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高中英语形容词


形容词与副词
知识点: 1.形容词的作用和在句中位置 2.副词的作用和位置 3.同根辨义 4.形容词和副词的比较等级 5.词汇辨义

1. 形容词的作用和在句中位置 1)典型作用:定语和表语 定语: 限定词(冠词、指示代词、形容词性物主代词、名词所有格、数词)+描绘性形容词(表示观点、品质、 状态等的词)+表示特征的形容词(大小、长度、形状)+新旧、

年龄等+表示颜色的形容词+国籍、产地 +表示材料、质地、用途的形容词+所修饰的名词(县官行令色国财) There are a few big round new black French wooden tables in the room. 在这个房间里有几张新的,大而圆的法国黑色木桌子。 表语: 有些形容词作表语时,通常不可以用“人”作主语。 常见的有:convenient/inconvenient possible/impossible necessary/unnecessary probable/improbable 为表语和定语意思发生差异的形容词:

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表语 ill hard

定语

_____ ______ _____ ______

certain_____ ______ little _____ ______ present_____ ______ 注意:形容词还可以为补语和状语 2)形容词的位置 (1)形容词作定语时一般位于被修饰的名词之前。 Nice and warm days are coming.晴朗而温暖的日子就要来了。 (2)形容词后置的情况 ①一些表语形容词作定语时必须置于名词后。 表语形容词:alive, afraid, awake, alone, asleep, worth, aware, ashamed, alike… He is the most famous scientist alive in the world today.他是当今世界上活着的最著名的科学家。 ②当复合不定代词被形容词修饰时,形容词通常后置。 There is something wrong with my bike.我的自行车出毛病了。 ③“形容词 + 介词 + 名词”或其他短语作定语时要后置。 a country famous for its scenery 一个以风景秀丽著称的国家 ④两个意义相近或相反的形容词用 both…and, and, or, but 或 so 连接在一起作定语时,形容词后置。 The students were required to see a film both interesting and instructive. 要求学生们看一部既有趣又有教育意义的电影。 The girl, wise and diligent, won first price in the international maths competition. 这个聪明勤奋的女孩在国际数学竞赛中获得了一等奖。

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⑤形容词 else 常置于不定代词或疑问代词之后作定语。 Does anyone else know about it? 还有别的什么人知道这件事吗? ⑥当 long, wide, high, deep, thick, away, old 等词与数量词短语连用时,形容词要后置。 The street is 50 meters wide. 这条街五十米宽。 注意:有些形容词既可以作前置定语,也可以作后置定语,但意义不同,常见的有:present(现在的/在 场的) ,responsible(可依赖的/应负责任的) ,proper(适当的/正式的) , absent(心不在焉的/缺席的) 2.副词的作用、分类和位置 典型作用:作状语,修饰动词、形容词、其他副词和全句 分类:程度副词、频度副词、方式副词、时间副词、地点副词、评注性副词、逻辑连接副词 副词的位置: 1)时间副词和地点副词一般放在句末,有时也可放于句首。 Smoking is likely to damage your health permanently.抽烟可能会对你的健康造成永远的伤害。 Yesterday they went to the airport to see their teacher off.昨天他们去机场送他们老师了。 如果这两种副词同时出现在句中,则把地点副词放在时间副词前面。 I have gone nowhere recently, for I have a dozen irons in the fire. 我最近哪里都没去,因为我实在太忙 了。 表示不确定的时间副词,如 always, seldom, often, never, rarely 等通常放在行为动词前,情态动词、助动 词或 be 动词之后。 We should always work hard at our lessons.我们应该一直努力学习。 2)程度副词:修饰形容词和副词时,应放在形容词和副词前面; 修饰动词时,常常放于第一个助动词后,实义动词前。 He acted rather strangely. 他行为举止相当古怪。

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I greatly enjoy talking with you. 我很喜欢和你在一起谈话。 3)方式副词:方式副词,一般放在动词(+定语)的后面,在表示特别强调时,偶尔也可放在实义动词的 前面,第一个助动词的后面。 He wrote carefully some letters to his teachers.他认真给他的老师们写信。 The spokesman publicly declared that he didn’t know anything about the matter before hand. 这位发言人公开宣布他事先毫不知情。 4)频度副词:在句中的位置比较灵活,可以置于谓语动词前,也可以置于第一个助动词后, 还可以置于 句首。 He always comes late. 他总是迟到。 I have seldom seen such large apples.我很少见到这么大的苹果。 Usually we go to America in August.通常我们在 8 月份到美国去。 5)副词修饰名词时,一般放在该名词之后。 The young lady there is Mike’s sister.那边年轻的女士是麦克的姐姐。 6)副词修饰介词时,放在该介词前;副词修饰全句时,一般放在句首,也可放在句尾。 People read advertisements partly for information.人们读广告,部分是为了获得信息。 Unfortunately, in some countries waste from factories is still poured straight into rivers. 不幸的是,在某些国家,工厂的废物仍直接被倒入江河。 7)副词作状语可以修饰整个句子,常放在句首,也可以放在句尾,与句子的其他成分之间通常用逗号隔 开。 Luckily, he was not hurt in the accident.幸运的是,他在这次事故中没有受伤。 The project will have been carried out by next month, hopefully.这个工程有望在下周完成。 8)有些副词像 fortunately, luckily, surprisingly, honestly, actually, unfortunately 等修饰整个句子时,表示

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说话者的态度,或者是起着连接上下文的作用,常可以和句型 It + be + adj. + that…进行转换。 Two middle-aged passengers fell into dead sea. Unfortunately, neither of them could swim. → It was unfortunate that neither of them could swim. Surprisingly, no one in the classroom can work out the problem.→ It is surprising that no one in the classroom can work out the problem. 3.同根辨义 1)形容词+ly 变化加大的现象 bad-badly bare-barely hard-hardly large-largely late-lately 2) 与形容词同形的副词 late (adj.) 已故的 (adv.) 迟、晚 firm (adj.) 稳固的 (adv.) 稳固地 fast (adj.) 快的 (adv.) 快 enough (adj.) 足够的 (adv.) 足够 high (adj.) 高的 (adv.) 高 early (adj.) 早的 (adv.) 早 long (adj.) 长的 (adv.) 长时间地 low (adj.) 低的 (adv.) 低 like-likely practical-practically scarce-scarcely short-shortly

3)意义有别的同根副词: 原形副词一般表示的是具体意义, 以-ly 结尾的副词往往具有抽象意义, 表示程度。 high-highly direct-directly

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late-lately pretty-prettily sharp-sharply short-shortly most-mostly near-nearly 4.形容词和副词的比较等级 1)没有比较等级的形容词:

just-justly hard-hardly free-freely deep-deeply wide-widely close-closely

表示比较、特殊意义的词 comparative, relative, particular, special 等。 表示绝对意义的词 absolute, entire, total, whole, complete 等。 表示大小、极限、主观、上下等意义的词 extreme, major, minor, chief, senior, junior, favorite 等。 表示性质特征的词 economic, scientific, wooden, earthen, golden, wrong 等。 表示独一无二、形状、强调的词 only, single, round, level, square, very 等。 2)用原级的句型:as…as…,not so…as…,not as…as…,the same…as… 3)用比较级的句型 指两者的比较时,就要用到比较级。有如下几种句型: (1)A …+ 比较级 + than B. Jack is taller than Ed. He ran more slowly than I in last sports meeting. He thinks he is less careful than Jim. (2) Which/Who…+ 比较级, A or B? Which bag is heavier, the first one or the second one? Who finished the work earlier, Tom or Sam?

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(3) … the + 比较级 + of the two. Sarah is the healthier of the two girls. (4) 用 by 表示相差的程度: She is taller than I by three inches. = She is three inches taller than I. 注意: ①比较级前可以用 a little/bit(一点), a lot/much/far(得多), still(更), even(甚至), great deal, by far, any, three times 等来强调程度, 但不能用 very, quite, pretty, rather 和 more 等来修饰比较级. 如: She’s a little better at math than before. He runs far more slowly than I. ②比较只能在同类间进行, 如不能说: Lily’s hair is longer than I /me. 而必须说: Lily’s hair is longer than mine / my hair. ③比较不能与自己相比, 排除自己的方法是使用 other 或 else , 这时是指在同一范围内. 如不在同一范围 内则无须使用 other 或 else. 如: Shanghai is bigger than any other city in China. Shanghai is bigger than any city in Sichuan. Nobody else does better in math than he in his class. = He does better in math than anybody else in his class. ④为避免重复常用替代词 one, ones, that, those 等. 如: This picture is more beautiful than that one. The oranges on the plate are much bigger than those in the basket. (此处不能用 those ones) ⑤比较级+and+比较级:越来越… 如: It gets English. more and more + 多音节形容词/副词原级:越来越… colder and colder 天气变得越来越寒冷。 More and more Chinese people are learning The taller of the two boys is my brother.

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Our country is getting more and more beautiful. 我们国家正在变得越来越美丽. ⑥The + 比较级 + 句子,the + 比较级 + 句子. 表示“越..., 越...” (按正比列增加) The more I learn about Chinese history, the more I enjoy living in China. The more English words you remember, the better your English will be. The more trees we grow, the more beautiful our hometown is. ⑦貌似比较级的一些习惯用法: more … than 与其… 不如… 如: She’s more shy than unfriendly. no more than = only 只 not more than = at most 不超过 /最多不过

如: His whole school education added up to no more than one year. no less than = as many/much as 多达… He paid no less than $ 1000 for it. no … other than 只有, 正是 In no country other than Britain can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day. 4)最高级 指三者或三者以上的比较时, 用最高级. 形容词最高级前必须加冠词 the, 副词最高级前可以不加 the. 表 示比较的范围时常用 in 或 of (所给的词语为指主语同类的代词或数词时用 of)介词短语, 也常用于 Which / Who … the + 最高级, A, B or C? 句型中. 如: Yao Ming is one of the most popular soccer players of all. Which sport do you like best, football, basketball or table tennis? ( 1) 最高级的修饰语常见的有: by far (得多, 尤其), nearly, almost, by no means(绝不, 一点也不), not really(不完全是, 不见得), nothing like(丝毫不像, 绝对不) 等 (2) 否定+ 比较级= 最高级 not less than = at least 至少…

The child is not less than 5 years old.

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There no better present than this. 5) 表示倍数的几个句型: 1. … times as + adj /adv + as … 2. … times + adj /adv 比较级+ than … 3. … times the + 性质名词 + of … 4. The + n + be + … times + what 从句 5. The + n + be + … times that /those of … Eg:

He has never spent a more worrying day.

Tibe is three times the size of Zhejiang. = Tibet is three times as large as Zhejiang. = Tibet is twice larger than Zhejiang. The output of this year is 3 times that of 2010. = The output of this year is 3 times what it was in 2010. The factory produced twice as many cars in 2009 as the year before. 其他形式的比较级 A. be senior to 比……年龄大(类似于 be older than) I am five years senior to Jane.我比简大五岁。 B. be junior to 比…年轻 (类似于 be younger than) Jane is five years junior to me. 简比我小五岁。 C. be superior to 比……好(类似于 be better than) This computer is superior to the one you bought.这台电脑比你买的那台好。 D. be inferior to 比……差(类似于 be worse than) This photo is inferior to that one.这张照片比那张差。 5.词汇辨义 more than:

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A. “More than+名词”表示“不仅仅是” 1) 2) Modern science is more than a large amount of information. Jason is more than a lecturer; he is a writer, too.

We need more than material wealth to build our country.建设我们国家,不仅仅需要物质财富. B. “More than+数词”含“以上”或“不止”之意,如: 3) 4) I have known David for more than 20 years. Let's carry out the test with more than the sample copy.

More than one person has made this suggestion. 不止一人提过这个建议. C. “More than+形容词”等于“很”或“非常”的意思,如: 5) 6) In doing scientific experiments, one must be more than careful with the instruments. I assure you I am more than glad to help you. 难以,完全不能

D. more than + (that)从句,其基本意义是“超过(=over)”,但可译成“简直不”“远非”. (其后通常连用情态动词 can) --That is more than I can understand . 那非我所能懂的. --That is more than I can tell. 那事我实在不明白。 --The heat there was more than he could stand. 那儿的炎热程度是他所不能忍受的 此外,“more than”也在一些惯用语中出现,如:

--More often than not (经常) ,people tend to pay attention to what they can take rather than what they can give. ---All of us are more than a little concerned about(非常关心)the current economic problems

enough: 1)enough 可以做名词、代词,意思是“足够、充分” 。

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作代词可以代替可数名词或不可数名词,在句中作主语或宾语。 Enough has been said on this subject.关于这一问题的说明已经足够了。 At the end of six months he had learned enough (enough Russian) to read articles and reports. 六个月以后,他就学到了足够的俄文,达到了能够阅读用俄文写的文章和报告的程度。 No, thanks, I’ve had enough. (enough food)不,谢谢,我已经吃饱了。 At that time the land along the Changjiang River was becoming very crowded; there was not enough (enough land) for the population.那时候,长江沿岸的土地上人口越来越稠密,再也容纳不下那么多人了。 注意:当 enough 后的名词前有冠词、形容词性物主代词、指示代词或其本身就是代词时,要用介词 of。 We’ve had enough of your coldness.我们已经受够了你的冷漠。 Did you buy enough of them?这种原料你买够了吗? 2)enough 作形容词,意思是“足够的、充分的” ,常与 for 或不定式连用,可以作定语或表语。作定语置于 被修饰的名词前后均可,前置时强调 enough,后置时强调被修饰词。 I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have one.我希望每位客人都能够有一个杯子。 Enough is enough.够了就是够了。 3)enough 作副词,意思是“十分地、充分地、足够地、充足地” ,置于被修饰的形容词或副词之后,常与 4) 不定式或介词 for 连用,在句子中作状语,表示程度。 You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.你十分地勇敢地在会议上提出了反对的意见。 I’m sorry, none of you watched carefully enough.很遗憾,你们当中谁都观察得不够仔细。 enough 作感叹词,意思是“够了!停止!住手!不要再继续了! ,用以表达不耐烦或恼怒。 ” You’ve been practicing the violin all afternoon. Enough!你整个下午都在练小提琴。够了! 5)用在“主语 + cannot… + enough”句型中 该句型形式上是否定句型, 实际上表达的是肯定意义, 意思是“再……也不过分; 越……越……”enough 用 作副词。

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I can’t thank you enough.我对你感激不尽。 (我怎么感谢你都不算过分。 )

几组重要形容词和副词的辨义: 1.common,ordinary,usual

2.alive,live,lively,living

3.later,latter

4.well,healthy

5.possible,probable,likely

6.just,just now, right now

7.ago, before, since

8.some time sometime , sometimes, some times

9. fairly, rather, quite, pretty

10. too, as well, also, either

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11. almost, nearly

12. already, yet, still

13. too much, much too

14. probably, possibly, perhaps, maybe, likely

补充: sleepy-asleep healthy-healthful industrial-industrious historic-historical continual-continuous economic-economical distinct-distinctive respectable-respectful like-alike-likely dead-deadly-deathly sensitive-sensible-sensory efficient-proficient-sufficient imaginable-imaginary-imaginative everyday-every day all ready-already popular-populous considerable-considerate disinterested-uninterested honorary-honorable invaluable-valueless-priceless eligible-illegible-illegal practicable-practical defective-deficient alone-lonely successful-successive principal-principle pleasant-pleased desirable-desirous

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imminent-eminent

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