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Sources of sludge


Sludge Treatment,Utilization,and Disposal When the wastewater is treated and discharged to watercourse,

the job is not over. Left behind are the solid ,suspended in water,commonly

called sludge. Currently sludge treatment and disposal accounts for over 50% of the treatment costs in a typical secondary plant ,making this none-too-glamorous essential aspect of the sewage treatment. operation an

Sources of Sludge The first source of sludge is the suspended solid(SS) that enter the treatment plant and partially removed in the primary settling tank or clarification. Ordinarily about 60% of the SS become raw primary sludge, which is highly pollution are highly putrescent,

contains pathogenic organs and is very wet (about 96% water). The removal of BOD is basically a method of wasting

energy, and secondary wastewater treatment plants are designed to reduce this high- energy material to low-energy chemical ,typically accomplished by biological mean ,using microorganism (the“decomposers”in ecological terms) that use the energy for their own life and procreation. Secondary treatment process such as the popular activated sludge system are almost

perfect systems expect that the microorganisms covert high-energy organic to CO2 and H2O and

too little

too much of it to new

organisms. Thus the system operates with excess of these microorganisms , or waste activated sludge. The mass of waste activated sludge per mass of BOD removed in secondary

treatment is known as the yield ,expressed as mass of SS produce per mass of BOD removed. Typically, the yield of waste sludge is activated

0.5 pounds of dry solids per pound of BOD reduced .

Phosphorus removal process also invariably end up with excess solids. If lime is used, the calcium can carbonates and calcium hydroxyapatites are formed and most be disposed of. Aluminum sulfate similarly produce solids ,in the form of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphates. Even the biological process for phosphorus removal end up with solids. The use of an oxidation pond or marsh for phosphorus removal is possible Only

if some organisms (algae, water hyacinth, fish, etc.) are periodically harvested. 污泥的处理、利用和处置 当废水被处理并排放到水体(水流、水系)后,工作并没有结 束。留下在水中呈悬浮状固体,通常称为污泥。目前,在一个典型的

二级处理厂中污泥处理和处置的费用超过了处理成本的 50%,使得 这个一点也没有吸引力的操作成为污水处理必不可少的一个方面。

污泥的来源
污泥的第一个来源是进入处理厂的悬浮固体, 在初沉池或澄清池中已 经得到部分地去除。通常 60%的悬浮固体变为原生初沉污泥,这种 污染具有高度的腐败性,含有病原微生物,并且含水量很高(很湿) (大约含 96%的水) 。 实际上,BOD 的去除是一个消耗能是的方法,二级污水处理厂 的目的是把这些高能量物质分解为低能量的化学物质, 通常是利用微 生物(在生态学术语中称为分解者)通过生物的方法来完成,这些微 生物利用这些能量维持生命并进行繁殖。 二级处理工艺如大众化的活 性污泥系统除了微生物将太少的高能量有机物转化为 CO2 和 H2O 以 及将其太多的高能量有机物转化新的微生物外几乎是完美的系统。 这 样系统就利用这些过量的微生物或剩余活性污泥来运行。 在二级处理 中剩余活性污泥的质量比上去除 BOD 的质量称为产(泥)量,表示 成产生的 SS 质量比上去除 BOD 的质量。一般地,剩余活性污泥的 产量为每减少一磅的 BOD 得到 0.5 磅的干固体。 除磷工艺也总是以产生过量的固体而告终。如果使用石灰,会 形成碳酸钙和碳羟磷灰石,必须进行处理。硫酸铝同样会产生以氢氧 化铝和磷酸铝形式存在固体。 即使是用生物处理工艺来除磷也是以产 生固体而告终。只有当一些生物体(水藻、水葫芦、鱼等)被周期性

地采收才可以使用氧化塘或湿地来除磷。 马红令 1008070014 给水排水工程 101


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