切入点： 一.调查类逻辑错误： （调查是否 reliable?） 1.样本容量是否 sufficient 2.样本选择是否 representative 3.调查问卷问题设置是否合理 4.数据模糊 5. Responses can hardly reflect actual behavior 6.时间差异 空间差异（以偏概全 以全盖偏） 因果推论类逻辑错误： 1.推不出 2.po
st hoc fallacy 他因 二.时间差异 三.空间差异（以偏概全 以全盖偏） 四.片面考虑 五.错误类比 行文顺序：先指出论据错误 再指出论证错误
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assumption 型 开头：Whereas it is plausible that _ , the author ’s argumentation is replete with precarious assumptions. In order to evaluate the argument, a close examination of these assumptions is required . 主体： 1.作者推理链 2.隐含假设 3.存在哪些可能的情况来 disprove 作者的假设 4.如果假设 unwarranted，作者的结论怎样被削弱（具体展开参考为什么大法） The argument fundamentally relies on an assumption that On the basis of _ , the author concludes/implies/claims that _ . However, when arguing this the author (implicitly) assumes that _ ,which might not be the case. Additional, the author use _ to support the _ that _ . However _ , an unstated assumption that _ is included. Even if _, the conclusion requires another assumption that _ . 结尾： In summary, if any of these assumptions prove unjustified, the author ’s argument would be much weaker. Thus, it might be advisable for the author to conduct a survey to..., and provide more information about.. thereby bolster the assumptions and the argument. alternative explanation 型： 开头：summary(facts + explanation) Granted, the explanation above is reasonable and acceptable (if we assume that _ ). Nevertheless, there are at least two alternative explanations that could also account for the _.
主体： 两个 explanation，每一段结构为： 1.提出解释 2.详细介绍 3.为什么可以解释事实 或者 一个 explanation，提出并详细介绍，然后每一段解释一个事实 结尾： In summary, besides the possible explanation proffered by the author, at least two justified hypotheses could also explain the facts in his letter. Unless more information is provided, we cannot determine which one is the most accurate. evidence 型： 开头：Whereas it is plausible that..., the argument is inconclusive and the validity of the argument might be affected by additional evidence. To evaluate the argument and recommendation in this passage, amounts of relevant evidence is required. 主体： 1.为了评价作者的什么 claim，还大致需要什么方面的 evidence 2.a specific evidence 3.weaken/strengthen？ why？ (another specific evidence) weaken/strengthen? why? 冒号挺好用！ 结尾：Unless more information is provided, ... question 型（与 evidence 型类似） ： 开头：Whereas it is plausible that..., the argument is inconclusive and the validity of the argument might be affected by answers to some questions. To evaluate the argument and recommendation in this passage, a number of relevant questions should be addressed. 主体： 他因： Though the correlation between _ and _ tempts us to believe that the former causes the latter, it is entirely possible that some other contributing factors may lead to _. （correlation） Though fatigue is likely to give rise to accidents, it is entirely possible that some other contributing factors may lead to such mistakes The argument would be strengthened if the author were to consider and winnow out other potential reasons for _.
错误抨击方式： 以偏概全： The arguer unfairly assumes that this is applicable to all.
For example, if the total number is …, ...only account for a tiny proportion of ... . perhaps possibly even if granted that unfounded unwarranted unjustified unsound precarious 无根据的
operating costs economic crisis economic resurgence macro-economic environment in an economic boom in an economic crisis supply and demand供求状况 large number of immigrants 大量移民 high-end 高端的 low-end 低端的 In this light growth rate degree extent sales volume regulation statute ordinance prediction forecast bolster buttress 支持 销量
support corroborate substantiate valid cogent compelling sound fail to omit to evidence data proof affect the validity of the argument weaken the argument based on on the basis of validity cogency inadvisable unwise
contention claim statement recommend advise suggest propose advocate rashly hastily recklessly dubitable recommendation advice suggestion proposal advocation 仓促地
dubious doubtful questionable winnow out rule out exclude on the contrary contrarily performance invariable constant maintain steady select randomly 随机取样 the survey is anonymous and the answers of respondents is confidential not suffice to 不足以 there is scant evidence 缺乏证据 fruitless futile in vain ascend rise increase mount climb surge complain grumble distort data 歪曲数据 徒劳的 排除
in the circumstances in this case in this scenario turn out
launch/conduct/implement a survey have/own/possess market jeopardize/harm/impair/undermine one’s reputation budget for in this case under these circumstances in this scenario if this is the case 在这种情况下