the air. ④It is important for science. ⑤It brings people more comfort. 指出缺点(disadvantages)时: ①It is too expensive. ②It is dangerous or bad for your health.
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③It is bad for the environment. ④It is unnecessary. ⑤Some people wm use it for other things. [牛刀小试 4] B. OK ! C. Is that really necessary? D. That's it. 4. -- Don't make any noise. My child is sleeping. -- ____. A. No, I don't B. Oh, I'm sorry C. Yes, I know D. I didn't do that thing ☆精典题例☆ ( )1. Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there because there wasn't always ____ much to do.(2004 广东) A. such B. that C. more D. very 【解析】选 B 本题考查 that 作副词的用法,在这里 that 是副词,等于 so,有“那么”之意,much 后面省略了 work。 ( )2. "We can't go out in this weather," said Bob,____ out of the window. (2004 全国卷) A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looked 【解析】选 A 此题考查非谓语动词的用法,从句子意思及结构来看,此处应用现在分词做伴随状语。 ( )3. Do let your mother know all the truth. She appears ____ everything. A. tell B. to be told C. to be telling D. to have been told 【解析】选 D 本题考查动词不定式的用法,不定式有一般式、进行式和完成式,还有主动和被动形式。一般 式表示动作发生在谓语动词之后,进行式表示动作和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,完成式表示动作发生在谓语 动词之前。 ( )4. Yes. ____ more words and expressions and you wm find it easier tO read and communicate.(2004 上海) A. Know B. Knowing C. To know D. Known 【解析】选 A 本题考查祈使句+and+陈述句结构。 ( )5. Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may ____ run over by a car. (2002 北京) A. have B. get C. become D. turn 【解析】选 B 本题考查 get + 过去分词的用法,get +过去分词经常用在口语中表被动语态,强调动作突然发生 或未曾料到的事态的结果。 ( )6. Mr Smith, ____ of the ____ speech, started to read a novel. A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring 【解析】选 A tired of 表示“对……感到厌烦”,作原因状语和主语是被动关系。boring 是现在分词作定语修 饰 speech,和 speech 是主动关系,等于 the speech which was boring。 ( )7. -- Do you mind if I open the window? -- ____. I feel abit cold. (2004 广东) A. Of course not B. I'd rather you didn't C. Go ahead D. Why not 【解析】选 B 在回答 Do you mind...时,如果表示反对,应用委婉说法。 ( )8. I'd like to buy a house - modern, comfortable, and ____ in a quiet neighborhood. A. in all B. above all C. after all D. at all 【解析】选 B above all 意为“最重要的是”,其它短语意思不符合。 ( )9. ____ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. (2004 北京) A. To Wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited 【解析】选 C 现在分词的完成式表示此动作在主句谓语动词之前。 ( )10. I do every single bit of housework ____ my husband Bob just does the dishes now and then. (2004 全国卷) A. since B. while, C. when D. as 【解析】选 B while“然而,却”,表示对比关系。

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