Sentence Structure 句型结构 句型---按照英语中的动词的类型(五种，即：不及物动词、系动词、单宾动词、双宾动词和 复合动词)可以把英语句型划分为五种基本的句型。 一、 1.主语+不及物动词 (SV 句型)=主谓结构：本结构是由主语加不及物的谓语动词构 成, 常用来表示主语的动作。 如：The sun rises.
Tom has already le
They had to travel by air or boat.
2.主语+系动词+主补(SVC 句型）=主系表结构：本结构是由主语+系动词+表语组成，主用 以说明主语的特征，类属，状态，身份等。 系动词有: 1.表示特征和存在状态的 be, seem, feel, appear, look, smell, taste, sound; 2.表示状态延续的 remain, stay, keep, continue, stand; 3.表示状态变化的 become, get, turn, go, run, fall, come, grow; eg:
Our English teacher is thirty years old. The cake tastes delicious. The potatoes went bad in the fields. Deep water stays still. She is in good health.
3.主语 + 动词 + 宾语 (SVO 句型) =主谓宾结构:本结构是由主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语构 成。如：
1. Tom has made a mistake. 2. I don’t know if he can come tomorrow. 3. They haven’t decided where to go next. 4. She stopped teaching English two years ago.
4.主语 + 双宾动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语(SVOO 句型) =双宾语结构：此结构由“主语+ 及物谓语动词+间接宾语（人）+直接宾语（事物）”组成。 如:介词 to 或 for.
He brings cookies to me every day. She made a beautiful dress for me.
用 to 侧重指动作的方向，表示朝着，向着，对着某人。 用 for 侧重指动作的受益者，表示 为了某人，替某人。 常跟双宾语的动词有： (需借助 to 的）bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask 等 (需借助 for 的） buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing, save, spare 等。 5.主语 + 复合动词 + 宾语 + 宾补(SVOC 句型) 复合宾语结构: 此结构由“主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语”构成。宾语补足语用来 补充和说明宾语的性质和特点。 可以用做宾补的有：名词，形容词，副词，介词短语，动词不定式，分词等。 如：
The sun keeps us warm. I heard him singing. They made Tom monitor. He used to do his homework with his radio on.
My mother asked me to clean my room. The teacher made all students finish their homework on time.
用 it 做形式宾语，即：主语+谓语+it+宾补+真正宾语。 如： I found it very pleasant to be with your family. 6.There be 句型： 此句型是由“there+be+主语+状语”构成，用以表达存在关系可以称“…… 有……”。 它其实是全倒装的一种情况，主语位于谓语动词 be 之后，there 仅为引导 词， 并无实际语意。此句型有时不用 be 动词，而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive 等，但一般不用 have。 如:There stands a hill in the middle of the park.
Once upon a time there lived an old king in the town.
Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致，有时态和情态变化。 如 :there is/are … there was/were… there will be… there is /are going to be... there has/have been… there might be there must be … there used to be … there happen/happens/happened to be … 二． 1.并列句。并列句由两个或两个以上的简单句并列在一起构成，一般由并列连词、连接副词 或逗号、分号、冒号等将各分句连接起来。 1.由分号连接。
eg. Let’s start early; we have a long way to go.
2. 由 并 列 连 词 及 词 组 连 接 -— — and/ but /or/ so / however / still/ therefore /yet /while /otherwise/for /both…and…/not only…but also…/as well as/ or else/ either…or… /neither…nor…/not…but…等。
eg: I’d like to, but I have lots of homework to do. Both my father and mother are teachers. It’s very good, yet I don’t like it. She was very tired, nevertheless she kept on working.
2.复合句 构成：由一个逐句和一个或一个以上的从句构成。主句和从句都有完整的主谓结 构，但主句是全局的主体，从句只是全句中的一个成分，不能独立存在。从句通常是用引导 词来引导的，引导词起连接主句和从句的作用。 分类：名词性从句（主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句） ，形容词性从 句（定语 从句） ，副词性从句（状语从句） 。 主语从句---定义：用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。 引导主语从句的关联词有三类： （1）从属连词 that. 如：That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. （2）从属连词 whether. 如：Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear.他是否会来这里还不清楚。 （3）连接代词 who，whom，whose，what，which，whoever，whatever，whichever；连接
副词 where，when，how，why. 如： What she did is not yet known.
How this happened is not clear to anyone.
? Whoever comes is welcome. 主语从句能用 it 作形式上的主语。常以 it 作形式主语的句型有： A.It+be+形容词 （obvious， true， natural， surprising， good， wonderful， funny， possible， likely， certain，probable，etc.）+that 从句。如： It is certain that she will do well in her exam. B.It+be+名词词组（no wonder，an honor，a good thing，a pity，no surprise，etc.）+that 从句。 如：
It’s no surprise that our team should have won the game.
C.It+be+过去分词（said，reported，thought，expected，decided，announced，arranged，etc.） +that 从句。如：
It is reported that China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit.
D.It+seem，appear, happen 等不及物动词及短语+that 从句。如：
It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all.
E.It+doesn’t matter（makes no difference，etc.）+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。如：
It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting.
2.注意连接代词 whoever，whatever，whichever 等引导主语从句的含义。
Whoever comes will be welcome. Whatever he did was right. Whichever of you comes in will receive a prize.
宾语从句：用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 构成：关联词+简单句。 引导宾语从句的关联词有三类： （1）从属连词 that.如：
He told us that he felt ill.
注： that 在引导宾语从句时也并不是任何情况下都可以省略。 在以下情况下， 不能省略。 that 1.Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened.（and 连接两个宾语从句，that 宾语从句放在 and 的后面时，that 不能省略。 ） 2.I know nothing about him except that he is from the south. （that 引导的宾语从句作介词宾 语时，that 不能省略。 ） 3.That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe.（that 从句位于句首时，that 不可省 略。 ）
4.We decided，in view of his special circumstances，that we would admit him for a probationary period.（主句谓语动词与 that 从句之间有插入语，that 不可省略。 ）
I doubt whether he will succeed. I don’t know if you can help me.
（3）连接代词 who，whom，whose，what，which，whoever，whatever，whichever；连接 副词 where，when，how，why. 如：
I wonder what he’s writing to me about.
I’ll tell you why I asked you to come. You may do what you will.
He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day.
I don’t care （for）who marries him.
连词 that 引导的名词性从句很少作介词的宾语，只用在 except，but，in 后。其他一些介词 的宾语从句如果由连词 that 引导，则需用 it 先行一步，作形式宾语。如：
He is a good student except that he is careless. You may rely on it that I shall help you.
介词宾语不可以用 which 来引导，而要用 what 来引导。如：
Are you sorry for what you’ve done？
某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句，这类形容词或过去分词有 sure，glad，certain， pleased，happy，afraid，surprised，satisfied 等，连词 that 可省略。如：
I am not sure what I ought to do. I’m afraid you don’t understand what I said.
4.连词 whether （…or not）或 if 引导的宾语从句 if 和 whether 引导的宾语从句可以互换使用，但 whether 常和 or not 连用，if 一般不与 or not 连用。如： 用 if 引导宾语从句如果会引起歧义，应避免使用 if 而用 wheter.试比较：
Please let me know if you want to go. Please let me know whether you want to go.
宾语从句的否定转移。在 think，believe，suppose，expect 等动词后的宾语从句，有时谓语 尽管是否定意思，却不用否定形式，而将 think 等动词变为否定形式。如：
I don’t think you are right. I don’t believe they have finished their work yet. I don’t suppose he cares，does he？
表语从句：用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。 （1）从属连词 that.如：
The trouble is that I have lost his address.
（2）从属连词 whether，as，as if.如：
He looked just as he had looked ten years before. The question is whether they will be able to help us.
注：从属连词 if 一般不用来引导表语从句，但 as if 却可引导表语从句，如：
All this was over twenty years ago，but it’s as if it was only yesterday.
能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词 be，seem，look 等。如：
It looked as if it was going to rain.
（3）连接代词 who，whom，whose，what，which，whoever，whatever，whichever;连接副 词 where，when，how，why. 如：The problem is who we can get to replace her. 同位语从句：用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。 同位语从句的先行词多为 fact，news，idea，thought，question，reply，report，remark 等， 关联词多用从属连词 that.如：
They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick.
注：同位语从句偶尔由从属连词 whether 引导。如：
I have no idea whether he’ll come or not.
连接代词 who，which，what 和连接副词 where，when，why，how 亦可引导同位语从句。
The question who should do the work requires consideration. We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.
定语从句:就是一个句子作定语从属于主句。定语一般是由形容词充当，所以定语从句又称 作形容词从句。另外，定语从句是由关系代词(that.which,who, whom, whose)或关系副词 (when,where, why)引导的，故又称作关系从句。 who 代替人，是主格，在定语从句中作主语。例如：
Anyone who wants to apply for this job must send us the resume by email first.
whom 代 替 人 ， 是 宾 格 ， 在 定 语 从 句 作 宾 语 ， 在 非 正 式 英 语 常 可 省 略 。 例 如 ：
Do you know the gentleman whom we met in the school library yesterday?
The girl student whose father is a senior engineer used to study abroad. Do you know the name of the hotel whose window we can see here?
（二）关系代词 which 的用法 which 代替物，在定语从句作主语或宾语，作宾语时还可省略。例如：
I do not like stories which have unhappy endings.
(which 可以换成 that） 三、关系副词引导的定语从句 常用的关系副词只有三个：when, where, why，在定语从句中充当时间、地点和原因状语。 它们的用法大家不妨记住一个口诀： the time when the place where the reason why （一）关系副词 when 的用法 关系副词 when 代替的先行词表示的是时间，when 在定语从句作时间状语。 例如： I haven’t seen her since the year when I left Tokyo.（when 先行词是 year，同样 when 可以用 that 代替） 关系副词 where 代替的先行词表示的是地点，where 在定语从句作地点状语。例如： During the Spring Festival I went back to the town where I was brought up. （where 的先 行词是 town） 关系副词 why 代替的先行词表示的是原因，why 在定语从句作原因状语。 例如：
The reason why I am phoning you is to ask you whether you have got my email.
状语从句:状语从句主要用来修饰主句或主句的谓语。一般可分为九大类，分别表示时间、 地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较和方式。 1.时间状语从句 常用引导词：when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until 特殊引导词：the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day，the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when
I didn’t realize how special my mother was until I became an adult. While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.
The children ran away from the orchard(果园) the moment they saw the guard. No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain. Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble
2． 地点状语从句 常用引导词：where 特殊引导词：wherever, anywhere, everywhere
Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories. Wherever you go, you should work hard.
3． 原因状语从句 常用引导词：because, since, as, since 特殊引导词：seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that, considering that,
My friends dislike me because I’m handsome and successful. Now that everybody has come, let’s begin our conference. The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more. Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80 m is quite remarkable.
4． 目的状语从句 常用引导词：so that, in order that 特殊引导词：lest, in case, for fear that，in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that
The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them. The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.
5． 结果状语从句 常用引导词：so … that, so… that, such … that, 特殊引导词：such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that,
He got up so early that he caught the first bus. It’s such a good chance that we must not miss it. To such an degree was he excited that he couldn’t sleep last night.
6． 条件状语从句 常用引导词：if, unless, 特殊引导词：as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, suppose that, in case that, on condition that
We’ll start our project if the president agrees. You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying. Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.
7． 让步状语从句 常用引导词：though, although, even if, even though 特殊引导词： as(用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装)，while ( 一般用在句首 )，no matter …， in spite of the fact that, while, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever
Much as I respect him, I can’t agree to his proposal.
The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough. No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind. He won’t listen whatever you may say.
8． 比较状语从句 常用引导词：as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较)
特殊引导词：the more … the more … ; just as …， so…; A is to B what /as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B
She is as bad-tempered as her mother. The house is three times as big as ours. The more you exercise, the healthier you will be. Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人，犹如油之于机器。
9． 方式状语从句 常用引导词：as, as if, how 特殊引导词：the way
When in Rome, do as the Roman do. She behaved as if she were the boss. Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.
“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句，是定语从句语法学习的重点和难点。这是一种介词前置 的定语从句句型，介词与关系代词之间存在一种介宾关系。当关系代词在定语从句中作介 词定语时，把介词置于关系代词前，即演变出“介词+关系代词”句型。例如： The man whom\who\that\\ you should write to is Mr. White. (whom 作 to 的宾语， 在谓语 to 动词之后) =The man to whom you should write is Mr. Write. (介词 to 置于 whom 前，whom 作宾语) 你该给他写信的那个人是怀特先生 一、当先行词指人时，用“介词+whom”句型 注意：此时不用 who 或 that。 (1)The person to whom I lent my bicycle is Mr. Ball.（whom 不能省略， 也不用 who 或 that） (2)The girl with whom my sister visited the Great Wall has just come back from London. 二、先行词指物时，用“介词+which”句型 注意：先行词指物时，不能用关系代词 that 直接跟在介词后作宾语。例如： 1.The prize for which he worked so hard was a new bike. （which 不能改为 that） 2.The house to which he took us was very old. （which 不能改为 that） 三、介词的选择和运用是重中之重 1.根据介词与先行词的搭配习惯确定介词。 先行词不同， 与之习惯搭配的介词也不同。 例如： (1)Do you still remember the day on which we met for the first time? (2)Do you still remember the days during which we worked together? 2.根据定语从句中谓语动词与介词的搭配习惯确定介词。动词不同，要求与之搭配的介词不 同，动词与不同介词的搭配所表达的意义也大相径庭。例如： (1)He lost the book in which he kept many telephone numbers. (2)I don’ know the person to t whom you talked just now. 3.根据“介词+关系代词”结构在定语从句中的作用与含义而确定介词。例如： (1)The plane by which my father went to Shanghai was late. (2)The plane on which my father worked was very large. (此处 on which=on the plane 表地 点) 注意下面几点特殊情况： 1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of 等
(1) This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T) (2) This is the watch for which I am looking. (F) 2. 若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom，不可用 who 或者 that；指物时用 which，不能用 that；关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) (2) The man with that you talked is my friend. (F) (3) The plane in\by which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) (4) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3. “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数 词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 4：关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词”引导的从句替换 (1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear, (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which/where I was born. . “介词+关系代词”型定语从句五大考点 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句是英语语法中的难点和重点, 近年来高考对这一语法结构 的考查大有升温之势。为便于同学们学习掌握，笔者扼要地对它的几种考查热点进行了归 纳和解析，希望同学们能举一反三，加以掌握并运用考点 1 简单介词+关系代词 知识归纳：用于此结构的关系代词指人时只能用 whom, 指物时只能用 which；介词选择的 依据主要是根据从句中的动词、形容词、名词与介词的固定搭配而定； 或者以先行词与从句中的动词关系及所表达的含义而定；或者以先行词在定语从句中的作 用和含义而定，并且含有介词的短语动词不能拆开，介词仍然放在动词之后。 考点 2 复杂介词+关系代词 知识归纳： 用于此结构的关系代词有 which, whom, whose。 常用于该结构的复杂介词有： as a result of, at the back of, because of, by means of, for want of, in front of, in case of, on account of 等。 例如：We got to a house at the back of which was a large garden. Is there a certain test by means of which the No. 1 will be decided？ 考点 3 简单介词+关系代词+名词 知识归纳： 用于此结构的关系代词有 which, whose。 介词的选择取决于关系代词后的名 词及整个句子的含义。 考点 4 the+ 名词+of+关系代词 知识归纳：用于此结构的关系代词只有 which。该结构表示所有关系, 口语中常用 “whose + 名词”代替。非正式文体中可以用“of which the +名词”。 考点 5 表示部分的词语＋of＋关系代词 知识归纳：此时，指人的关系代词只能是 whom, 指物的关系代词只能是 which。表示 部分的词语常见的有：不定代词 all, both, none, neither, either, some, any, 数词(含基数词， 序数词，分数和百分数)； 数词+名词；the +最高级/比较级，以及表示数目或 数量的词语 many, most, few, several, enough, half a, a quarter。
在句子中作定语，修饰名词或代词的从句。这种从句由关系代词 或关系副词引导，并作句子成分。 定语从句还叫做嵌入句， 因形容词定语，所以又称之为形容词性从句。