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(新课标)2016高考英语阅读理解和短文改错选练(13)


(新课标)2016 高考英语阅读理解和短文改错选练(13)
阅读下列短文,从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C 和 D)中,选出最佳选项。 However urban life strikes you , cities worldwide have been growing even more rapidly.Some of this growth has occurred

in the developed world,but the most dramatic increase has been in the Third World.Almost all the world’s population growth over the next 30 years will take place in the cities of developing countries By the year 2030,for the first time in history,60 percent of the world’s people will be living in cities. This is actually good news in some ways.“Cities are the fundamental building blocks of prosperity,” says Marc Weiss,chairman of the Prague Institute for Global Urban Development, “ both for the nation and for families. ” Industrial and commercial activities in urban areas account for between 50 and 80 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) in most countries of the world“ there’s the crazy notion that the way to deal with a city’s problems is to keep people out of them,” Weiss continued.“But the problems of the rural life are even more serious than those of the city.” For better or worse,urban-watchers are clear on one point: The quality of life for most people in the future will be determined by the quality of cities.Those cities will be bigger than ever.And yet,population numbers by themselves don’t determine a city’s prospects; after all, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and Hamburg, Germany, have the same population . Nor is explosive growth necessarily the determining factor.“City problems,” one authority points out,“mostly have to do with weak, ineffective,and usually unrepresentative city governments.” 1.The passage mainly discusses ______________. A.Big cities. C.Population. B.City life. D.Gross Domestic Product.

2.According to the passage,in the year of 2030 _______. A.there will be 21 cities having a population of more than 10 million. B.rural area will be extinct. C.most people will live in cities. D.the third world will keep abreast with the developed world. 3.In the author’s opinion,_________. A.better city,better life B.both urban and rural areas have a larger population C.the larger population,the faster a city develops

D.both urban and rural areas have larger gross domestic products 4.Which statement is NOT true according to the passage? A.The developing countries develop faster than the developed countries. B.Cities contribute more to the GDP than the villagers. C.Some problems are more easily solved in cities than in country. D.It’s impossible to solve urban problems by getting people out of cities. 5.The last paragraph implies that ____________. A.public services are ineffective. B.cities are increasing too fast. C.population is not linked with development. D.government should be responsible for the problems in the cities. 【参考答案】1---5、A C A A D

阅读理解。 An “apple polisher” is one who gives gifts to win friendship or special treatment. It is not exactly a bribe(贿赂), but is close to it. All sorts of people are “apple polishers” , including politicians and people in high offices—just about everybody. Oliver Cromwell, the great English leader, offered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his party, but failed. Ther e are other phrases meaning the same thing as “applepolishing”—“softsoaping” or “butteringup”. A gift is just one way to “softsoap” somebody, or to “butter him up”. Another that is just as effective is flattery, giving someone high praise—telling him how good he looks, or how well he speaks, or how talented and wise he is. Endless are the ways of flattery. Who does not love to hear it? Only an unusual man can resist the thrill of being told how wonderful he is. In truth, flattery is good medicine for most of us, who get so little of it. We need it to be more sure of ourselves. It cannot hurt unless we get carried aw ay by it. But if we just lap it up for its good value and nourishment, as a cat laps up milk, then we can still remain true to ourselves.

Sometimes, however, flattery will get you nothing from one who has had too much of it. A good example is the famous 12th century legend of King Canute of Denmark and England. The king got tired of listening to endless sickening flattery of his courtiers(朝臣). They overpraised him to the skies, as a man of limitless might. He decided to teach them a lesson. He took them to the seashore and sat down. Then he ordered the waves to stop coming in. The tide was too busy to listen to him. The king was satisfied. This might show his followers how weak his power was and how empty their flattery was. 1.Which of the following activities has nothing to do with “applepolishing”? A.A boy tells his girlfriend how pretty she looks. B.An employee tells her boss how good he is at management. C.A knight is said to be of limitless power by his followers. D.A teacher praises her students for their talent and wisdom. 2.What does the writer want to prove with Cromwell's example? A.Everybody can be an apple polisher. B.Cromwell was not a good apple polisher. C.George Fox and his party were not apple polishers. D.There are people who don't like being applepolished. 3.Which of the following statements about flattery is TRUE according to the author? A.Too much flattery can carry us away. B.Flattery is too empty to do people any good. C.Flattery can get you nothing but excessive(过度的) pride. D.Flattery is one of the ways to applepolished people. 4.Why did King Canute of Denmark and England take his followers to the seashore? A.Because he was sick of his normal life. B.Because he disliked being overpraised any more. C.Because he wanted them to realize how wise he was. D.Because he wanted them to see how weak he was as a king. 5.Who does the author think that flattery can do good to? A.Those who are politicians or in high offices.

B.Those who lack confidence. C.Those who are really excellent. D.Those who think highly of themselves. 【要点综述】本文论述了现代社会存在的一个普遍现象,人们往往为了自己的一点儿利益去 送礼或者说一些阿谀奉承的话,当然有时即使这样做了也未必就能实现自己的愿望。 1.D 推理判断题。根据“An ‘apple polisher’ is one who gives gifts to win friendship or special treatment.”可知,一个老师表扬学生并不是想得到什么好处。故选 D 项。 2.A 细节理解题。根据“All sorts of people are ‘apple polishers’ ,including politicians and people in high offices—just about everybody.Oliver Cromwell,the great English leader,offered many gifts to win the support of George Fox and his party,but failed.”可知,高层的领导者也有拍马屁的人,可以想象每个人都可能是这种 人。故选 A 项。 3.D 细节理解题。根据“An ‘apple polisher’ is one who gives gifts to win friendship or special treatment.”和“A gift is just one way to ‘softsoap’ somebody,or to ‘butter him up’ .Another that is just as effective is flattery?”可知选 D 项。 4.B 细节理解题。根据“The king got tired of listening to endless sickening flattery of his courtiers(朝臣). ”可知国王厌烦了朝臣们的阿谀奉承,故选 B 项。 5.B 细节理解题。根据“In truth, flattery is good medicine for most of us,who get so little of it.We need it to be more sure of ourselves.It cannot hurt unless we get carried away by it.”可知,对于缺乏自信的人来说,奉承是有好处的。故选 B 项。

阅读下列四篇短文,从每小题后所给的 A,B,C 或 D 四个选项中,选出最佳选项。

How is it that siblings (兄弟姐妹) can turn out so differently? One answer is that in fact each sibling grows upin a different family. The firstborn is, for a while, an only child, and therefore has a completely different experience of the parents than those born later. The next child is, for a while, the youngest, until the situation is changed by a new arrival. The mother and father themselves are changing and growing up too. One sibling might live in a stable and close family in the first few years; another might be raised in a family crisis, with a disappointed mother or an angry

father.

Sibling competition was identified as an important shaping force as early as in 1918. But more recently, researchers have found many ways in which brothers and sisters are a lasting force in each others’lives. Dr. Annette Henderson says firstborn children pick up vocabulary more quickly than their siblings. The reason for this might be that the later children aren’t getting the same one- on- one time with parents. But that doesn’t mean that the younger children have problems with language development. Later- borns don’t enjoy that much talking time with parents, but instead they harvest lessons from bigger brothers and sisters, learning entire phrases and getting an understanding of social concepts such as the difference between “I” and “me”.

A Cambridge University study of 140 children found that siblings created a rich world of play that helped them grow socially. Love- hate relationships were common among the children. Even those siblings who fought the most had just as much positive communication as the other sibling pairs.

One way children seek more attention from parents is by making themselves different from their siblings, particularly if they are close in age. Researchers have found that the first two children in a family are typically more different from each other than the second and third. Girls with brothers show their differences to a maximum degree by being morefeminine than girls with sisters. A 2003 research paper studied adolescents from 185 families over two years, finding that those who changed to make themselves different from their siblings were successful in increasing the amount of warmth they gained from their parents.

1. The underlined part “in a different family” (in Para. 1) means" ______".

A. in a different family environment

B. in a different family tradition

C. in different family crises

D. in different families

2. In terms of language development, later- borns_______ .

A. get their parents’individual guidance

B. learn a lot from their elder siblings

C. experience a lot of difficulties

D. pick up words more quickly

3. What was found about fights among siblings?

A. Siblings hated fighting and loved playing.

B. Siblings in some families fought frequently.

C. Sibling fights led to bad sibling relationships.

D. Siblings learned to get on together from fights.

4. The word“feminine” (in Para. 4) means "______".

A. having qualities of parents

B. having qualities of women

C. having defensive qualities

D. having extraordinary qualities

【参考答案】1—4、ABDB

1.短文改错 How nice to hear you again. You want to know how is going on in schools in China. In fact, things have improved since schools begin to reduce the learning load. I used to have to work at weekends doing endless homeworks . Now I have more free time, so I must follow my own interests 76.___________ 77.__________ 78.___________ 79.___________ 80.___________ 81.___________

such as read books, visiting museums and taking computer 82. ___________ lessons. Besides , I can go to bed early than before. Anyone is happy about these changes. However, I wonder how long time such situation can last. 【参考答案】1. 76. hear 后加 from 79. Right 77.how 改为 what 78.begin 改为 began 81. must 改为 can 83.___________ 84.___________ 85.___________

80. homeworks 改为 homework

82. read 改为 reading 84. Anyone 改为 Everyone

83. early 改为 earlier 85. 去掉 time

2.短文改错,只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 We’ll never forget the day which my classmates and I paid a visit to a chemistry factory last week. It was a larger one with nearly 2,000 workers. It looked a garden and we could see colorful flowers, grass and trees anywhere. We also visited some workshops and saw workers worked very hard. We talked with them and learned a lot. We understood them further. On the way home we felt tiring. So we all thought that we had a very good day. We really hoped that we can get more chances to leave the school and learn social experiences. 【参考答案】2. We’ll never forget the day which my classmates and I paid a visit to a chemistry factory When chemical

last week. It was a larger one with nearly 2,000 workers. It looked∧a garden and we could large like

see colorful flowers, grass and trees anywhere. We also visited some workshops and saw everywhere

workers worked very hard. We talked with them and learned a lot. We understood them working further. On the way home we felt tiring. So we all thought that we had a very good day. We tired But

really hoped that we can get more chances to leave the school and learn social could experiences. experience

3.短文改错 下面短文中有 10 处语言错误。请在有错误的地方增加、删除或修改某个单词。 增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧) ,并在其下面写上该加的词。 删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉。 修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写上修改后的词。 注意:1. 每处错误及其修改均仅限一词; 2. 只允许修改 10 处,多者(从第 11 处起)不计分。 Mr. and Mrs. White were worried. That was already December, but they didn't have heat in their flat. Every time they called the manager of the building, Mr.Grant, he has promised to turn on the heat. But he never was. Last Monday Mrs. White went to Mr. Grant’s office during her lunch break. She told him it was cold in the flat that her two child were getting sick. She told him they always paid for their rent in time and that it was his job to fix the heat in their flat before it got cold. Mr. Grant listened polite to the lady. He told her he had a lot of problems in the building and he couldn't do everything himself, so he let her patient. On this, Mrs. White left his office angrily and took the taxi to the town right to the mayor’s office. Later that same day, there was heat! 【参考答案】3.

1.

That --- It

2. has promised --- promised 3. was --- did 4. cold --- so cold 5. child --- children 6. pay for --- pay 7. polite --- politely 8. patient --- be patient 9. At --- On 10. the taxi --- a taxi


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